ABSTRACT: Human cord blood (CB) is a superior source of regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with peripheral blood. Initial studies have shown that CB-derived Tregs can be effectively expanded ex vivo. However, in vitro suppressor activity of expanded CB-Tregs and their efficacy in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in vivo are poorly understood.
In vitro, human CB CD4+CD25+ T cells expanded with anti-CD3/CD28 beads plus interleukin (IL)-2 and the phenotypes, expression of cytokines, and suppression of expanded cells were analyzed after two cycles of stimulation. In vivo, the addition of human CB-Tregs was transferred in the major histocompatibility complex-mismatched aGVHD mouse model. Survival, body weight, GVHD scoring, histopathologic specimens, serum cytokines, and Th subsets were analyzed in CB-Treg-treated mice and untreated controls.
After being expanded ex vivo, human CB-derived Tregs with potent suppressor function could meet clinical demands. Up to 85% of mice with CB-Tregs treatment survived beyond Day 63 after bone marrow transplantation; however, all aGVHD mice died within 18 days. In the serum of the CB-Treg-treated mice, the production of transforming growth factor-β increased continuously, as opposed to IL-17, which decreased quickly. Consistent with the changes of cytokines, the percentage of mouse CD4+ forkhead box protein 3+ Tregs increased while that of Th17 cells decreased.
Ex vivo expanded human CB-Tregs significantly prevented allogeneic aGVHD in vivo by modulating various cytokine secretion and polarizing the Treg/Th17 balance toward Treg, which suggests the potential use of expanded CB-Tregs as a therapeutic approach for GVHD.
Transfusion 11/2011; 52(6):1333-47. · 3.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are secreted from many cell types into various body fluids. These vesicles are thought to play a role in cell-cell interactions.
Vesicles were isolated from human plasma of healthy donors by differential ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. The vesicles were identified by transmission electron microscopy, and their biochemical characteristics were analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. The immune-modulatory ability of exosomal-like vesicles was examined by incubating them with CD4+ T cells for CD4+ T-cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in vitro.
Vesicles purified from human plasma displayed shapes and sizes similar to those of previously described exosomes and contained exosomes marker proteins CD63 and CD81. They also expressed molecules such as MHC Class II molecules, CD80, CD86, and the cell signal transduction molecules Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and FasL. Furthermore, functional analysis showed that allogeneic plasma exosomes restrained the survival of CD4+ T cells. Plasma exosomes can induce dose-dependent suppression of proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells, with the strongest responses induced by 500 µg/mL exosomes in vitro. Antibodies against exosomes FasL can block the activity of exosomes on CD4+ T-cell apoptosis. Moreover, three different concentrations of CD4+ T cells were inhibited by plasma exosomes and the suppressive function was not dependent on interleukin-2.
Exosomes present in human plasma contain immunity-associated molecules and can induce CD4+ T-cell apoptosis in vitro. Plasma exosomes have the capacity to influence immune responses.
Transfusion 11/2010; 51(5):1002-11. · 3.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) may suppress graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of iNKT cells from major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched donors for preventing GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
In vitro, mouse iNKT cells were expanded with alpha-galactosylceramide and interleukin (IL)-2 treatment. In the NKT-treated group, lethally irradiated DBA/2(H-2K(d)) mice were adoptively transferred with expanded iNKT, bone marrow (BM), and spleen cells (SCs) from C57BL/6 (H-2K(b)) mice. Recipients in the control group were transferred only BM and SCs. The two groups were compared in survival, weight, histopathologic specimens, and serum cytokine analysis.
In the iNKT-treated group, 80% of mice survived past Day 60 after BMT, but all died within 38 days in the control group. The mice treated with iNKT did not exhibit signs of GVHD after Day 42 except for a change in fur color. There were higher IL-4 levels by Day 7 in serum of mice that received iNKT compared to those without iNKT treatment, while the interferon-gamma levels showed no significant difference between two groups. Levels of IL-2 and IL-5 increased by Day 21 only in iNKT-treated mice.
The results suggest that donor iNKT cells could alleviate GVHD symptoms and prolong survival after MHC-mismatched allogeneic BMT, which may be associated with the maintenance in IL-4 levels. These findings indicate that the therapy based on iNKT cells from MHC-mismatched donors has great potential in protection against GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Transfusion 09/2009; 50(2):407-17. · 3.22 Impact Factor