J Bausch

DSM Nutritional Products, Aargau, Switzerland

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Publications (19)48.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies with resVida(®) (a high purity trans-resveratrol) show that trans-resveratrol is a substance of low oral toxicity. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) in food of 450 mg/day has been defined, a level well beyond natural dietary intake of trans-resveratrol. The ADI was based on no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) of 750 mg/kg bw/day in 13-week developmental toxicity studies by the dietary route and a standard safety margin of 100. In studies by gavage, the kidney and bladder are target organs at very high dosages (2,000-3,000 mg/kg bw/day). Six-month studies in rat and rabbit models show no significant increase in toxicity in comparison to 4-week studies. Lower quoted NOAELs in gavage studies (ca. 300 mg/kg bw/day) potentially reflect more rapid bioavailability, but different dosage regimes complicate comparisons. Short-term studies show no genotoxicity in vivo. A 6-month mouse carcinogenicity model showed no increase in tumors. Clinical data support an ADI of at least 450 mg/day, and kinetic data from the DSM 13-week toxicity study also support the expectation of no increase in toxicity with longer term intake.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2011; 1215:131-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05855.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology Letters 09/2009; 189. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.06.809 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: trans-Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound found in a variety of foods, but predominantly in grapes. Safety studies were conducted on high-purity trans-resveratrol (Resvida), including skin and eye irritation, dermal sensitization, subchronic and reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and absorption, metabolism and excretion. Resvida was non-irritating to skin and eyes and non-sensitizing. It was non-mutagenic in a bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, but exhibited clastogenic activity in a chromosomal aberration test in human lymphocytes. However, in an in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test in rats, Resvida was non-genotoxic. In a 28-day study, Resvida caused no adverse effects in rats at 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg bw/day. Similarly, in a 90-day study, Resvida did not cause any adverse effects in rats at up to 700 mg/kg bw/day; the highest dose tested. Resvida did not induce any adverse reproductive effects in an embryo-fetal toxicity study in rats at a dose of 750 mg/kg bw/day. Also, in vitro and in vivo absorption, metabolism, and excretion studies in Caco-2 cells, rat primary hepatocytes and male and female rats (in vivo) show that Resvida is readily absorbed, metabolized and excreted. These studies provide evidence that Resvida is well tolerated and non-toxic.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2009; 47(9):2170-82. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.06.002 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein is a phytoestrogen that occurs naturally in the diet and is found in a wide variety of plant-derived foods especially in soybeans and soy-based foods. There is wide spread interest in genistein and related phytoestrogens as chemopreventive agents for a variety of human diseases and cancers based on epidemiologic evidence of reduced cancer rates in populations with a high intake of soy. Soy, and hence its constituents, such as genistein, have been consumed at high levels in several Asian populations for many centuries without any apparent adverse effects and to the contrary, many health benefits have been associated with the ingestion of soy based foods. Concern has been raised, however, of potential adverse effects due to the estrogenic and other activities of the isoflavones and thus a comprehensive series of safety studies was performed with genistein. To assess the teratogenic and fetal toxic potential of genistein, several studies were conducted. Genistein was tested in an in vitro rat whole embryo culture assay (WEC), which is a preliminary screen, for fetotoxic and teratogenic potential, over a concentration range of from 1 to 100 microg/mL. Treatment related anomalies were observed at concentrations of >or= 10 microg and at 100 microg/mL, all embryos were malformed. Two in vivo embryo fetal developmental safety studies were conducted with genistein by oral administration (gavage and dietary admix) in which there was no evidence for a teratogenic effect. In an oral (gavage) embryonic and fetal development pilot study, genistein was administered to rats at dose levels of 0, 20, 150 and 1000 mg/kg/day from days 6-20 of gestation to females that were allowed to litter and rear their offspring up to day 7 of lactation. A slight maternal toxicity at 1000 mg/kg/day was observed as indicated by decreased body weight and food consumption and at this dose, adverse effects in the pups were observed including increased pup mortality, poor general condition, reduced pup body weights, and reduced pup milk uptake. At the high dose of 1000 mg/kg, no external malformations were noted, however some minor visceral and skeletal variations were observed. At the low dose of 20 mg/kg/day, an increased mortality, reduced milk uptake, a decreased % male sex ratio, and decreased body weights during lactation were observed. Due to lack of effects at the mid dose and the small number of animals, a relationship to treatment was considered unlikely. In an oral (dietary admix) Prenatal developmental safety study, genistein was administered to rats at dose levels of 0, 5, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day from day 5-21 of gestation. At 500 mg/kg, maternal body weight and food consumption were markedly reduced. The incidence of resorptions was markedly increased with a corresponding decrease in the number of live fetuses per dam. Fetal body weights were also reduced. No treatment-related teratogenic effects were noted during external, visceral and skeletal examination of fetuses or in body weight normalized anogenital distance. On the basis of these studies, it is concluded that genistein has no teratogenic potential in vivo at very high doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage in the embryo-fetal toxicity pilot study or up to 500 mg/kg/day by dietary admix in the Prenatal developmental study even though these doses were maternally toxic and fetal-toxic. In vitro, genistein had teratogenic potential at high concentrations in the WEC screening assay, however this was not predictive of the in vivo findings. On the basis of the definitive Prenatal development study, the NOAEL for maternal toxicity and adverse effects on embryonic development was considered to be 100 mg/kg/day when administered orally by dietary admix.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 08/2007; 45(8):1319-32. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2007.01.009 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin A is widely used in cosmetic preparations. Given that oral Vitamin A and its metabolites present a potential reproductive risk, the present study investigated the effect of topical Vitamin A on human endogenous plasma levels of Vitamin A and its metabolites. Two groups of 14 female volunteers of child-bearing age were kept on a Vitamin A-poor diet and treated topically for 21 days with creams containing 0.30% retinol or 0.55% retinyl palmitate on approximately 3000 cm2 of their body surface area, amounting to a total of approximately 30,000 IU Vitamin A/subject/day. After a 12-day wash-out period, the study groups received single oral doses of 10,000 IU or 30,000 IU retinyl palmitate (RP), corresponding to the maximal EU allowance during pregnancy or three-times higher, respectively. Blood samples were collected over 24h on study days -3 (pre-study), 1, 21 (first and last days of topical treatment) and 34 (oral administration) at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14-16 h and 24 h after treatment for determination of plasma concentrations of retinol (REL), retinyl palmitate (RP), oleate (RO) and stearate (RS), 9-cis-, 13-cis-, all-trans- (AT), 13-cis-4-oxo- or AT-4-oxo-retinoic acids (RAs). With the exception of transient mild (RP-group) to moderate (REL-group) local irritation on the treatment sites, no adverse local or systemic effects were noted. On days 1 or 21 of topical treatment, no changes were measured in individual or group mean plasma Cmax, AUC0-24 h or other pharmacokinetic parameters of REL, retinyl esters or RAs relative to pre-study data. In contrast, single oral doses of RP at 10,000 IU or 30,000 IU produced dose-related and sustained increases in Cmax and AUC0-24 h values of plasma RP, RO, RS, 13-cis- and 13-cis-4-oxo-RAs, as well as a transient increase in AT-RA. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that human topical exposure to retinol- or retinyl ester-containing cosmetic creams at 30,000 IU/day and maximal use concentrations do not affect plasma levels of retinol, retinyl esters or RAs, whereas single oral doses at 10,000 IU or 30,000 IU produce significant increases in plasma retinyl esters and RAs.
    Toxicology Letters 06/2006; 163(1):65-76. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.09.029 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Green tea extract and its principal active ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are gaining attention and increased usage due to their healthful properties. Despite the increasing demand for these products, few studies have examined their safety. The toxicity of purified green tea extracts containing high concentrations of EGCG have been evaluated in a series of studies in order to define the safety of Teavigo, a high-concentration EGCG extract produced by the same novel method. Topical EGCG preparations caused minor dermal irritation in rats and guinea pigs, but not rabbits, and was a moderate dermal sensitizing agent in the guinea pig maximization test. A rabbit eye irritation test produced a strong enough response to not warrant any further testing in this assay. An oral dose delivering 2000 mg EGCG preparation/kg was lethal to rats; whereas, a dose of 200 mg EGCG/kg induced no toxicity. The dietary administration of EGCG preparation to rats for 13 weeks was not toxic at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day. Similarly, no adverse effects were noted when 500 mg EGCG preparation/kg/day was administered to pre-fed dogs in divided doses. This dose caused morbidity when administered to fasted dogs as a single bolus dose, although this model was considered an unrealistic comparison to the human condition. From these studies a no-observed adverse effect level of 500 mg EGCG preparation/kg/day was established.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2006; 44(5):636-50. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.11.003 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Public interest in green tea has grown recently due to the potential health benefits from its consumption. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a principal polyphenolic component of green tea, is considered key to these healthful qualities. Although numerous studies have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of green tea and EGCG, few have examined the safety of EGCG consumption. The genotoxic potential of a concentrated EGCG preparation was tested in Salmonella and L5178Y tk+/- mouse lymphoma cell assays to further define the safety of Teavigo, a high-concentration EGCG extract of Camellia sinensis leaves produced by the same novel method. No mutagenic activity was detected in the bacterial system; however, a clastogenic 'trend' from the formation of hydrogen peroxide was noted in the murine cells. The oral administration of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg EGCG/kg to mice did not induce micronuclei formation in bone marrow cells. Similarly, administering 400, 800, or 1200 mg EGCG/kg/day in their diet for 10 days did not induce bone marrow cell micronuclei and produced plasma EGCG concentrations comparable to those reported in human studies. The intravenous injection of 10, 25 and 50 mg EGCG/kg/day to rats resulted in much higher plasma concentrations and demonstrated an absence of genotoxic effects. From these studies, it is concluded that Teavigo (EGCG) is not genotoxic.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2006; 44(5):626-35. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.07.005 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Green tea and its principal active ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been demonstrated to have anticancer properties through interactions with multiple biochemical processes. Since these processes are often crucial in normal fetal development it is important to evaluate the potential effects of EGCG on the fetus. EGCG preparations of >91% purity were administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis and development in order to define the safety of Teavigo, a high-concentration EGCG extract produced by the same novel method. In an initial preliminary study using subcutaneous and gavage routes, there was no evidence of any direct embryo-fetal toxicity, although some maternal toxicity was seen. In the main teratogenicity study, feeding pregnant rats diets supplemented at 1400, 4200 or 14,000 ppm during organogenesis was non-toxic to dams or fetuses. A two-generation study in rats fed 1200, 3600 or 12,000 ppm EGCG preparation showed no adverse effects on reproduction or fertility. The highest dose reduced the growth rate of offspring, and there was a slight increase in pup loss. A growth effect among pups was also seen at 3600 ppm, but in the second generation only. The lowest dose was considered the overall no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). As dams consumed twice the amount of feed during the crucial lactation period, the NOAEL was equivalent to 200 mg/kg/day EGCG preparation.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2006; 44(5):651-61. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.11.002 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein is a phytoestrogen that occurs naturally in the diet especially in soybeans and soy-based foods. Genistein and related phytoestrogens are of interest as chemopreventive agents for a variety of diseases and cancers based on epidemiologic evidence of reduced cancer rates in populations with a high intake of soy. Although soy and its constituents have been consumed at high levels in Asian populations without apparent adverse effects, concern has been raised of potential adverse effects due to estrogenic and other activities of the isoflavones. In these studies, genistein was evaluated for mutagenicity and clastogenicity in vitro in the S. typhimurium assay (Ames Test), the mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo in the micronucleus test in mice and rats. There was no evidence for a mutagenic effect in the in vitro S. typhimurium assay with and without metabolic activation (S9). In the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, genistein increased resistant mutants with and without metabolic activation (S9), which were predominantly small colonies indicating that genistein acts as a clastogen. Three independent in vivo micronucleus tests were performed in Moro mice, RAIf rats and Wistar rats. MORO male and female mice were treated orally for 14 days at doses up to 20 mg/kg/day. RAIf and Wistar male and female rats were treated orally at doses up to 2000 mg/kg without an increase in micronuclei in treated mice or rats. It is concluded that genistein was not mutagenic in the S. typhimurium assay or mutagenic or clastogenic in vivo in the mouse and rat micronucleus test. In the mouse lymphoma assay, genistein induced an increase of predominantly small colonies indicating that genistein acts as a clastogen. This observation is in agreement with published data on the inhibitory action of genistein on topoisomerase II, which is known to lead to chromosomal damage with a threshold dose response.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 02/2006; 44(1):42-55. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.06.004 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein is a phytoestrogen that occurs naturally in the diet, especially in soy based foods. There is wide spread interest in phytoestrogens as chemopreventive agents for a variety of diseases and cancers based on epidemiologic evidence. Although soy, and its constituents such as genistein, have been consumed at high levels in several Asian populations without apparent adverse effects, concern has been raised about potential adverse effects due to the estrogenic and other activities. Safety studies with genistein were conducted in the Wistar rat including two acute studies, two subchronic (4 weeks and 13 weeks) and a chronic 52-week dietary admix study. In the acute studies, genistein had a low order of toxicity. In the three repeated dose safety studies at doses up to 500 mg/kg/day, genistein was well tolerated. In all of the studies, decreased food consumption and body weight gain were observed at 500 mg/kg/day. The main hematological findings were decreased red blood cell parameters at 500 mg/kg/day with a compensatory increase in reticulocytes. For clinical chemistry, with the exception of a slight increase in gamma glutamyl transferase in male and female rats at the high dose, there were a number of other minor changes considered not toxicologically significant. At necropsy, there were relatively few macroscopic changes; in the 52-week study, dilation of the uterus with fluid at the high dose and cysts of the ovaries in treated animals were observed. Organ weight changes in male rats at the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day included increased kidney, spleen, adrenal and testes weights and for females included, increased liver, kidney, spleen, ovary and uterus weights. After 4 and 13 weeks of treatment with genistein, there were no treatment related histopathologic findings. After 26 and 52 weeks of treatment, histological changes were seen in the female reproductive organs (ovaries and uterus), and in males (epididymides and prostate), and bone, kidneys, heart, liver and spleen in both sexes. After 52 weeks of treatment of males, vacuolation of the epididymal epithelium at 500 mg/kg/day and inflammation of the prostate were recorded at a higher incidence at 50 and 500 mg/kg/day. In females, cytological changes in the uterus, squamous metaplasia at 50 and 500 mg/kg/day and hyperplasia at 500 mg/kg/day were observed. Furthermore, hydrometra of the uterus and findings in the vagina consisting of anestric or diestrus vaginal mucosa with vaginal mucification, hyperplastic epithelium and multifocal cystic degeneration were noted at 500 mg/kg/day. Atrophy of the ovaries increased in severity in animals at 50 and 500 mg/kg/day. Osteopetrosis (hyperostosis) was observed in male and female rats at 50 and 500 mg/kg/day along with a compensatory increase in extramedullary hemopoiesis in the spleen; females were more affected than males. Hepatocellular hypertrophy and minimal bile duct proliferation were recorded at a higher incidence in animals at 500 mg/kg/day. It is concluded that almost all of the treatment related findings in these studies are related to the estrogenic properties of genistein as a phytoestrogen and would be expected to occur with a compound with estrogenic activity. The hormonally related changes were considered to be functional in nature and thus not adverse effects. Most of the findings in these studies were limited to the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day and were reversible. The few findings observed at 50 mg/kg/day were relatively minor and in view of the functional (hormonally mediated) nature of the effects, were considered not adverse effects. The increased incidence of minimal bile duct proliferation and slightly increased gamma glutamyl transferase are indicative of a mild hepatic effect at the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of genistein is considered to be 50 mg/kg/day based on the presence of mild hepatic effects at the high dose of 500 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) is considered to be 5 mg/kg/day based on the hormonally induced functional changes at higher doses.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 02/2006; 44(1):56-80. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.05.021 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein is a phytoestrogen that occurs naturally in the diet, especially in soy-based foods. There is widespread interest in phytoestrogens as chemopreventive agents for a variety of diseases and cancers based on epidemiologic evidence. Although soy and its constituents, such as genistein, have been consumed at high levels in several Asian populations without apparent adverse effects, concern has been raised about potential adverse effects due to estrogenic and other activities. The subchronic and chronic safety of genistein were evaluated in the beagle dog including a 4-week study and a 52-week safety study with a 13 week interim sacrifice and a 4 week recovery period. In both studies at doses of 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg/day, genistein was well tolerated. In the 4 week study, except for an increase in uterine weights in female dogs at 500 mg/kg/day, there were no other treatment related findings. In the 52-week study, the primary effects of genistein were observed on the reproductive tract, which included for male dogs: reduced size and/or weight of the testes, epididymus and prostate of 2/2 dogs after 13 weeks of treatment and in 1/4 dogs after 52 weeks of treatment at 500 mg/kg/day. The histological changes observed in the affected dogs at 500 mg/kg/day indicated atrophy of the testes and prostate gland and absent spermatozoa in the epididymus. At the mid-dose of 150 mg/kg/day, although there was a reduction to a lesser extent in testes weight after 13, but not 52 weeks, there were no histopathological changes. In female dogs, the reproductive tract effects included increased uterine weight at 500 mg/kg/day after 13 weeks of treatment, but not after 52 weeks of treatment. There was also a small decrease in ovarian weights at 150 and 500 mg/kg/day after 13 weeks and at 500 mg/kg/day after 52 weeks of treatment. There were no histopathological correlates to the changes in organ weights in female dogs. In the 4-week recovery group dogs, no changes were observed in dogs previously treated for 52 weeks with 500 mg/kg/day of genistein. It is concluded that the administration of genistein to dogs for a period of 4-52 weeks was well tolerated and did not result in systemic toxicity. Effects of genistein on the reproductive tract at very high doses were functional in nature and are of a type that would be expected in view of the relatively weak estrogenic activity of genistein and were considered not adverse effects. In the 4-week study, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for genistein was considered to be >500 mg/kg/day and the no observed effect level (NOEL) was considered to be 150 mg/kg/day. For the 52-week study, the NOAEL is considered to be >500 mg/kg/day and the NOEL is considered to be 50 mg/kg/day.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 11/2005; 43(10):1461-82. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2005.02.017 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal liver is a rich source of vitamin A. Due to retinoic acid (RA) metabolites, vitamin A has a teratogenic potential and women are generally advised to avoid or to limit the consumption of liver during pregnancy. In a recent study in non-pregnant female volunteers following single and repeated doses of up to 30,000 IU/day of vitamin A as a supplement, the plasma concentration time curve of all-trans RA acid showed a diurnal-like profile. But, the overall exposure (AUC24h) remained essentially unaltered whereas AUC24h increased linearly with dose for 13-cis and 13-cis-4-oxo RA. The current study in non-pregnant female volunteers showed that a single high vitamin A intake with a liver meal (up to 120,000 IU) exhibited a similar diurnal-like plasma concentration time curve for all-trans RA and its overall exposure remained also unaltered, despite a temporary two-fold increase in peak plasma concentration. Concentrations of 13-cis and 13-cis-4-oxo RA increased several-fold after a liver meal, and exposure (AUC24h) increased three- to five-fold. Pooling our results with data in the literature revealed a linear relation between the mean AUC24h of 13-cis and 13-cis-4-oxo RA and vitamin A intake with liver. Metabolism to all-trans RA of vitamin A with liver seems not to be of safety concern. However, the observed increase of plasma concentrations and the dose-dependent increase in exposure to 13-cis and 13-cis-4-oxo RA support the current safety recommendations on vitamin A intake and suggest that women should be cautious regarding their consumption of liver-containing meals during pregnancy.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 06/2005; 75(3):187-94. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831.75.3.187 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High intakes of vitamin A cause congenital malformations in experimental animals with elevated generation of retinoic acids (RA). Results in humans are conflicting. To evaluate plasma concentration-time curves of retinyl esters, retinol and their metabolites at increasing doses of vitamin A. An open-label dose-response study. Non-pregnant females (3 groups with n = 12; 18-40 years) received once daily oral doses of vitamin A palmitate up to 30,000 IU/day over 21 days. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(24h)) served as indicator for exposure. AUC(24h) of retinyl esters increased linearly with dose. Retinol concentrations were unaffected. All-trans RA exhibited a diurnal-like concentration-time profile (Cmax at 3 h; Cmin at 8 h), concentrations decreasing below pre-dose levels at 5 h and regaining pre-dose levels at 16 h. The maximum temporary increase in exposure was 33% (single dose) and 19% (repeated doses) above baseline, but AUC(24h) remained unaltered. AUC(24h) increased linearly with dose for 13-cis RA and 13-cis-4-oxo RA. Repeated doses caused a 25% increase in exposure with the highest vitamin A intake. Accumulation of 13-cis-4-oxo RA at 30,000 IU/day doubled compared to the 4,000 IU/day intake. Repeated oral doses of up to 30,000 IU of vitamin A in addition to dietary vitamin A were without safety concern. Safe doses are probably higher, since plasma concentrations and exposure to RA remained at levels earlier shown to be without increased risk of teratogenicity in pregnant women.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2005; 49(3):155-64. DOI:10.1159/000086879 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • R Michael McClain, Jochen Bausch
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    ABSTRACT: Lycopene belongs to the group of natural carotenoids, which are found in many fruits and vegetables, but predominantly in tomatoes and tomato-based products. This manuscript summarizes the safety of synthetic lycopene as a water-dispersible beadlet formulation containing antioxidants and includes acute and subchronic safety studies, reproductive studies, genotoxicity studies, metabolic studies, and exploratory studies on the hepatic uptake of lycopene. Lycopene has a low order of acute toxicity and no significant toxicity has been observed in rats treated with lycopene beadlet formulations in the diet at doses of up to 500 mg/kg bw/day for 14 weeks or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 4 weeks. No teratogenic effects were noted in a rat two-generation study (1000 ppm in the diet) or in a teratology study in rats with 1000 mg/kg bw/day lycopene as beadlet formulations. Lycopene accumulates in hepatocytes and to a lesser extent in spleen. In short-term studies with synthetic lycopene, as a beadlet formulation, and natural source lycopene, as tomato concentrate, the accumulation of lycopene in the liver and the presence of pigment deposits in the hepatocytes were similar and neither was associated with any histopathological changes. The pigment deposits in hepatocytes are no longer present after approximately 13 weeks of depletion, demonstrating reversibility for this effect. Unformulated pure crystalline lycopene and lycopene as a 10% beadlet formulation are not genotoxic as determined in a comprehensive battery of tests, however, improperly stored, unformulated crystalline lycopene can degrade to mutagenic products if exposed to light and air. Lycopene is commercially available only in formulated forms, containing antioxidants, which prevent the degradation of lycopene and other excipients that provide for water dispersibility. In the animal studies, there is a large margin of safety based on the repeated dose safety and reproductive/teratology studies in rodents. In humans, there is a very long history of use with respect to dietary exposure, and even in the case of very high exposures from dietary sources, there is no indication of any significant adverse effects.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 05/2003; 37(2):274-85. DOI:10.1016/S0273-2300(03)00004-7 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A HPLC method with automated column switching and UV detection is described for the simultaneous determination of retinol and major retinyl esters (retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, retinyl oleate and retinyl linoleate) in human plasma. Plasma (0.2 ml) was deproteinized by adding ethanol (1.5 ml) containing the internal standard retinyl propionate. Following centrifugation the supernatant was directly injected onto the pre-column packed with LiChrospher 100 RP-18 using 1.2% ammonium acetate-acetic acid-ethanol (80:1:20, v/v) as mobile phase. The elution strength of the ethanol containing sample solution was reduced by on-line supply of 1% ammonium acetate-acetic acid-ethanol (100:2:4, v/v). The retained retinol and retinyl esters were then transferred to the analytical column (Superspher 100 RP-18, endcapped) in the backflush mode and chromatographed under isocratic conditions using acetonitrile-methanol-ethanol-2-propanol (1:1:1:1, v/v) as mobile phase. Compounds of interest were detected at 325 nm. The method was linear in the range 2.5-2000 ng/ml with a limit of quantification for retinol and retinyl esters of 2.5 ng/ml. Mean recoveries from plasma were 93.4-96.5% for retinol (range 100-1000 ng/ml) and 92.7-96.0% for retinyl palmitate (range 5-1000 ng/ml). Inter-assay precision was < or =5.1% and < or =6.3% for retinol and retinyl palmitate, respectively. The method was successfully applied to more than 2000 human plasma samples from clinical studies. Endogenous levels of retinol and retinyl esters determined in female volunteers were in good accordance with published data.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications 03/2001; 751(2):265-75. DOI:10.1016/S0378-4347(00)00481-3
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the threshold level of canthaxanthin crystals in the retina of cynomolgus monkeys. To correlate the spatial distribution of all-trans canthaxanthin and its metabolites with the grade of crystals. Monkeys were orally administered 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.8, 5.4, 16.2, and 48.6 mg/kg body wt canthaxanthin daily for 2.5 to 3 years. A second group of monkeys were administered 200 and 500 mg/kg body wt/d for 5 years. Ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG), retina and carotenoid analysis were performed as previously reported. Crystals in the retina periphery were observed by ophthalmoscopy preterminally only in the extreme high doses of 200 to 500 mg/kg body wt/d. There were no adverse effects on visual functions as measured by ERG. Crystals in the peripheral retina, and/or in the macula, were detected microscopically in all canthaxanthin treated groups except at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg body wt/d. The grade of crystals increased up to a dose of 16.2 mg/kg body wt/d. Dose-dependent increases in canthaxanthin content also were noted in the retina, the liver, and in plasma. All-trans canthaxanthin was the major compound in the peripheral and paracentral retina of very highly dosed animals, where its concentration correlated largely with the grade of inclusions. In the macula, 4'-OH-echinenone was the dominant canthaxanthin metabolite. The grade of crystals in monkey retinas was dose dependent with a threshold level at 0.6 mg canthaxanthin/kg body wt/d. It correlated in the retinal periphery with the concentrations of all-trans-canthaxanthin and in the macula with its metabolites.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 06/2000; 41(6):1513-22. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An analytical method for the determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats is described. The method was validated for the determination of lycopene in liver and plasma with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, recovery and precision. Following precipitation of proteins with water-ethanol plasma was extracted with hexane; tissues were extracted with acetone followed by precipitation of proteins with water-ethanol and extraction of lycopene with hexane. Separation and quantification of geometrical isomers of lycopene was achieved by normal-phase HPLC with UV/VIS detection at 471 nm. The method proved to be selective and specific for lycopene in plasma and liver. Detector response was linear in the range from 2 ng/g to 10 microg/g liver and 0.5 ng/ml to 2 microg/ml plasma, respectively. Average recoveries ranged from 96 to 101% in spiked liver samples and from 91 to 94% in spiked plasma samples. Intra-day variability (C.V.) was < or = 6% and < or = 5% in liver and plasma, respectively. Inter-day precision was < or = 9% for liver samples and < or = 6% for plasma samples. The procedures were successfully applied to the sample analysis of pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications 03/2000; 739(2):291-9. DOI:10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00562-9
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    ABSTRACT: The urinary metabolic pattern after administration of the radiolabeled non-provitamin A carotenoid canthaxanthin was investigated in rats. In the rather complex HPLC urinary metabolic pattern a fraction was found which was conjugated. Deconjugation of the polar conjugates with glusulase, purification of the metabolite with HPLC and identification with GC-MS and NMR revealed that it was 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone. This structure was confirmed by comparisons with HPLC retention times, UV/VIS- and NMR-spectroscopy and GC-MS of the synthesized compound.
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 08/1999; 69(4):268-72. DOI:10.1024/0300-9831.69.4.268 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reproduce and investigate in a primate animal model the phenomenon of the red carotenoid canthaxanthin (beta, beta-carotene-4'4'-dione) to induce crystal-like retinal deposits as they have been observed in the ocular fundus of humans after high canthaxanthin intake (i.e., more than 30 mg/day). Groups of four cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) per gender and dose were administered 5.4, 16.2, or 48.6 mg canthaxanthin/kg body weight daily by oral gavage for 2.5 years. Eight control animals received placebo. In vivo ophthalmoscopy was performed at intervals of 3 months along with electroretinography after 12 and 24 months and retinal biomicroscopy just before the monkeys were killed. Retinal wholemounts or frozen sections were investigated postmortem by polarization, bright field, and differential interference contrast microscopy. Retinal and preterminal plasma canthaxanthin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By ophthalmoscopy and retinal biomicroscopy in vivo, no crystals or other light-reflecting particles were observed in the central paramacular retina. However, postmortem polarization microscopy of all 24 canthaxanthin-treated animals showed a circular zone in the peripheral retina containing birefringent, polymorphous red, orange, or white inclusions. The density of these inclusions was diminished within 1 to 8 mm posterior to the ora serrata. These inclusions were located mainly in the inner retinal layers, that is the nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer. Twelve of the 24 canthaxanthin-treated animals showed yellow, golden birefringent inclusions in the macula. Retinas of placebo-treated monkeys were free of birefringent, crystal-like inclusions. The HPLC confirmed the presence of all-trans canthaxanthin, and 4-OH-echinenone and isozeaxanthin as well, in the retinas of all canthaxanthin-treated animals. Neither electroretinography nor histopathology indicated any adverse effects of the canthaxanthin-induced retinal inclusions seen in this study. A high intake of canthaxanthin for 2.5 years led to the deposition of crystal-like birefringent inclusions in the inner layers of the peripheral retina and, to some extent, the central retina of cynomolgus monkeys. The presence of these deposits did not interfere with morphology nor with retinal function.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 04/1997; 38(3):741-52. · 3.66 Impact Factor