Jing Pan

Ruijin Hospital North, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (21)59.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Complex molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are gradually being elucidated. Accumulating genetic evidence implicates dysfunction of kinase activities and phosphorylation pathways in the pathogenesis of PD. Causative and risk gene products associated with PD include protein kinases (such as PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK) and proteins related phosphorylation signaling pathways (such as SNCA, DJ-1). PINK1, LRRK2 and several PD gene products have been associated with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and protein kinase B (AKT) kinase signaling pathways. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38, signaling pathways downstream of MAP, are particularly important in PD. JNK and p38 play an integral role in neuronal death. Targeting JNK or p38 signaling may offer an effective therapy for PD. Inhibitors of the ERK signaling pathway, which plays an important role in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), have been shown to attenuate this condition in animal models. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence gathered over the last decade on the role of PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK and their related phosphorylation signaling pathways (JNK, ERK, p38 and PI3K/AKT) in PD. It is speculated that improvement or modulation of these signaling pathways will reveal potential therapeutic targets for attenuation of the cardinal symptoms and motor complications in patients with PD in the future.
    Progress in Neurobiology 06/2012; 98(2):207-21. · 9.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a nucleotide polymorphism rs6812193 near SCARB2 was found to be significantly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in populations of European ancestry. Herein, we conducted a case-control study with attempt to further evaluate the association between SNP rs6812193 and PD in a Chinese population from mainland China. rs6812193 was genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique in 449 PD patients and 452 controls in a Chinese population. In our study, we did not detect statistically significant differences between cases and controls in terms of both allele and genotype distribution of the rs6812193 polymorphism (P=0.97 and P=0.77, respectively), even after stratification by age at onset. Our data do not support the association of SNP rs6812193 with PD in Han Chinese of mainland China.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2012; 516(1):21-3. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well established. Genetic variation in fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) might influence the risk of PD occurrence and development. In this study, Two DNA polymorphisms at genetic variation in FGF20, rs2720208 (C/T) and rs1721100 (C/G), were genotyped by direct sequencing in Han Chinese population, including 394 PD patients and 383 healthy controls. Statistical analyses revealed that for rs1721100 (C/G) polymorphism, there were significant differences in genotype distribution between PD and healthy-matched controls. For rs12720208 (C/T) polymorphism, there was no significant difference in genotype distribution and gender and age-related differences between PD and control group. Results in this study revealed that the rs1721100(C/G) polymorphism is a risk factor for PD in Han Chinese population, while rs12720208(C/T) polymorphism is not significantly associated with PD.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 02/2012; 18(5):629-31. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.
    Translational neurodegeneration. 01/2012; 1(1):16.
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that microglial activation may participate in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). CD200-CD200R signalling has been shown to be critical for restraining microglial activation. We have previously shown that expression of CD200R in monocyte-derived macrophages, induced by various stimuli, is impaired in PD patients, implying an intrinsic abnormality of CD200-CD200R signalling in PD brain. Thus, further in vivo evidence is needed to elucidate the role of malfunction of CD200-CD200R signalling in the pathogenesis of PD. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were used as an animal model of PD. CD200R-blocking antibody (BAb) was injected into striatum to block the engagement of CD200 and CD200R. The animals were divided into three groups, which were treated with 6-OHDA/Veh (PBS), 6-OHDA/CAb (isotype control antibody) or 6-OHDA/BAb, respectively. Rotational tests and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate motor deficits and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in animals from each group. HPLC analysis was used to measure monoamine levels in striatum. Morphological analysis and quantification of CD11b- (or MHC II-) immunoreactive cells were performed to investigate microglial activation and possible neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra (SN). Finally, ELISA was employed to assay protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Compared with 6-OHDA/CAb or 6-OHDA/Veh groups, rats treated with 6-OHDA/BAb showed a significant increase in counts of contralateral rotation and a significant decrease in TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in SN. A marked decrease in monoamine levels was also detected in 6-OHDA/BAb-treated rats, in comparison to 6-OHDA/Veh-treated ones. Furthermore, remarkably increased activation of microglia as well as up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines was found concomitant with dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 6-OHDA/BAb-treated rats. This study shows that deficits in the CD200-CD200R system exacerbate microglial activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of PD. Our results suggest that dysfunction of CD200-CD200R signalling may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of PD.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2011; 8:154. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays a critical role in cerebral ischemia. Although the mechanistic basis for this activation of JNK1/2 is uncertain, oxidative stress may play a role. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the activation of JNK1/2 is associated with the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO). Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) was induced by cerebral four-vessel occlusion. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 6 groups: sham group, I/R group, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor (7-nitroindazole, 7-NI) given group, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (2-amino-5,6-dihydro-methylthiazine, AMT) given group, sodium chloride control group, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. The levels of protein expression and phospho-JNK1/2 were detected by Western blotting and the survival hippocampus neurons in CA1 zone were observed by cresyl violet staining. The study illustrated two peaks of JNK1/2 activation occurred at 30 minutes and 3 days during reperfusion. 7-NI inhibited JNK1/2 activation during the early reperfusion, whereas AMT preferably attenuated JNK1/2 activation during the later reperfusion. Administration of 7-NI and AMT can decrease I/R-induced neuronal loss in hippocampal CA1 region. JNK1/2 activation is associated with endogenous NO in response to ischemic insult.
    Chinese medical journal 10/2011; 124(20):3367-72. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcriptional factor activated during cerebral ischemia, which regulates a great number of downstream genes, including those associated with cell death. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that post-ischemic HIF-1α up-regulation might promote autophagy activation; thereby, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 might prevent neurons from ischemic injury through inhibiting autophagy. Global ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion model (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 250-280g). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, 5mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to down-regulate HIF-1α expression. Post-ischemic beclin-1 and LC3 protein expression was determined at different time points through Western blot assay. Neuronal injury was determined by cresyl violet staining and TUNEL staining in coronal histological sections. The expression of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly at 12 and 24 h after ischemia. 2ME2 could remarkably inhibit the up-regulation of beclin-1 and the increase of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio during reperfusion. Moreover, 2ME2 and 3-MA exhibited powerful protective effects against ischemic/reperfusion induced neuronal injury. This study confirmed that autophagy participated in post-ischemic neuronal injury. 2ME2, a HIF-1α inhibitor, might significantly decrease autophagy activation after cerebral ischemia and relieve post-ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings demonstrate that autophagy could be a potential target for neuronal protection after cerebral ischemia.
    The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques 07/2011; 38(4):631-8. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by amyloid deposit around brain vessels including capillaries. The origin of the amyloid protein of CAA remains controversial. In our work, we provide data to show that primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) harbor APP processing secretases and can produce Abeta(42) under starvation. Starvation can increase the secretion of Abeta(42) by altering the expression of beta-secretases (BACE1) and gamma-secretases (APH and PEN2). This process is regulated by macroautophagy. Suppression of macroautophagy induction by 3MA further increased the level of Abeta(42) produced under starvation in HUVECs. These results suggest that starvation-induced Abeta(42) secretion might contribute to the formation of CAA and hence vascular degeneration in AD.
    FEBS letters 07/2010; 584(14):3101-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that apoptosis may be the mechanism underlying cell death in selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies strongly suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has a critical role in the animal model with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. In this study, we report the inhibitory effect of a peptide designated as Tat-JBD on JNKs activation. The sequence of Tat is corresponding to the cell-membrane transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and the sequence of an 11-amino acid peptide is corresponding to the residues of JNK-binding domain (JBD) on JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1). Tat-JBD is confirmed to perturb the assembly of JIP-1-JNKs complex, inhibit the activation of JNKs induced by MPTP and consequently diminish the phosphorylation of c-Jun. It also inhibits the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and the releasing of Bax from Bcl-2/Bax dimmers, sequentially attenuates the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase3 and the hydrolyzation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by infusion of the peptide Tat-JBD in MPTP-treated mice. Our findings imply that Tat-JBD offers neuroprotection against MPTP injury via inhibiting the JNK-signaling pathway, and may provide a promising therapeutic approach for PD.
    Laboratory Investigation 12/2009; 90(2):156-67. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for dopaminergic neurons, and hence serves as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, despite the potential clinical and physiological importance of GDNF, its mechanism of action is unclear. Therefore, we employed a state-of-the-art proteomic technique, DIGE, along with MS and a bioinformatics tool called Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), to profile proteome changes in the parkinsonian mouse striatum after GDNF challenge. Forty-six unique differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, which were found either up-regulated and/or down-regulated at the two time points 4 and 72 h compared with the control. Proteins involved in cell differentiation and system development formed the largest part of the proteins regulated under GDNF. Furthermore, the aberrant expression of HSPs and mitochondria-associated proteins were noticeable. Moreover, mitochondrial stress 70 protein and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, whose relative levels increased significantly in GDNF-treated striatum, were further evaluated with Western blot and RT-PCR, demonstrating a good agreement with quantitative proteomic data. These data will provide some clues for understanding the mechanisms by which GDNF promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
    PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 09/2009; 3(9):1072-83. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important kinase mediating neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). JNK3, the only neural-specific isoform, may play an important role in mediating the neurotoxic effects of MPTP in dopaminergic neuronal injury. To analyze the variation in JNK3 activation, the levels of phospho-JNK3 were measured at the various time points of occurrence of MPTP-induced lesions. In our study, we observed that during MPTP intoxication, two peaks of JNK3 activation appeared at 8 and 24h. To further define the mechanism of JNK3 activation and translocation, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX) were administered to the mice 30 min after each of the four MPTP injections. The results revealed that NAC clearly inhibited JNK3 activation during the early intoxication, whereas ketamine preferably attenuated JNK3 activation during the latter intoxication. DNQX had no significant effects on JNK3 activation during intoxication. Consequently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the NMDA receptor were closely associated with JNK3 activation following MPTP intoxication. NAC and ketamine exerted a preventive effect against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons and suppressed the nuclear translocation of JNK3, suggesting that NAC and ketamine can prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal death by suppressing JNK3 activation.
    Neurochemistry International 07/2009; 54(7):418-25. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the Chinese version of the Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS) as an instrument for measuring sleep disorders in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the present study was to carry out a metric analysis of a Chinese version of PDSS using a cross-sectional study of 126 patients with PD who participated in the study. Usual measures for PD patients including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were applied by neurologists. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.880, and test-retest reliability for total PDSS score was 0.914. The Mean total PDSS score was 118.38+/-26.07. There was a significant correlation between the PDSS and PSQI, between the PDSS and ESS, between the PDSS and GDS, between the PDSS and HAMA, between the PDSS and the disease durations, and between the PDSS and the LDE, respectively. The Chinese version of PDSS met some basic standards required for sleep disorders measures. It could lead to better understanding the sleep disorders of PD of China in future studies.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 09/2008; 271(1-2):153-7. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by progressive impairment of memory and cognition. Previous data have shown that beta-amyloid (Abeta) cascade plays a central role in AD pathophysiology and thus drugs regulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism may have therapeutic potential. Here the effects of PMS777, a new cholinesterase inhibitor with anti-platelet activated factor activity, on APP processing were investigated. Using SH-SY5Y(APP695) cells, it showed that PMS777 treatment caused significant decreased secretion of sAPPalpha into the conditioned media without affecting cellular holoAPP synthesis. When PC12 cells were incubated with PMS777, the same effect was observed. The data also indicated that 10 muM PMS777 incubation decreased the release of Abeta42 into the cell media as compared with vehicle group in SH-SY5Y(APP695) cells. Pretreatment of cells with M-receptor scopolamine antagonized the decreased secretion of sAPPalpha induced by PMS777, but N-receptor alpha-bungarotoxin pretreatment did not have such an effect. These results indicated that PMS777 could modulate APP processing in vitro and that decreasing Abeta generation might demonstrate its therapeutic potential in AD.
    Neurochemical Research 09/2008; 34(3):528-35. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits a protective effect against neural injury in vitro and in vivo. However, it has not been reported whether peripheral intravenous administration of PACAP could confer benefits in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood. In the present experiments, we determined the effects and mechanism of action of intravenously administered PACAP27 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Our results indicate that intravenous injection of PACAP27 offers neuroprotective effects in the MPTP-induced PD mouse model which may not be directly associated with the expression levels of the monoamine transporters. However, this effect may be correlated with its ability to selectively regulate not only K(ATP) subunits, but D2 receptors in the striatum. Our findings suggest that the benefit of PACAP may accompany with changes not only in dopaminergic neurotransmission, but also in cholinergic neurotransmission that are relatively associated with the K(ATP) subunits and D2 receptors in the striatum.
    Neuropeptides 07/2008; 42(3):267-76. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathological studies have demonstrated that the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is one of the most prominent pathologic characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of NFTs, and its abnormal hyperphosphorylation leads to the destabilization of microtubules, impaired axonal transport, and eventual death of the neurons. The hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) is now considered as a viable agent with regard to central nervous system injury in a variety of cellular systems. Here we report that Epo prevented tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to the beta-amyloid peptide and that this effect may depend on the PI3K/Akt-GSK-3beta pathway. This study provides new molecular insight into the neuroprotective effect of Epo and suggests its possible therapeutic role in the management of AD.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 06/2008; 86(13):3018-27. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays a pivotal role in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced unilateral lesion in the nigrostriatal system. Our recent studies have shown that mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) and apoptosis-inducing kinase 1 (ASK1) are all involved in neuronal cell death induced by ischemia, which is mediated by the MLK3/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) and ASK1/JNK signaling pathway. To investigate whether these pathways are correlated with 6-OHDA-induced lesion as well, we examined the phosphorylation of MLK3, ASK1, and JNK3 in 6-OHDA rats. The results showed that both MLK3 and ASK1 could activate JNK3 and then subsequently enhance the neuronal death through its downstream pathways (i.e., nuclear and non-nuclear pathway). K252a have wide-range effects including Trk inhibition, MLK3 inhibition, and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways through interactions with distinct targets and is a well known neuroprotective compound. We found that K252a could protect dopaminergic neurons against cell program death induced by 6-OHDA lesion, and the phenotypes of 6-OHDA rat model treated with K252a were partial rescued. The inhibition of K252a on the activation of MLK3/JNK3 and ASK1/JNK3 provided a link between 6-OHDA lesion and stress-activated kinases. It suggested that both proapoptotic MLK3/JNK3 and ASK1/JNK3 cascade may play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal death in 6-OHDA insult. Thus, the JNK3 signaling may eventually emerge as a prime target for novel therapeutic approaches to treatment of Parkinson disease, and K252a may serve as a potential and important neuroprotectant in therapeutic aspect in Parkinson disease.
    Molecular pharmacology 01/2008; 72(6):1607-18. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies and those of others have strongly suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays a critical role in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic neuron injury in the substantia nigra. However, the downstream mechanism that accounts for the proapoptotic actions of JNK in 6-OHDA lesion remains to be investigated in detail. Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family with proapoptotic functions, was reported to be elevated within the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In the present study, we examined the changes in the protein level of Fas ligand (FasL) and its interaction with Fas in a rat model of PD. We demonstrate that the expression of FasL and not Fas was increased after 6-OHDA lesion; additionally, the interaction of FasL and Fas was increased due to 6-OHDA lesion. This indicates that the 6-OHDA-induced activation of Fas signaling pathway is mediated by JNK and that FasL may be a promising target in the therapeutic approach for PD patients.
    Neuroscience Letters 12/2007; 428(2-3):82-7. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many current studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) suggest that inflammation is involved in the neurodegenerative process. Tripchlorolide (TW397), a traditional Chinese herbal compound with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, has been shown to protect dopaminergic neurons against, and restore their function after, the neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ions in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the effect of TW397 in vivo in the PD model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned C57BL/6 mice. In the animals that received vehicle-only (i.e., no TW397) treatment with MPTP i.p. injection, the survival ratios of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and TH-IR fibres in the striatum were only 59 and 13%, respectively, compared with the normal controls. Intriguingly, in conjunction with MPTP, treatment with TW397, 1 microg/kg for 16 days, once per day, dramatically improved the survival rate of the TH-IR neurons and TH-IR fibres to 80 and 43% of the control. The treatment with TW397 also significantly improved the level of dopamine in the substantia nigra and striatum to 157 and 191%, respectively, of the MPTP- plus vehicle-treated group. In addition, in MPTP-treated animals the rota-rod performances of those treated with 0.5 or 1 microg/kg TW397 were significantly improved, by approximately 2- and 3-fold, respectively, relative to vehicle-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of TW397 was coincident with an attenuated astroglial response within the striatum. These data demonstrate a neuroprotective action of TW397 in vivo against MPTP toxicity, with important implications for the treatment of PD.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2007; 26(6):1500-8. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The beta amyloid (Abeta) cascade has been at the forefront of the hypothesis used to describe the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is generally accepted that drugs that can regulate the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) toward the non-amyloidogenic pathway may have a therapeutic potential. Previous studies have shown that protein kinase C (PKC) hypofunction has an important role in AD pathophysiology. Therefore, the effects of a new PKC activator, alpha-APP modulator [(2S,5S)-(E,E)-8-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,4-pentadienoylamino)benzolactam (TPPB)], on APP processing were investigated. Using PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y(APP695) cells, it was found that TPPB promoted the secretion of sAPPalpha without affecting full-length expression of APP. The increase in sAPPalpha by TPPB was blocked by inhibitors of PKC, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and tyrosine kinase, suggesting the involvement of these signal transduction pathways. TPPB increased alpha-secretase activity [a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and 17], as shown by direct fluorescence activity detection and Western blot analysis. TPPB-induced sAPPalpha release was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2, furin inhibitor CMK and by the protein-trafficking inhibitor brefeldin. The results also showed that TPPB decreased beta-secretase activity, Abeta40 release and beta site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression, but did not significantly affect neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) expression. Our data indicate that TPPB could direct APP processing towards the non-amyloidogenic pathway by increasing alpha-secretase activity, and suggest its therapeutic potential in AD.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2007; 26(2):381-91. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The beta amyloid cascade plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, drugs that regulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing toward the nonamyloidgenic pathway may have therapeutic potential. Many anti-dementia drugs can regulate APP processing in addition to their pharmacological properties. Deprenyl is a neuroprotective agent used to treat some neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In the present study, the effects of deprenyl on APP processing were investigated. Using SK-N-SH and PC12 cells, it was demonstrated that deprenyl stimulated the release of the nonamyloidogenic alpha-secretase form of soluble APP (sAPPalpha) in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular APP expression. The increase of sAPPalpha secretion by deprenyl was blocked by the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor U0126 and PD98059, and by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X and staurosporine, suggesting the involvement of these signal transduction pathways. Deprenyl induced phosphorylation of p42/44 MAP kinase, which was abolished by specific inhibitors of MAP kinase and PKC. Deprenyl also phosphorylated PKC and its major substrate, and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase (MARCKS) at specific amino acid residues. The data also indicated that 10microM deprenyl successfully induced two PKC isoforms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, to translocate from the cytosolic to the membrane fraction. This phenomenon was substantiated by immunocytochemistry staining. These data suggest a novel pharmacological mechanism in which deprenyl regulates the processing of APP via activation of the MAP kinase and PKC pathways, and that this mechanism may underlie the clinical efficacy of the drug in some AD patients.
    Neurochemistry International 02/2007; 50(1):74-82. · 2.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

214 Citations
59.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • Ruijin Hospital North
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010–2011
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • Institute of Andrology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2009
    • Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
      • Institute of Health Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China