Jean-Yves Mary

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

Are you Jean-Yves Mary?

Claim your profile

Publications (4)16.56 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Placental cytokine balance may be critical for the control of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We assessed whether the type and duration of antiretrovirals used for prevention of HIV-1-MTCT modified the inflammatory cytokine profile. We investigated the levels of cytokine expression in the placentas of 61 HIV-1-infected women who received zidovudine (ZDV) plus single dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) or ZDV only for prevention of MTCT. Placentas of 38 HIV-1-uninfected women were included as controls. All placentas were obtained after vaginal delivery. Levels of mRNA and cytokine expression were quantified using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, in placental explants and 24-hour culture supernatants and analyzed in relation to the women's characteristics and the type and duration of antiretroviral prophylaxis. HIV-1-infected and uninfected women did not show any differences in the expression of placental cytokine secretion except for a trend toward lower TNF-alpha mRNA levels in HIV-1-infected women. Within the HIV-1-infected group, women who were exposed to a long duration of ZDV (>72 days) or received SD-NVP less than 5h prior to delivery, more frequently expressed detectable levels of IL-10 in their placentas (32% versus 7% (p = 0.01) and 32% versus 5% (p = 0.02), respectively). No infant was found to be HIV-1-infected. Our results showed a normalization of the placental cytokine balance in HIV-1-infected women receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. Furthermore, the type and duration of antiretroviral prophylaxis have an impact on the placental anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression level, which may contribute to controlling HIV replication at the placental level, thus reducing MTCT of HIV-1.
    Current HIV research 03/2009; 7(2):211-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The identification of risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is crucial to the design and understanding of preventive interventions. The randomized Perinatal HIV Prevention Trial-1 enrolled 1437 pregnant women and their non-breast-fed infants, to compare the efficacy of various durations of zidovudine prophylaxis. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, we studied the role that factors known or occurring at various times during gestation or delivery play in in utero and intrapartum transmission. Variables independently associated with in utero transmission were HIV-1 load >35,000 copies/mL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.2) and delayed initiation of maternal zidovudine prophylaxis until >31.4 weeks gestation (AOR, 3.0). Variables associated with intrapartum transmission were HIV-1 load >10,000 copies/mL (AOR, 3.8 for 10,000-35,000 copies/mL and 7.1 for >35,000 copies/mL), induction of labor (AOR, 2.6), and premature labor with tocolysis (AOR, 15.1). With the exception of very high HIV-1 load, risk factors for in utero transmission were different from those for intrapartum transmission. Optimal prophylactic interventions must address each of the major risk factors, with appropriate timing.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2007; 196(11):1629-36. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The placenta plays an important role in the control of in utero HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Proinflammatory cytokines in the placental environment are particularly implicated in this control. We thus investigated the effect of TNF-alpha on HIV-1 expression in human placental tissues in vitro. Human placental chorionic villi fragments were infected with varying doses of luciferase reporter HIV-1 pseudotypes with the R5, X4-Env or the vesicular stomatitis virus protein G (VSV-G). Histocultures were then performed in the presence or absence of recombinant human TNF-alpha. Luciferase activity was measured at different time points in cell lysates or on whole fragments using ex vivo imaging systems.A significant increase in viral expression was detected in placental fragments infected with 0.2 ng of p24 antigen/fragment (P = 0.002) of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 in the presence of TNF-alpha seen after 120 hours of culture. A time independent significant increase of viral expression by TNF-alpha was observed with higher doses of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1. When placental fragments were infected with R5-Env pseudotyped HIV-1, a low level of HIV expression at 168 hours of culture was detected for 3 of the 5 placentas tested, with no statistically significant enhancement by TNF-alpha. Infection with X4-Env pseudotyped HIV-1 did not lead to any detectable luciferase activity at any time point in the absence or in the presence of TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha in the placental environment increases HIV-1 expression and could facilitate MTCT of HIV-1, particularly in an inflammatory context.
    Retrovirology 02/2006; 3:36. · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis duration in mothers and infants on the age at which infection becomes detectable by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in non-breastfed infants. Blood samples were collected sequentially from birth to 6 months in a Thailand perinatal HIV prevention trial in which 98 transmissions occurred. The proportions of infections detectable at birth and the Turnbull distributions of age at which infection became detectable after birth were compared according to actual ZDV treatment duration (mothers: no more than 7.5 weeks versus more; infants: 3 days versus at least 4 weeks), provided an adherence greater than 75%. Detectable infection at birth was less frequent in children whose mothers received a long treatment as compared to a short treatment (27 vs 50%, P=0.04). When mothers received a long treatment, infant ZDV treatment duration did not influence the distribution of age at which infection became detectable after birth (median 24 days). However, when mothers received a short treatment, this distribution was shifted to the right when infants received a long treatment (median 43 days, P<0.0001), and to the left when infants received a short treatment (median 11 days, P<0.0001). When mothers receive a short treatment, the proportion of infections detectable at birth is higher and the time at which infection becomes detectable after birth depends on the infant treatment duration. In the study conditions, a PCR result after 2 months could be used to define infection status.
    Antiviral therapy 05/2004; 9(2):179-85. · 3.07 Impact Factor