Jun Wu

Tongji University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (6)22.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Synchrotron radiation-induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) was employed to elucidate the elemental characteristics of contaminated biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste (BFMSW). Six sectioned BFMSW samples were selected for SR-μXRF mapping and 50 individual fine particles sorbed onto BFMSW were analyzed using SR-μXRF point scanning. The results showed that heavy metals tended to be concentrated on the surface of BFMSW and highly localized to some "hot-spots". Marked differences in heavy metal sequestering potentials among various kinds of BFMSW, and the significant role of heavy metal "hot-spots" in BFMSW contamination were identified. The lower heavy metal levels in the simulated samples compared to field samples (with longer and more intense mixing) indicated that inter-contamination during waste handling contributed significantly to heavy metal accumulation in BFMSW. Furthermore, additional information regarding elemental characteristics of individual particles could be acquired using SR-μXRF.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2013; 132:239-43. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge on the function of individual fractions in dissolved organic matter (DOM) is essential for understanding the impact of DOM on metal speciation and migration. Herein, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix quenching and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were adopted for bulk DOM and chemically isolated fractions from landfill leachate, i.e., humic acids (HA), fulvic acids and hydrophilic (HyI) fraction, to elucidate the role of individual fluorescent components in metal binding (Cu(II) and Cd(II)). Three components were identified by PARAFAC model, including one humic substance (HS)-like, one protein-like and one component highly correlated with the HyI fraction. Among them, the HS-like and protein-like components were responsible for Cu(II) binding, while the protein-like component was the only fraction involved in Cd(II) complexation. It was further identified that the slight quenching effect of HA fraction by Cd(II) was induced by the presence of proteinaceous materials in HA. Fluorescent substances in the HyI fraction of landfill leachate did not play as important a role as HS did. Therefore, it was suggested that the potential risk of aged leachate (more humified) as a carrier of heavy metal should not be overlooked.
    Journal of hazardous materials 03/2012; 215-216:294-301. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular weight (MW) is a fundamental property of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which potentially affects the binding behavior between DOM and metals. Here, a combined approach of ultrafiltration fractionation, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix quenching and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was employed to elucidate fluorescent characteristics and metal binding properties of individual MW fractions of DOM in landfill leachate. Four humic-like and two protein-like components were identified by PARAFAC. Among them, a fulvic acid-like component was found to be responsible for Cd(II) binding while Cu(II) inclined to complex with humic-like components rather than protein-like ones. Apart from that, MW was found to exert less influence on metal binding than that of specific metals or components. Key components distributed within various fractions of DOM were the main influence on the impact of MW on metal binding.
    Environmental Pollution 03/2012; 162:63-71. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in heavy metal migration from municipal solid waste (MSW) to aquatic environments via the leachate pathway. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) quenching combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was adopted to characterize the binding properties of four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) and DOM in MSW leachate. Nine leachate samples were collected from various stages of MSW management, including collection, transportation, incineration, landfill and subsequent leachate treatment. Three humic-like components and one protein-like component were identified in the MSW-derived DOM by PARAFAC. Significant differences in quenching effects were observed between components and metal ions, and a relatively consistent trend in metal quenching curves was observed among various leachate samples. Among the four heavy metals, Cu(II) titration led to fluorescence quenching of all four PARAFAC-derived components. Additionally, strong quenching effects were only observed in protein-like and fulvic acid (FA)-like components with the addition of Pb(II), which suggested that these fractions are mainly responsible for Pb(II) binding in MSW-derived DOM. Moreover, the significant quenching effects of the FA-like component by the four heavy metals revealed that the FA-like fraction in MSW-derived DOM plays an important role in heavy metal speciation; therefore, it may be useful as an indicator to assess the potential ability of heavy metal binding and migration.
    Water Research 02/2011; 45(4):1711-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Batch experiments were conducted to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using activated sludge biomass. The effects of acid pretreatment of the biomass, initial pH, biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Proton consumption during the removal process and the reducing capacity of sludge biomass were studied. The results show that acid pretreatment could significantly improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency and increase Cr(VI) reducing capacity by 20.4%. Cr(VI) removal was remarkably pH-dependent; lower pH (pH=1, 2) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction while higher pH (pH=3, 4) favored sorption of the converted Cr(III). Lower Cr(VI) concentration as well as higher biomass concentration could accelerate Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) reduction was not the only reason for proton consumption in the removal process. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model could successfully simulate Cr(VI) removal except under higher pH conditions (pH=3, 4).
    Journal of hazardous materials 12/2009; 176(1-3):697-703. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Batch biosorption experiments were conducted to remove Cr(III) from aqueous solutions using activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. An investigation was conducted on the effects of the initial pH, contact time, temperature, and initial Cr(III) concentration in the biosorption process. The results revealed that the activated sludge exhibited the highest Cr(III) uptake capacity (120 mg·g−1) at 45°C, initial pH of 4, and initial Cr(III) concentration of 100 mg·L−1. The biosorption results obtained at various temperatures showed that the biosorption pattern accurately followed the Langmuir model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, ΔGo° ( − 0.8–4.58 kJ·mol−1), ΔH° (15.6–44.4 kJ·mol−1), and ΔS° (0.06–0.15 kJ·mol−1·K−1) clearly indicated that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous, endothermic, and physical. The pseudo first-order and second-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the experimental data, which revealed that the Cr(III) biosorption process conformed to the second-order rate expression and the biosorption rate constants decreased with increasing Cr (III) concentration. The analysis of the values of biosorption activation energy (E a = −7 kJ·mol−1) and the intraparticle diffusion model demonstrated that Cr(III) biosorption was film-diffusion-controlled. Keywordsactivated sludge-biosorption-chromium-film diffusion-kinetics-thermodynamics
    Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China 4(3):286-294. · 0.75 Impact Factor