Jun Ma

Peking University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (64)47.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background:Being overweight or obese is becoming increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries. The present study aimed to examine association of eight genetic variants with obesity and to estimate the cumulative effects of these variants in Chinese children.Methods:We conducted the case-control study in a total of 2030 subjects. Genotyping of 7 novel variants was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, while rs9939609 was genotyped with tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system analysis.Results:The association of two FTO SNPs (rs9939609 and rs62048402) with BMI or obesity reached nominal significance at P<0.05. We found a cumulative effect of 5 SNPs on the risk of overweight and obesity (OR= 1.197, 95% CI: 1.068-1.342, P=0.002). Subjects carrying 9 or more effect alleles had a 127% increased risk of overweight and obesity (OR=2.270, 95% CI: 1.403-3.671, P=0.001) compared with subjects that carry 6 or fewer effect alleles.Conclusion:We confirmed two FTO SNPs (rs62048402 and rs9939609) had nominal significant effects on BMI or obesity. We identified the cumulative effect of 5 SNPs on risk of overweight and obesity. The results provided evidences for identifying genetic factors related to childhood obesity.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.88.
    Pediatric research. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of people are at risk for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Because obesity is a risk factor for NAFLD, the common variants of obesity-susceptible genes may be associated with NAFLD. Our aim was to identify whether the obesity-susceptible gene variants (rs9939609, rs9930506, and rs4783819 in fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO); rs12970134 and rs17782313 in melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R); and rs7566605, rs13428113, and rs9308762 in insulin-induced gene 2 [INSIG2]) were associated with NAFLD. The case-control study recruited 1027 Chinese children ages 7 to 18 years, including 162 children with NAFLD and 865 children without NAFLD. Anthropometric measurements, alanine transaminase (ALT) detection, liver ultrasound examination, and genotyping of 8 gene variants were performed. The A-allele of FTO rs9939609 was associated with increased NAFLD risk (P = 0.029, odds ratio 1.43), but was not significant after being adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.268). We also found an association between the 2 variants (rs12970134 in MC4R and rs9308762 in INSIG2) and ALT level. For rs12970134, each additional A-allele increased ALT level by 1.87 IU/L (P = 0.032). For rs9308762, the homozygotes of the C-allele had a higher ALT level than the T-allele carriers (β = 3.19, P = 0.007). After adjustment for BMI, the former association did not exist, whereas the latter reminded significant (P = 0.003). The FTO rs9939609 A-allele increased risk of NAFLD and MC4R rs12970134 was associated with ALT level through an effect on BMI. The association between INSIG2 rs9308762 and ALT level was independent of BMI. The results provided evidence for identifying genetic factors of NAFLD and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of NAFLD.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 02/2014; 58(2):157-61. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify gender differences among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010, and to project the future BMI-for-age z-score distribution and prevalence of obesity. Design and methods: The data were from four cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) with a national representative sample of Chinese children, involving more than 200,000 participants at each survey. BMI-for-age Z-score distributional shifts overall and in percentiles were compared by gender. Average shift was calculated for 4 survey periods and used for projecting future distributions and obesity prevalence. Results: BMI-for-age Z-score increased more in their upper percentile distribution, indicating that Chinese children have become heavier over the past 15 years. Gender disparity in BMI-for-age Z-score has become wider during the period. Over a 15-year period, BMI-for-age Z-score shift among girls has been stable, while boy's BMI-for-age Z-score shifts has increased linearly. By 2020, the obesity prevalence is predicted to be 10.18% and 4.99% for boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions: The wider gender disparity suggested a larger proportion of obesity in boys than in girls. Therefore, gender-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood obesity and cardiovascular diseases are urgently needed in China.
    Obesity 12/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association between early menarche and physical fitness among adolescent girls in China. Research material was selected from the data of "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Survey". Probability unit regression method was used to calculate the age of 10th percentile at menarche and menarche age before the 10th percentile was defined as early menarche(9.0-11.6 years old). A total of 1072 girls with early menarche were selected. Each girl with early menarche was matched with one girl from the same urban or rural locations who hadn't achieved menarche with the age difference less than 0.1 years. A total of 1072 girls without menarche were selected. Indicators of physical fitness included 50 m running, standing broad jump, 50 m×8 shuttle running and sit-ups. Differences of physical fitness between early menarche and without menarche were analyzed using t test stratified by age and urban/rural area. The multilevel models of single dependent variable and multiple dependent variables were used to analyze association between early menarche and physical fitness. A total of 2144 students were put in this research. Among girls (11.0-11.6 years old) in urban areas, 50 m running, standing broad jump and sit-ups was (9.78 ± 0.85) s, (153.81 ± 18.59) cm, and 27.79 ± 10.25, respectively for those with early menarche, while in girls without menarche was (10.01 ± 0.90) s, (149.71 ± 18.72) cm and 26.28 ± 10.11, respectively. There were significant differences between two groups on all above variables (t values were 4.02, 3.43 and 2.31, respectively with all P values <0.01). Among girls in rural, 50 m×8 shuttle-running and sit-ups was (125.22 ± 15.57) s and 24.96 ± 8.97 for those with early menarche, while it was (120.92 ± 13.06) s and 22.96 ± 9.83 for those without menarche. There were significant differences between two groups on both variables(t values were 3.89 and 2.77 with both P values < 0.01). In addition, 50 m×8 shuttle-running in girls (10.0-10.9 years old) with early menarche was (128.52 ± 15.74) s and it was (123.89 ± 13.50) s in girls without menarche. The difference was significant (t = 2.14, P < 0.05). The multilevel analysis showed that 50 m running, standing broad jump and sit-ups in girls with early menarche was 0.12 s, 3.14 cm and 1.11 higher than girls without menarche (Waldχ(2) values were 4.00, 6.22 and 4.07, respectively with all P values < 0.05). But 50 m×8 shuttle-running in girls with early menarche was 1.95 s less than girls without menarche (Waldχ(2) = 3.96, P < 0.05). Early menarche may be associated with higher speed fitness, leg power and muscle power and lower physical stamina.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):707-711.
  • Jun Ma
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):680-683.
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the association between abdominal obesity and blood pressure among 7-10 years old Chinese children. A total of 40 495 children aged 7-10 years with complete height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure data were chosen from the data of 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health. Based on the "Reference Norms for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents" developed by Working Group Obesity in China (WGOC) and the waist to height ratio reference value for children (WHtR ≤ 0.46) , the children were divided into 4 body types (normal weight, simple abdominal obesity, combined obesity and other types). High blood pressure was defined as the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) higher than the P 95 blood pressure value of 2010 national student of the same gender and age. The prevalence of simple abdominal obesity, combined obesity and high blood pressure were described. Three groups (with 2165 children in each) of children with normal weight, simple abdominal obesity, combined obesity respectively were selected from the chosen ones matched by gender, age (within ± 0.5 years old) and height (within ± 0.3 cm) at the ratio of 1: 1: 1. The value of blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure were described.χ(2) test, analysis of variance and multilevel models were used to analyze the relationship between obesity and blood pressure. A total of 40 475 children were selected from the database, including 20 175 boys and 20 320 girls. The prevalence of simple abdominal obesity was 6.36% (2576/40 495), the prevalence of boys and girls was 7.41% (1494/20 175) and 5.32% (1082/20 320) respectively. The prevalence of combined obesity was 16.33% (6611/40 495), the prevalence of boys and girls was 21.30% (4298/20 175) and 11.38% (2313/20 320) respectively. There were statistical differences in the body type distribution of both boys and girls (χ(2) = 869.01, P < 0.01). The prevalence of high blood pressure was 9.62% (3896/40 495), the prevalence of boys (10.05% (2028/20 175)) was higher than girls (9.19% (1868/20 320)) (χ(2) = 8.59, P < 0.01). The value of SBP and DBP among combined obesity group (boys: (103.8 ± 11.3), (64.7 ± 10.1) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa); girls: (102.9 ± 12.1), (64.5 ± 10.0) mm Hg) > simple abdominal obesity group (boys: (99.5 ± 11.2), (61.6 ± 9.9) mm Hg; girls: (99.6 ± 11.4), (62.6 ± 9.3) mm Hg)> normal weight group (boys: (97.4 ± 10.8), (60.5 ± 9.4) mm Hg; girls: (97.2 ± 10.8), (60.8 ± 9.4) mm Hg), and the differences were statistical significant (Fboys: 113.22, 62.05; Fgirls: 54.19, 32.31, P < 0.01). According to the results of multilevel model, among boys, compared with the normal weight group, the SBP of combined obesity group and simple abdominal obesity group was 6.0 and 1.8 mm Hg higher respectively (Wald χ(2): 17.55, 204.94, P < 0.01); the DBP was 4.0 and 0.9 mm Hg higher respectively (Wald χ(2): 6.37, 114.05, P < 0.05). Among girls, the SBP was 5.0 and 2.1 mm Hg higher respectively (Wald χ(2):16.47, 92.52, P < 0.01); the DBP was 3.5 and 1.6 mm Hg higher respectively (Wald χ(2): 12.29, 57.52, P < 0.01). Comparing with normal group, the risk of high SBP among boys with simple abdominal obesity was higher (OR = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.06-2.06), and both the boys (SBP: OR = 3.06; 95%CI: 2.28-4.11) ; DBP: OR = 2.72; 95%CI: 1.99-3.72) and girls (SBP: OR = 2.48; 95%CI: 1.75-3.53; DBP: OR = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.82-3.93) in combined obesity group had a higher risk of high SBP and high DBP. Simple abdominal obesity is associated with the increasing of blood pressure in children, and combined obesity has a closer ties than simple abdominal obesity.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):689-694.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association between early menarche with anthropometry measurements among adolescent girls in China. Research material was selected from the data of 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Probability unit regression method was used to calculate the age of 10th percentile (P 10) at menarche and menarche age before the P 10 was defined as early menarche(9.0-11.6 years old). A total of 1072 girls with early menarche were screened. Each girl with early menarche was frequency matched with two girls who hadn't achieved menarche and with the age difference less than 0.1 yr and from the same urban or rural locations. A total of 2144 girls without menarche were screened. Participants' data of height, weight, sitting height, chest circumference, body mass index(BMI) and height and sitting height index were analyzed. t test and wilcoxon test were used to analyze the anthropometry measurements differences between the two groups, Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of overweight and obesity between the two groups. Multilevel model was used to explore the association between early menarche with anthropometry measurements and overweight and obesity. A total of 1072 girls with early menarche and 2144 girls without menarche. Early menarche girls' height, sitting height, chest circumference, weight and BMI were (151.42 ± 7.46) cm, (80.86 ± 4.21) cm, (73.88 ± 7.72) cm, (44.32 ± 9.35) kg, and (19.18 ± 3.03) kg/m(2), while they were (144.86 ± 7.55) cm, (76.96 ± 4.05) cm, (67.25 ± 6.94) cm, (36.07 ± 7.88) kg and (16.64 ± 2.48) kg/m(2) in girls without menarche. The difference between two groups were significant(Z values were -22.20, -23.69, -24.38, -23.12, -20.17, -6.33 respectively with all P values < 0.01). Multilevel analysis results showed that in 9.0-11.6 years old girls early menarche was associated with anthropometry measurements(all P values < 0.05). Compared with girls without menarche, girls with early menarche had a relative higher height, sitting height, weight, chest circumference, with increments of 5.28 cm, 3.37 cm, 5.53 cm, 6.37 kg, 1.79 kg/m(2). Within subgroup analysis, there were parabolic trends with age in the height, weight and sitting height differences and "U" trend in chest circumference difference between girls with early menarche and girls without menarche.In 9.0-10.8 years old, 10.9-11.0 years old and 11.1-11.2 years old groups, the risk of overweight and obesity among girls with early menarche were 2.98 (95%CI:1.92-4.63) times, 6.76 (95%CI:2.79-16.39) times, 2.99 (95%CI:1.40-6.40) times of girls without menarche. The early onset of menarche is related with height, sitting height, weight and chest circumference, and it is closely associated with overweight and obesity among adolescent girls in China.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):712-717.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association between spermatorrhea and physical development during puberty for boys aged 11 to 15 years old in China. The height, weight, chest circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference and the station of spermatorrhea of boys aged 11-15 years old were selected from the data of 2010 National Survey on Students Constitution and Health. Body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio were calculated. After 1: 1 random matching in every 0.1 year of age, 6880 boys (3440 with spermatorrhea and 3440 without spermatorrhea) were included in our study. t-test was used to analyze differences in anthropometry measurements between boys with spermatorrhea and boys without spermatorrhea in each age group. Multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between anthropometry measurements and spermatorrhea. A total of 6880 boys were put in this research. Heights of boys with spermatorrhea aged 11 to 15 years old were (150.96 ± 8.01), (159.46 ± 8.03), (163.76 ± 7.43), (167.03 ± 7.12) and (169.50 ± 6.64) cm, respectively, while heights of boys without spermatorrhea aged 11 to 15 were (147.38 ± 6.54), (153.55 ± 8.68), (160.35 ± 8.66), (164.44 ± 7.98) and (167.98 ± 7.80) cm, respectively. The differences were significant (t values were 3.70, 9.96, 10.76, 8.26, and 3.21 respectively with all P values < 0.01). of multilevel analysis showed that the differences of weight were the largest from 11 to 13 years old, boys with spermatorrhea having a 4.20, 7.23 and 3.93 kg (Waldχ(2) values were 13.11, 70.73 and 72.93 respectively, all P values < 0.01) larger weight than boys without spermatorrhea, respectively. Differences of height were the largest from 14 to 15 years old, boys with spermatorrhea having a 2.81 and 1.99 cm (Waldχ(2) values were 87.80 and 19.54, P < 0.01) larger height than boys without spermatorrhea. The trends of the differences between boys with spermatorrhea and boys without spermatorrhea (β value) with age were parabolic on weight, BMI, height, chest circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio. The β values reached maximum at 12 years old, which were 7.23 kg, 1.64 kg/m(2), 5.55 cm, 4.40 cm, 4.63 cm, 4.94 cm, and 0.015, respectively. The β values reached minimum at 15 years old, which were -0.39 kg, -0.56 kg/m(2), 1.99 cm, -0.57 cm, -1.59 cm, -0.42 cm and -0.015, respectively. There is an association between spermatorrhea and physical development among boys aged 11 to 15 years in China , which has a parabolic trend with age.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):695-699.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the influencing factors on physical endurance among Chinese primary and middle school students aged 10-17. Data was used from "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance", from which 68 458 primary and middle school students with complete information were selected. Good physical endurance was defined as endurance running time ≤ P 25 of same gender and age, poor physical endurance as ≥ P 75 of same gender and age. Difference of endurance running time in different physical endurance groups was compared; chi-square test, logistic regression and multiple level model were used to analyze influence of region, BMI, diet, exercise and exercise willingness on physical endurance. There were 34 293 (50.0%) students of good physical endurance and 34 219 (50.0%) ones of poor physical endurance in 68 458 subjects. Percentage of good physical endurance was 53.8% (18 285/33 996) in rural students, higher than urban ones (46.3% (15 954/34 462)) (χ(2) = 384.16, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 12.2% (448/3660) in obese students, lower than normal (55.2% (28 183/51 028)), overweight (29.3% (2012/6874)) and emaciated ones (52.1% (3596/6896)) (χ(2) = 3840.08, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 52.5% (25 534/48 679) in students having breakfast everyday, higher than ones never having breakfast or 1-2 times per week (41.3% (3209/7768))(χ(2) = 438.31, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 51.7% (11 580/22 379) in students having milk everyday, slightly higher than ones never or sometimes having milk (49.2% (22 659/46 079)) (χ(2) = 39.84, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 55.3% (18 961/34 314) in students with adequate physical education class, higher than ones with inadequate class (44.7% (15 278/34 144)) (χ(2) = 756.41, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 58.6% (9484/16 195) in students with one hour exercise or more per day, higher than ones with less than one hour exercise (47.4% (24 755/52 263)) (χ(2) = 619.82, P < 0.01). Percentage of good physical endurance was 60.1% (19 287/32 118) in students who were "very willing" to take part in endurance running, higher than "generally willing" ones (45.4% (10 569/23 272)) and "not willing" ones (33.5% (4383/13 068)) (χ(2) = 2909.61, P < 0.01). Multiple level analysis revealed that risk of poor physical endurance was lower in rural students (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.77-0.82) than urban ones. Risk in emaciated students (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.05-1.17), overweight students (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 2.55-2.85) and obese students (OR = 7.71, 95%CI: 6.97-8.52) was higher than normal ones. Concerning diet, risk of poor physical endurance in students never having breakfast or once to twice per week was highest (OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.13-1.26), followed by students having breakfast three to five times per week (OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.08-1.18); risk in students having one bag of milk per day was higher (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) than ones having two bags. Concerning exercise, risk of poor physical endurance in students with inadequate physical education class (OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 1.13-1.26) and less than one hour exercise per day (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.29-1.40) was higher than ones with adequate physical education class and one hour exercise or more respectively. Risk of poor physical endurance in students who were "generally willing" (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.61-1.73) and "not willing" (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 2.60-2.85) to take part in endurance running was higher than "very willing" ones. Urban and rural residence, BMI, breakfast, milk, physical education class, exercise time and exercise willingness were related to primary and middle school students'physical endurance.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):700-706.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the association between sleep duration and the level of puberty blood pressure of students aged 9 to 17 years in China. The data were from physical fitness and health research of chinese school students in 2010. A total of 123 919 boys aged 11 to 17 years and girls aged 9 to 17 years were included in our study, whose record of height, weight, blood pressure, sleep duration and first spermatorrhea/menarche were performed. Students were grouped as relative enough sleep duration group and short sleep duration group by their sleep duration reported. The level of blood pressure, as well as the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP), was compared between different sleep duration groups, and multilevel model was used and analyzed the relationship between sleep duration and blood pressure. 123 919 students were surveyed in this study, including 52 549 boys and 71 370 girls. The mean blood pressure of boys was 109.41/67.05 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), 30 830 boys (58.7%) experienced first spermatorrhea, and 18 692 boys (35.6%) were defined as relative enough sleep duration. The mean level blood pressure of girls surveyed was 103.65/65.12 mm Hg, 46 031 girls (64.5%) experienced menarche, and 23 143 girls (32.4%) were defined as relative enough sleep duration. Among the boys without first spermatorrhea, 7481 boys (34.4%) were defined as relative enough sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 105.25/65.01 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 4.3% (325/7481), and 14 238 boys (65.6%) were defined as short sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 105.9/65.27 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 5.6% (802/14 238), boys with relative enough sleep duration showed a significant lower blood pressure level and the prevalence of HBP compared with boys with short sleep duration (F = 15.38, P < 0.01;χ(2) = 16.55, P < 0.01). Among girls without menarche, 9311 girls (36.7%) were defined as relative enough sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 100.47/63.25 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 2.9% (271/9311), 16 028 girls (63.3%) were defined as short sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 101.06/63.57 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 3.3% (536/16 028), girls with relative enough sleep duration showed a lower level of blood pressure compared with girls with short sleep duration (F = 17.44 and 7.11, respectively, all P values < 0.01). Among girls experienced menarche, 13 832 girls (30.0%) were defined as relative enough sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 105.27/66.19 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 6.25% (864/13 832), and 32 199(70.0%) girls were defined as short sleep duration, whose mean blood pressure was 105.12/66.19 mm Hg and prevalence of HBP was 6.0% (1924/32 199), girls with relative enough sleep duration showed significant higher level of blood pressure than girls with short sleep duration (F = 5.98, P = 0.015). After adjustment of region, BMI, height, age and urban/rural area by multilevel model, the level of systolic pressure decreased 0.18 mm Hg with 1 h increase of sleep duration among boys without first spermatorrhea (Wald χ(2) = 7.27, P = 0.007), the level of diastolic pressure decreased 0.13 mm Hg with 1 h increase of sleep duration among girls without menstruation (Wald χ(2) = 5.52, P = 0.019), and the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure increased 0.19 mm Hg and 0.14 mm Hg with 1 h increase of sleep duration among girls with menstruation, respectively (Wald χ(2) = 13.47 and 9.94, respectively, all P values < 0.01). Short sleep duration may be one of the influential factors of HBP during puberty.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):718-725.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 grils, the values of hight and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3.35% (27/806), which was significant higher than that in non-menstruation group (separately 3.11% (50/1607), 2.30% (37/1607) and 1.43% (23/1607), and the values of Chi-square were separately 12.02, 11.32 and 9.74, while all P values <0.01). After adjusted by region and age, early age at menarche were separately associated with the rate of high blood pressure (OR = 2.188; 95%CI: 1.254-3.818), high systolic pressure (OR = 1.925; 95%CI:1.097-3.379) and high diastolic pressure (OR = 2.088; 95%CI: 1.072-4.065). Early age at menarche may be one of the influence factors of high blood pressure, which may contribute to early age of high blood pressure in Chinese children and adolescents.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 08/2013; 47(8):726-730.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the association between body mass index(BMI), waist circumference (WC) with body fat percent, and abdominal fat rate in overweight and obese pupils. Using convenience sampling, two primary schools of Dongcheng district in Beijing were selected in May 2010. A total of 162 overweight and obese pupils graded from 2 to 5 who met the criteria of overweight and obese were recruited based on the physical exam record of the school medical department in April. Their physical measurements were taken to measure body fat percent (PBF), abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level and BMI was calculated.Independent-sample t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied to analyze the gender differences. Correlation analysis was used to explore the association between the indexes of fat distribution (PBF, abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level) and BMI and WC.Univariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the variance of three indexes of fat distribution explained by the independent variables. The PBF of overweight and obese pupils was (43.62 ± 2.98) %, the abdominal fat rate of them was (28.06 ± 6.02)%, the visceral fat level of them was 7.51 ± 3.43, BMI was (23.41 ± 2.83) kg/m(2). WC, PBF and abdominal fat rate were (78.57 ± 7.76) cm, (42.36 ± 2.56) % and (26.47 ± 5.39) % in boys and (73.34 ± 7.22) cm, (45.88 ± 2.26) %, (30.92 ± 6.07) % in girls. The difference in gender was significant (t values were -4.218, 8.751, 4.811, respectively, all P values <0.01). The visceral fat level of boys and girls were 8.86 ± 3.42 and 5.09 ± 1.70, with significant difference (Z = -7.08, P < 0.01). The correlation between PBF and BMI and the variance of PBF explained by BMI (r = 0.563, R(2) = 31.7%) were stronger than them with WC (r = 0.402, R(2) = 16.1%) (P < 0.01). The correlation between visceral fat levels and WC and the variance of visceral fat level explained by WC (r = 0.723, R(2) = 57.3%) were higher than them with BMI (r = 0.621, R(2) = 41.7%) (P < 0.01). The correlation and prediction ability of BMI and body fat percent were stronger than WC, while the correlation and prediction ability of WC and visceral fat were higher than BMI.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 07/2013; 47(7):603-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To categorize gowth and development stages among children and adolescents based on height, and to explore the influences of diet behaviors on height during diffrerent growth and development stages. Children and adolescents (7 to 18 years) with normal weights were selected using "Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Child and Adolescent" set up by WGOC in 2003 and "Reference Norm for Screening Underweight in Chinese Child and Adolescent" from the "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" data, and the variables of height and diet behaviors sorted. The gorwth and development stages were categorized using the hierachical cluster analysis, and the multilevel model was used to analyze influences of diet behaviors on height at different growth and development stages. Basis on height, there were 4 growth and development stages among the children and adolescents. In the boys, growth and development stages included Pre-GSS (growth spurt stage, GSS) including 7 to 10 years, GSS (11 to 12 years), Post-GSS (13 to 14 years), and growth stability stage (15 to 18 years); in the girls, the stages included the fast velocity GS (growth stage, GS) including 7 to 10 years, GS (11 to 12 years), Post-GS (13 to 15 years), and growth stability stage (16 to 18 years). The results of the multilevel model showed that the students' height in the urban areas were higher than in the rural areas (P<0.01), and the trend of difference between the urban and rural areas with the different growth stages was a parabola shape, the highest differences were 3.36 cm and 3.23 cm in the GSS and the fast velocity GS, respectively. There were significant influences of breakfast on height during the Pre-GSS and the fast velocity GS (P<0.01), and increased 0.40 cm and 0.57 cm, respectively. Excluding the stablilty growth stage in the girls, drinking milk increased significantly height during the different growth stages (P<0.01), and the increases were gradual downtrend with the growth stages, the highest increase was 0.91 cm and 0.94 cm in Pre-GSS and the fast velocity GS, respectively. Eating eggs increased significantly height during all the growth stages (P<0.01), and the increases were the gradual uptrend with different growth stages. There were interaction effects among breakfast, drinking milk and eating eggs during the different growth stages, which was the gradual downtrend. Breakfast and drinking milk are conducive to growth during early adolescence, and the effect of eating eggs on growth is gradual uptrend with different growth stages.
    Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences 06/2013; 45(3):370-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between obesity and high blood pressure (BP) in Chinese children and adolescents. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure measurements of 197 191 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from a Chinese national survey in 2010. Obesity and high BP were defined according to the reference values for Chinese children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of different BMI categories for high BP, as well as the population attributable risk percent (PAR%), were also calculated. The prevalence of high BP was 16.1% for boys and 12.9% for girls in 2010. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher prevalence of high BP than non-overweight children in both boys and girls in each age group. ORs (95% CI) for high BP were 4.1 (3.9, 4.4) in obese boys and 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) in obese girls. The overall PAR% for high BP due to overweight and obesity was 14.4%. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher risk of high BP than non-overweight children. Eliminating overweight and obesity could reduce 14.4% of high BP cases.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 06/2013; 26(6):437-444. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity, based on body mass index (BMI), among Chinese children and adolescents has increased for decades, but the relationship between trends in blood pressure (BP) and increasing BMI has not been studied. METHODS: BMI and BP measurements of 391,982 children aged 7-17 years were obtained from surveys in 2005 and 2010. The mean change and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of BP were calculated, and the association between BMI and BP was assessed by using analysis of covariance and direct adjustment with the BMI distribution of 2005 survey. RESULTS: The mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased 1.5 mm Hg (95% CI = 1.4-1.7 mm Hg) and 1.1 mm Hg (95%CI = 1.1-1.2 mm Hg) for boys and 1.2 mm Hg (95% CI = 1.1-1.3 mm Hg) and 1.0 mm Hg (95% CI = 1.0-1.1 mm Hg) for girls from 2005 to 2010, respectively. After adjustment for BMI, SBP and DBP in 2010 were 0.8mm Hg (95% CI = 0.8-0.9mm Hg) and 0.8mm Hg (95% CI = 0.7-0.8mm Hg) higher than in 2005, respectively (all P < 0.01). With adjustment for difference in BMI distribution in 2005 and 2010, the mean increase of SBP decreased by 40.5% and that of DBP by 26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: BP among Chinese children and adolescents was on the rise from 2005 to 2010, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the rise in BP was in part attributable to the rise in BMI.
    American Journal of Hypertension 04/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its' control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, 'nutrition and health classes' were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m(2) (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its' control group (0.82±0.09 for BMI, 0.10±0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its' control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. The school-based integrated obesity intervention program was cost-effectiveness for children in urban China. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-09000402 URL:http://www.chictr.org/cn/
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77971. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the data from six Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) from 1985 to 2010, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity in urban Chinese children over a period of 25 years. The aim of this study was to examine the gender disparities in the prevalence of childhood obesity over time. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly during the past 25 years from 0.2% in 1985 to 8.1% in 2010. The increasing trend was significant in all age subgroups (p<0.01). Although the prevalence of obesity continuously increased in both boys and girls, the changing pace in boys was faster than that in girls. Age-specific prevalence odds ratios (PORs) of boys versus girls for obesity increased over time during the 25 year period. The prevalence of obesity in boys was significantly higher than in girls in all age-specific subgroups from 1991 and after. The gradually expanding gender disparity suggests the prevalence of obesity in boys contribute to a large and growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, it is critical for developing and implementing gender-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies in China.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53069. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the trend of overweight and obesity in students in China during 1985 - 2010. The data were from Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, and the sample sizes were 204 977, 216 786, 234 421, 215 319, respectively. BMI was calculated with height and weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the rates of increase were described based on the BMI percentile criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). In 2010, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in four groups students (urban boys, urban girls, rural boys, and rural girls aged 7 - 18 years) were 23.23% (12 503/53 830), 13.76% (7 414/53 857), 12.72% (6 839/53 744), 8.56% (4 612/53 888), respectively, which were higher in boys and urban, and reached the peak 17.14% (18 463/107 741) in students aged 7 - 12 years. The prevalences of obesity were 0.44% (8/1800) - 21.67% (390/1800) among children aged 7 - 18 years in different provinces. The prevalence of overweight and obesity during 1985 - 1995, 1995 - 2000, 2000 - 2005 and 2005 - 2010 increased 0.10%, 0.30%, 0.23%, 0.23%, respectively, and the increase rate was higher in urban than in rural during 1985 - 2005. During 1985 - 1995, the increase rate of obesity in four groups students were 0.20%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. During 2005 - 2010, the increase rates of obesity in four groups of students were 0.30%, 0.10%, 0.34%, 0.17%, respectively, and the increase rate was higher in rural than in urban. The prevalence of obesity among 7 - 18 years-old children increased rapidly during the 1985-2000, and the increase rate of obesity in rural exceeded that in urban during 2005 - 2010.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 09/2012; 46(9):776-80.
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    ABSTRACT: To find out the current situation of physical activity and its influencing factors among Chinese primary and middle school students. A total of 166 812 students aged 9 - 18 finished the questionnaires of physical activities and lifestyle behaviors who were selected from "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance". The subjects were sampled by stratified cluster sampling method in 30 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) except Tibet. The physical activity for a total of at least 60 minutes per day, attitudes on physical activity, parents' supports toward physical activity of children, development of school physical education, the schoolwork burden and sedentary lifestyle were all analyzed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the physical activity for a total of at least 60 minutes per day and individual, family, school and sedentary behavior. A total of 22.7% (37 867/166 757) of primary and middle school students aged 9 - 18 had been physically active doing any kind of physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day, the prevalence was higher among male (25.4%, 21 086/83 159) than female (20.1%, 16 781/83 598) students (P < 0.05). In the 9 - 12 age group, the prevalence was higher among urban (37.6%, 5 980/15 912) than rural (32.0%, 4 917/15 375) students (P < 0.05), but in the 16 - 18 age group, the case was opposite. The prevalence of doing physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day among students who liked physical education (23.7%, 11 866/50 073), were willing to participate in the extracurricular sports activities (23.2%, 13 460/57 907), and were willing to participate long running exercise (26.9%, 9 185/34 153) was higher than those who dislike physical education (15.9%, 589/3705), were not willing to participate in the extracurricular sports activities (15.9%, 567/3565), and were not willing to participate long running exercise (12.1%, 2 246/18 493), respectively. The prevalence was higher among students whose parents supported their physical activity (20.4%, 15 148/74 312) than those students without parents' support (17.5%, 1626/9270) (P < 0.05). And the prevalence was higher among students whose parents often took part in the physical activity (22.7%, 12 864/56 769) than those students whose parents did not (14.6%, 3 906/26 780) (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis (adjusted sex, age and urban or not) demonstrated that variables associated with physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day were the initiative will on the physical activity and parental physical activity (OR: 1.478, 95%CI: 1.398 - 1.562). The students without adequate physical education class in school were less likely to do physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day than those who with adequate physical education class in school (OR: 0.536, 95%CI: 0.523 - 0.550), and the students in the school with the phenomenon of "crowding out" or "no" physical education were less likely to do physical activity for a total of 60 minutes or more per day than those whose school without these with phenomenon (OR: 0.712, 95%CI: 0.666 - 0.761). The heavy homework burden (OR: 0.926, 95%CI: 0.899 - 0.953) and long homework time (OR: 0.879, 95%CI: 0.853 - 0.906) were reversely related to the physical activity. The prevalence of having been physically active for a total of 60 minutes per day in Chinese students is still low. The strong initiative will on the physical activity, parental physical activity, and better school sports atmosphere are good for students to carry out physical activity, and the students with the heavy homework burden and long homework time are less likely to take part in the physical activity.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 09/2012; 46(9):781-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the associations between behavioral risk factors and overweight and obesity among Chinese primary and middle school students in 2010. A total of 149 912 primary and middle school students aged 9 - 18 were selected from "2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" while underweight students excluded. Questionnaires and height, weight and other physical index were performed. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between overweight, obesity and sleep time, diet, physical exercise intention and behavior as well as sedentary behavior. Of students surveyed, the proportion of short sleep time was higher in obese students than in normal weight students, the prevalence of short sleep time was 93.60% (118 394/126 491), 94.39% (15 053/15 947) and 95.09% (6782/7132) in normal weight, overweight and obese students, respectively (P < 0.05); the proportion of egg intake with no more than 3 times per week was lower in obese students than in normal weight students (56.49% (4025/7125) vs 65.25% (82 518/126 464)) (P < 0.05); the proportion of never drinking milk was lower in obese students than in normal weight students (7.08% (505/7134) vs 7.55% (9 545/126 503)) (P < 0.05); and when compared with those of normal (29.53%, 37 354/126 482), more overweight students reported that they had spent 2 or more hours on homework (30.17%, 4 809/15 941) (P < 0.05). The proportions of physical activity intentions were significantly lower in obesity group of male students than those of normal male group, and the proportion of liking physical education, being willing to participate in the extracurricular sports activities, and being willing to participate long running exercise was 67.7% (4828/7134), 71.2% (5083/7135) and 35.9% (2560/7135) in obese students compared with 68.6% (86 776/126 511), 72.6% (91 814/126 509) and 47.4% (59 914/126 512) in normal weigh students, respectively. In the 13 - 15 age group, the proportion of having been physically active for a total of at least 60 minutes per day was lower in obese group (19.87%, 376/1893) than in normal group (20.66%, 8 253/39 941) (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that the students with short sleep time were more likely to get obesity than those without short sleep time (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.11, 95%CI: 1.00 - 1.25). Egg intake with no more than 3 times per week was negatively associated with the probabilities of being at risk for obesity (AOR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.83 - 0.92), while, never drinking milk was independently related to obesity (AOR: 1.14, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.25). Disliking physical education (AOR: 1.23, 95%CI: 1.16 - 1.30), unwilling to participate long running exercise (AOR: 2.16, 95%CI: 2.05 - 2.28) and spending 2 or more hours on homework (AOR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.15) were independently related to obesity. The patterns of influence factors in different groups were not alike. Overweight and obesity prevalence was higher in China's primary and middle school students in 2010, and the bad dietary behavior, static life style were highly interconnected.
    Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 09/2012; 46(9):789-95.

Publication Stats

134 Citations
47.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Peking University
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Institute of Child and Adolescent Health
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2010–2013
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Beijing Medical University
      • Institute of Child and Adolescent Health
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Peking University Health Science Center
      Peping, Beijing, China