Jin Wang

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

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Publications (7)23.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) requires a susceptible host, typically a premature infant or an infant with congenital heart disease, enteral feedings and bacterial colonization. Although there is little doubt that microbes are critically involved in the pathogenesis of NEC, the identity of specific causative pathogens remains elusive. Unlike established normal adult gut microbiota, which is quite complex, uniform, and stable, early postnatal bacterial populations are simple, diverse, and fluid. These properties complicate studies aimed at elucidating characteristics of the gut microbiome that may play a role in the pathogenesis of NEC. A broad variety of bacterial, viral, and fungal species have been implicated in both clinical and experimental NEC. Frequently, however, the same species have also been found in physiologically matched healthy individuals. Clustered outbreaks of NEC, in which the same strain of a suspected pathogen is detected in several patients suggest, but do not prove, a causative relationship between the specific pathogen and the disease. Studies in Cronobacter sakazakii, the best characterized NEC pathogen, have demonstrated that virulence is not a property of a bacterial species as a whole, but rather a characteristic of certain strains, which may explain why the same species can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. The fact that a given microbe may be innocuous in a full-term, yet pathogenic in a pre-term infant has led to the idea of opportunistic pathogens in NEC. Progress in understanding the infectious nature of NEC may require identifying specific pathogenic strains and unambiguously establishing their virulence in animal models.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 05/2013; 22(2):69-75. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a product of the multi-drug resistance gene MDR1a, is a broad specificity efflux ATP cassette transmembrane transporter that is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues. Because mdr1a(-/-) mice tend to develop spontaneous colitis in bacteria-dependent manner, Pgp is believed to have a role in protection of the intestinal epithelium from luminal bacteria. Here we demonstrate that levels of Pgp in the small intestine of newborn rodents dramatically increase during breastfeeding, but not during formula feeding (FF). In rats and mice, levels of intestinal Pgp peak on days 3-7 and 1-5 of breastfeeding, respectively. The mdr1a(-/-) neonatal mice subjected to FF, hypoxia, and hypothermia have significantly higher incidence and pathology, as well as significantly earlier onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) than congenic wild type mice. Breast-fed mdr1a(-/-) neonatal mice are also more susceptible to intestinal damage caused by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii that has been associated with hospital outbreaks of NEC. Breast milk, but not formula, induces Pgp expression in enterocyte cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. High levels of ectopically expressed Pgp protect epithelial cells in vitro from apoptosis induced by C. sakazakii. Taken together, these results show that breast milk-induced expression of Pgp may have a role in the protection of the neonatal intestinal epithelium from injury associated with nascent bacterial colonization.
    Laboratory Investigation 07/2011; 91(11):1668-79. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although enterocytes are capable of innate immune responses, the intestinal epithelium is normally tolerant to commensal bacteria. To elucidate the mechanisms of tolerance, we examined the effect of preexposure to LPS on activation of p38, c-Jun, and NF-kappaB in enterocytes by several inflammatory and stress stimuli. Shortly after the initial LPS challenge, enterocytes become tolerant to restimulation with LPS or CpG DNA, but not with IL-17 or UV. The state of tolerance, which lasts 20-26 h, temporally coincides with LPS-induced expression of the anti-inflammatory ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. Small interfering RNA silencing of A20 prevents tolerance, whereas ectopic expression of A20 blocks responses to LPS and CpG DNA, but not to IL-17 or UV. A20 levels in the epithelium of the small intestine are low at birth and following gut decontamination with antibiotics, but high under conditions of bacterial colonization. In the small intestine of adult rodents, A20 prominently localizes to the luminal interface of villus enterocytes. Lower parts of the crypts display relatively low levels of A20, but relatively high levels of phospho-p38. Gut decontamination with antibiotics reduces the levels of both A20 and phospho-p38. Along with the fact that A20-deficient mice develop severe intestinal inflammation, our results indicate that induction of A20 plays a key role in the tolerance of the intestinal epithelium to TLR ligands and bacteria.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2009; 183(2):1384-92. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterocyte apoptosis in necrotizing enterocolitis is partly due to the elaboration of toxic intermediates of nitric oxide (NO), such as peroxynitrite (PN). Because p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and serine-threonine kinase (AKT) are well-characterized pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators, respectively, we hypothesized that PN could induce enterocyte apoptosis via activation of p38 and deactivation of AKT. To test this hypothesis, the rat intestinal cell line, IEC-6, was treated with PN. PN caused phosphorylation of p38, its upstream activator, MKK3/6, and downstream effector, transcription factor ATF-2. PN-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the p38 inhibitor, SB202190, and by p38 siRNA. PN decreased AKT phosphorylation; this effect was abrogated by pre-treatment with SB202190 or p38 siRNA. PN exposure also increased the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These data demonstrate that PN-mediated apoptosis depends on the p38 pathway and that p38 mediates deactivation of AKT survival pathways possibly by the involvement of PP2A.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2009; 384(2):221-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is crucial for the survival and proliferation of progenitor cells during embryonic gastrointestinal development. We sought to characterize the potential role of FGF10 signaling in the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Adult wild-type and Fgf10(LacZ) mice underwent 50% small bowel resection (SBR) or sham operation. Tissues were harvested 24 or 48 hr after surgery for histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. After SBR, Fgf10 expression was demonstrated in the epithelium at the base of the crypts. Moreover, there was a statistically significant increase in proliferating cells and goblet cells after SBR. In vitro studies using rat intestinal epithelial crypt (IEC-6) cells exposed to medium with or without recombinant FGF10 showed increased proliferation and phosphorylation of Raf and AKT with the addition of FGF10. Our results suggest that FGF10 may play a therapeutic role in diseases involving intestinal failure.
    Developmental Dynamics 10/2008; 238(2):294-301. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late mediator of endotoxemia known to stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are putative mediators of intestinal inflammation associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMGB1 is also involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. We examined the expression of HMGB1 and the effect of the novel drug semapimod on intestinal inflammation in an experimental model of NEC in neonatal rats. Newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia and fed a conventional formula by gavage (FFH) or were breast fed (BF). Rats were killed on day 4, and the distal ileum was harvested for morphological studies and Western blot analysis. FFH newborn rats but not BF controls developed intestinal inflammation similar to the histological changes observed in human NEC. We found that the expression of HMGB1 and its receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) as well as that of other apoptosis/inflammation-related proteins (Bad, Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2) was upregulated in the ileal mucosa of FFH newborn rats compared with BF animals. Administration of the drug semapimod inhibited the upregulation of those proteins and partially protected the animals against the FFH-induced intestinal injury. Elevated levels of HMGB1 were also found in ileal samples from infants undergoing intestinal resection for acute NEC. Our results implicate HMGB1 and RAGE as important mediators of enterocyte cell death and hypoxia-induced injury in NEC and support the hypothesis that inhibitors such as semapimod might play a therapeutic role in chronic intestinal inflammation characterized by this animal model.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 11/2005; 289(4):G643-52. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) occurs only after bacterial colonization of the intestine, suggesting that bacterial products, including lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin,) interact with enterocytes in the pathogenesis of this disease. Inflammatory molecules such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are important mediators of the septic response leading to NEC. We therefore hypothesized that endotoxin activates production of COX-2 in enterocytes and explored the relative contributions of known mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways in this process. IEC-6 enterocytes were treated with 5 microg/mL endotoxin, or various stresses, or media alone, and COX-2 protein levels were assayed by immunoblots with anti-COX-2 antibodies. Activation of MAPK was examined by immunoblots with phospho-MAPK antibodies. MAPK activity was blocked by treatment with pharmacologic inhibitors or transfection with dominant-negative MAPK constructs. Endotoxin treatment caused increased expression of the COX-2 protein 24 hours after treatment. This was preceded by rapid and transient activation of the 3 major MAPKs: extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38, but not U0126 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), blocked endotoxin-induced accumulation of COX-2 protein. This response was also blocked by expression of dominant-negative p38 but not by the dominant-negative ERK construct. Genotoxic stress that activated p38 but not ERK was an effective inducer of COX-2, whereas stresses that activated both p38 and ERK were not effective. ERK inhibition by U1026 enhanced endotoxin-induced production of COX-2, consistent with negative regulation of COX-2 by ERK. These data point to p38 as the MAPK that mediates endotoxin-induced production of COX-2 in enterocytes. Endotoxin may be capable of inducing the production of COX-2 in enterocytes via the p38 MAPK pathway, which may be relevant to the development of NEC.
    Surgery 09/2004; 136(2):329-35. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

86 Citations
52 Downloads
539 Views
23.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • Division of General Pediatric Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Pediatric Surgery
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2004
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States