[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, both in urban and rural areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited rigid data regarding children and adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. A national random controlled school-based obesity intervention program was developed in the mainland of China.
The study was designed as a national multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving more than 70,000 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years from 7 provinces in China. In each center, about 12-16 primary and secondary schools, with totally at least 10000 participants were randomly selected (Primary: Secondary = 1:1). All of the selected schools were randomly allocated to either intervention or control group (Intervention: Control = 1:1).The multi-components school-based and family-involved scheme was conducted within the intervention group for 9 month, while students in the control group followed their usual health practice. The intervention consisted of four components: a) Create supportive school and family environment, b) Health lifestyles education and related compulsory physical activities, c) Instruct and promote school physical education, d) Self-monitor obesity related behaviors. Four types of outcomes including anthropometric, behavioral, blood chemical and physical fitness were measured to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program.
This is the first and largest multi-centered school-based obesity intervention program with the consideration of geographical and social-demographic characteristics of the rapidly increased obesity prevalence of Chinese children and adolescent. The intervention is based on Social Cognitive Theory and Social-Ecological Model of Health, and follows a stepwise approach guided by PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) Model and Intervention Map. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based national childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China.
January 22, 2015;
BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1):1516. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1516-9 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Anthropometric indices of adiposity have been suggested to predict cardiovascular disease
(CVD) risk factors.
Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference
(WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) and to derive optimal thresholds for predicting CVD risk factors in Chinese children.
Methods: A total of 2563 children aged 8 –12 years were recruited in Guangzhou, China. Anthropometric
indices were measured in all participants. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP,
respectively), glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)
and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured in a subsample of 1609 children.
Results: In partial correlation analyses, the highest coefficients were found for WC in four risk factors
in both genders. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that WC was comparably
consistent among the best in predicting BP and risk factor clustering, WC and WSR were the best in predicting HDL-C and TG in boys; WC, slightly better than BMI, was the best in distinguishing high BP and risk factor clustering in girls. In contrast, WHR was consistently the poorest index in both genders. Optimal age- and gender-specific thresholds to identify individual and clustering risk factors were provided; the thresholds for WC were 57.4–80.4 cm and 55.8–69.6 cm in boys and girls, respectively.
Conclusions: WC was the comparatively consistent and best predictor of CVD risk factors compared
with WSR and BMI, although the differences were small and depended on the type of risk factor and
gender, and WHR was consistently the poorest predictor in Chinese children.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2015; DOI:10.5551/jat.31302 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Understanding trends in blood pressure (BP) in childhood is crucial to addressing and reducing the burden of adulthood hypertension and associated mortality in the future. In view of growing obesity in Chinese children, we sought to investigate the trends in BP and the influence of body mass index (BMI) on them.
Design, setting and participants We included 1 010 153 children aged 8–17 years, with completed records from a large national successive cross-sectional survey, the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health, between 1985 and 2010.
Main outcome measurements BP was measured according to the recommendation of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group, and the elevated BP was based on sex-, age- and height-specific 95th centile of the recommendation.
Results The adjusted mean systolic BP in boys and girls decreased by 3.9 and 5.6 mm Hg between 1985 and 2005, and increased by 1.3 and 1.0 mm Hg between 2005 and 2010, respectively. Corresponding adjusted prevalence of elevated systolic BP in boys and girls declined from 5.1% and 5.5% to 3.5% and 2.5% between 1985 and 2005, and increased to 4.9% and 3.5% in 2010, respectively. Adjusted mean BMI of boys and girls in 2010 was 2.0 and 1.2 kg/m2 higher than those in 1985, respectively. The prevalence of obesity rose from 0% to 3.4% in boys and 0.9% in girls. Further adjusting for BMI did not change these trends in systolic BP. A similar pattern was also observed in diastolic BP.
Conclusions After declining for 20 years, BP levels in Chinese children started to climb upwards. These trends in BP cannot be fully explained by BMI. The investigation of other determinants of BP may provide additional opportunity to curb the current upward BP trend in Chinese children.
BMJ Open 09/2015; 5(9):e009050. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009050 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in China and to examine the relationship between MetS and its associated early-life factors.
Data were collected using a standard parent/guardian questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Each participant underwent a complete anthropometric evaluation. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF; 2007) for children and adolescents.
Guangzhou, a large city in South China, September 2013.
A total of 1770 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study, including 913 girls (51.6 %) and 857 boys (48.4 %).
The overall prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents was 1.1% (n,19), which was higher in boys
(1.4 %) than in girls (0.8 %). Multivariate analysis indicated that high birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (OR=2·86; 95 % CI 1.62, 5.06) and MetS (OR=3.61; 95 % CI 1.33, 9.82). Furthermore, >6 months of maternal breast-feeding was inversely associated with MetS (OR=0.39;95 %
CI 0.16, 0.98).
Based on IDF criteria, the prevalence of MetS among southern Chinese children was significantly lower than that in other populations. High birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity and MetS, and breast-feeding for longer than 6 months was inversely associated with MetS in South China
Public Health Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015002542 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown.
To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010.
We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis.
In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period.
A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.
Global Health Action 07/2015; 8(26929). DOI:10.3402/gha.v8.26929 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2) encodes a protein that has a biological effect on regulation of adipocyte metabolism and body weight. This study aimed to investigate the association of INSIG2 gene -102G>A polymorphism with obesity related phenotypes in Chinese children and test gender-specific effects. Methods. The 2,030 independent individuals aged from 7 to 18 years, including 705 obese cases and 1,325 nonobese controls, were recruited from local schools. We measured the obesity-related phenotypes and detected the serum lipids. We genotype -102G>A polymorphism by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results. In all individuals, we found that the GG/GA genotype of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism was associated with risk of severe obesity (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.36, and P = 0.012) under the dominant model. The association with severe obesity existed only in boys (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15-3.17, P = 0.012). The GG/GA genotype of -102G>A polymorphism was also associated with higher waist circumference (β = 2.61 cm, P = 0.031) in boys. No similar association was found in girls. The polymorphism was not associated with other obesity-related phenotypes, neither in all individuals nor in gender-specific population. Conclusions. This study identified a gender-specific effect of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism on risk of severe obesity and waist circumference in Chinese boys.
International Journal of Endocrinology 07/2015; 2015:872506. DOI:10.1155/2015/872506 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated.
Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated.
The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups.
Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight.
The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender.
The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ(2) values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of expecting to be fatter in males was higher than that in females ((42.9% (79/184) vs 23.2% (51/220)) (χ(2) = 17.91, P < 0.001). The concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P < 0.001). The factors including parents expecting their children to be thinner, the negative attitude on less drinking sugary beverages and having breakfast per day might increase the risks of children expecting to be thinner in males, the OR (95% CI) value were 5.20 (1.51-17.89), 3.43 (1.11-10.59), and 6.53(1.14-37.58), respectively. The parents expecting their children to be fatter might increase the risk of children expecting to be fatter in males, the OR (95% CI) value were 7.57 (3.47-16.52). The factors including parents expecting their children to be thinner, and the positive attitude on less eating high calorie snacks might increase the risk of children expecting to be thinner in females, the OR (95% CI) value were 65.74 (8.45-511.21) and 3.03 (1.01-9.09), respectively. The parents expecting their children to be thinner or fatter might increase the risk of children expecting to be fatter in females, the OR (95% CI) value were 17.38 (1.53-197.74) and 9.64 (3.98-23.35), respectively.
The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among students with normal weight was high, and the concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between themselves and their parents was low. Guiding students to have the correct cognitive attitude on less drinking sugary beverages, having breakfast per day, and less eating high calorie snacks may be conducive to prevent body image dissatisfaction.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 05/2015; 49(5):411-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the differences in anthropometric measurements between Mongolia and Han girls and understand the characteristics of their physical development in two ethnic groups.
The data on anthropometric measurements of Mongolia and Han girls aged 9-17 years in Inner Mongolia were obtained from the Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) in 2010, and the data included body height, sitting height, chest circumference, weight, triceps skinfold thickness (TST), scapular skinfold thickness (SST), abdominal skinfold thickness (AST), and having menarche or not. The girls were divided into two groups according to having menarche or not, and the differences in anthropometric measurements between Mongolia and Han girls were analyzed for the two groups, respectively.
The proportions of Mongolia girls (9-17 years) who have experienced menarche was higher than that of Han girls (67.6%,1 049/1 553) vs (62.9%,1 837/2 922) (χ(2) = 9.17, P = 0.002). In girls without menarche (9-14 years), sitting height, AST, and BMI in Mongolia girls was 0.5 cm, 1.6 mm, and 0.4 kg/m(2), respectively, which were higher than those in Han girls (all P < 0.05). In girls who have experienced menarche (11-17 years), height and SST in Han girls was 0.8 cm, and 1.0 mm, respectively, which were higher than those in Mongolia girls (all P values < 0.01); TST, AST and BMI in Mongolia girls were 0.9 mm, 2.9 mm, and 0.3 kg/m(2), respectively, which were higher than those in Han girls (all P values < 0.05), respectively.
Body AST and BMI in Mongolia girls are higher than those in Han girls, while body height in Han girls is better than that in Mongolia girls after menarche. The differences of physical development between Mongolia girls and Han girls might be different before and after experiencing menarche.
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] 04/2015; 49(4):374-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the correlation between children and adolescents' body shape parameters and parent's dissatisfaction on it.
Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select students and their parents, and height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), skinfold thichness of the students were measured. Body image from parents was studied through the 'Ma body figural shape'. Correlation between body shape parameters and dissatisfaction towards them from the parents was analyzed under both simple- and multiple-level methods.
The overall prevalence of dissatisfaction on body-shapes from parents was 69.0%, including 28.6% of the parents expecting children to be fat (PEBF) while, 40.4% of the parents expecting their children to be thin (PEBT). In males, parameters as height, weight, WC, HC, skin fold thickness, BMI in PEBT were 1.9 cm, 11.9 kg, 13.2 cm, 8.8 cm, 32.3 mm, 4.7 kg/m(2) respectively, all higher than the satisfaction from the parents (PBIS) (all P < 0.05), and these parameters were 2.3 cm, 7.1 kg, 7.2 cm, 5.8 cm, 14.1 mm, 2.3 kg/m(2) higher in PBIS than that of PEBF, respectively (all P < 0.05). In females, parameters as weight, WC, HC, skinfold thickness, BMI in PEBT appeared to be 8.6 kg, 9.1 cm, 6.6 cm, 21.9 mm, 3.5 kg/m(2) higher than that of PBIS (all P < 0.01), and were 5.5 kg, 5.9 cm, 5.4 cm, 10.4 mm, 1.8 kg/m(2) higher in PBIS than that of PEBF, respectively, plus the difference of height was 3.6 cm more (P < 0.01). Differences of body shape on parameters between PEBT and PBIS were larger in primary school students than in middle school students. However, the differences of body shape parameters between PBIS and PEBF appeared higher in middle school students than in primary school male students, but were higher in female students in primary than in middle school students.
The prevalence of body dissatisfaction related to children and adolscents' body shape parameters from parents was high. Parents in the PEBT group seemed to have paid more attention to children's body shape parameters at low age. However, parents in PEBF group might have paid more attention to children's body shape parameters at high age in males or at low age in females.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 04/2015; 36(4):318-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen the coding region of melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) for mutations in children, analyze the association of the identified variants with obesity-related phenotypes, and predict the potential functions of the identified variants.
A case-control study was conducted in 160 severely obese children and 100 normal-weight controls, all aged 7-18 years. Their anthropometric data were collected and blood tests were performed. The coding region of MC4R gene was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing, and the potential functions of the identified variants were predicted by related online databases.
Three heterozygous missense mutations were identified in obese children (Val95Ile, Val166Ile and Val179Ala), and one heterozygous missense mutation was found in controls (Met218Thr). Val103Ile variant was found to be carried by seven subjects in the obese group and six in the control group (P>0.05). Val179Ala was a newly identified heterozygous mutation. No significant differences in BMI, weight, waist circumstance, hip circumstance, serum lipid parameters, fasting glucose, and body fat percentage were found between Val95Ile, Val166Ile or Val179Ala mutation carriers and non-carriers in obese children. The function prediction of the variants showed that all the five identified variants influenced the protein function.
Five variants were identified in the coding region of MC4R gene, among which Val179Ala was newly identified. All the five variants might influence the protein function as evidenced by online prediction.
Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics 04/2015; 17(4):356-361. DOI:10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2015.04.013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the difference in anthropometric measurements between Mongolia boys and Han boys in China and understand the characteristics of children's physical development in two ethnic groups.
The data on anthropometric measurements of Mongolia boys and Han boys in Inner Mongolia were obtained from the National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) conducted in 2010, the data included body height, sitting height, chest circumference, body weight, triceps skinfold thickness (TST), scapular skinfold thickness (SST), abdominal skinfold thickness (AST), living area (urban area or rural area), and having spermatorrhea or not. The boys in two ethnic groups were divided into two groups according to the data about spermatorrhea, the living area specific difference in the anthropometric measurements between the boys in two ethnic groups were analyzed.
The proportions of Han boys having spermatorrhea at 11, 12, 14 years old (0, 3.2% , 62.5%) were higher than those of Mongolia boys (8.1%, 15.3%, 76.0%, all P < 0.05). In the boys who had had no spermatorrhea (11-14 years old), the body height of Han boys was 1.4 cm higher than that of Mongolia boys (P < 0.01), however, there were no significant differences in sitting height, chest circumference, body weight, TST, SST,AST and BMI between Han boys and Mongolia boys (all P > 0.05). In the boys who had had spermatorrhea (12-17 years old), the body height, sitting height, chest circumference, body weight, SST, BMI of Han boys were 1.8 cm,0.6 cm, 3.1 cm, 3.1 kg, 1.7 mm and 0.7 kg/m(2) higher than those of Mongolia boys, respectively (all P < 0.05), however, the differences in TST and AST between Han boys and Mongolia boys were not statistical significant (all P > 0.05).
The body height of Han boys might be higher than that of Mongolia boys, and in those who had had spermatorrhea, the sitting height, chest circumference, body weight, SST and BMI of Han boys might be higher than those of Mongolia boys, the differences in anthropometric measurements between Mongolia boys and Han boys who had had spermatorrhea or not might be different.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 02/2015; 36(2):167-71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity has been a serious public health problem. An effective school-based physical activity (PA) intervention is still lacking in China. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention during 12 weeks on obesity and related health outcomes in school children.
It was a non-randomized controlled trial. Altogether 921 children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited at baseline survey. Children in the intervention group (n = 388) participated in a multi-component physical activity intervention during 12 weeks that included improvement of physical education, extracurricular physical activities for overweight/obese students, physical activities at home, and health education lectures for students and parents. Children (n = 533) in the control group participated in usual practice.
Participants had mean age of 10.4 years, mean body mass index (BMI) of 19.59 kg/m2, and 36.8 % of them were overweight or obese at baseline survey. The change in BMI in intervention group (-0.02 +/- 0.06 kg/m2) was significantly different from that in control group (0.41 +/- 0.08 kg/m2). The adjusted mean difference was -0.43 kg/m2 (95%CI: -0.63 to -0.23 kg/m2, P < 0.001). The effects on triceps, subscapular, abdominal skinfold thickness and fasting glucose were also significant in intervention group compared with control group (all P < 0.05). The change in duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in intervention group (8.9 +/- 4.3 min/day) was significantly different from that in control group (-13.8 +/- 3.3 min/day). The adjusted mean difference was 22.7 min/day (95%CI: 12.2 to 33.2 min/day, P < 0.001).
The school-based, multi-component physical activity intervention was effective to decreasing levels of BMI, skinfold thickness, fasting glucose and increasing duration of MVPA. These findings provided evidence for the development of effective and feasible school-based obesity interventions.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02074332 (2014-02-26).
BMC Public Health 12/2014; 14(1):1282. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1282 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three genome-wide association studies were previously done for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among individuals of western countries and identified several genetic variants associated with NAFLD. The study aimed to identify whether seven GWAS-identified common variants (GCKR rs780094, PDGFA rs343064, FDFT1 rs2645424, COL13A1 rs1227756, EHBP1L1 rs6591182, NCAN rs2228603, PNPLA3 rs738409) were associated with NAFLD in Chinese children.
The case-control study recruited 1,027 Chinese children aged 7 to 18, including 162 children with NAFLD and 865 children without NAFLD. Anthropometric measurements, alanine transaminase (ALT) detection, liver ultrasound examination and genotyping of 7 variants were performed.
The G-allele of PNPLA3 rs738409 was associated with NAFLD (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.13-2.11, P = 0.006) and moderate to severe steatosis (OR = 3.77, 95%CI: 1.78-7.98, P = 0.001) adjusted for age, gender and BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS). Additionally we found each G-allele of rs738409 increased ALT level by 1.09 IU/L (P = 0.011). Subjects carrying 10 or more risk alleles of 7 variants had an odds ratio of 4.76 (P = 0.025) for NAFLD compared with subjects carrying 3 or fewer risk alleles.
The PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele was associated with NAFLD and ALT level in Chinese children. It had stronger association with moderate to severe steatosis. Children carrying 10 or more risk alleles of 7 variants were susceptible for NAFLD.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 12/2014; 60(5). DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000662 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BAR (Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs) domain undergoes dimerization to produce a curved protein structure, which superimposes onto membrane through electrostatic interactions to sense and impart membrane curvature. In some cases, a BAR domain also possesses an amphipathic helix that inserts into the membrane to induce curvature. ACAP1 (Arfgap with Coil coil, Ankyrin repeat, and PH domain protein 1) contains a BAR domain. Here, we show that this BAR domain can neither bind membrane nor impart curvature, but instead requires a neighboring PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domain to achieve these functions. Specific residues within the PH domain are responsible for both membrane binding and curvature generation. The BAR domain adjacent to the PH domain instead interacts with the BAR domains of neighboring ACAP1 proteins to enable clustering at the membrane. Thus, we have uncovered the molecular basis for an unexpected and unconventional collaboration between PH and BAR domains in membrane bending.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To estimate the shifts in age at menarche from 1985 to 2010, compare the differences of average age at menarche between urban and rural groups, and determine the association of menarche with body mass index (BMI).
The data were obtained from 4 cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1995, 2005, and 2010). In this representative sample of Chinese school-aged girls, the average age at menarche was determined using probit analysis and compared between urban and rural areas. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of BMI with the likelihood of having reached menarche.
The age at menarche in Chinese girls dropped from 13.41 years to 12.47 years from 1985 to 2010. There was a significant difference in age at menarche between urban and rural girls over time, with urban girls having their menarche earlier than rural girls. Logistic regression showed that a higher BMI was strongly associated with an increased likelihood of having reached menarche, even after controlling for age, urban or rural residence, province, social economic status, and school.
The analysis suggests a drop of about 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche over the past 25 years, and a significant inverse association between BMI and having reached menarche. Considering that both early menarche and higher BMI are significant risk factors for chronic diseases, and may act together in later years to the detriment of a woman's health, greater attention should be paid to the health of girls with earlier menarche and higher BMI.
Journal of Pediatrics 09/2014; 165(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.08.013 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The committed step of leucine biosynthesis, converting acetyl-CoA and α-ketoisovalerate into α-isopropylmalate, is catalyzed
by α-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS), an allosteric enzyme subjected to feedback inhibition by the end product l-leucine. We characterized the short form IPMS from Leptospira biflexa (LbIPMS2), which exhibits a catalytic activity comparable with that of the long form IPMS (LbIPMS1) and has a similar N-terminal domain followed by subdomain I and subdomain II but lacks the whole C-terminal regulatory
domain. We found that partial deletion of the regulatory domain of LbIPMS1 resulted in a loss of about 50% of the catalytic activity; however, when the regulatory domain was deleted up to Arg-385,
producing a protein that is almost equivalent to the intact LbIPMS2, about 90% of the activity was maintained. Moreover, in LbIPMS2 or LbIPMS1, further deletion of several residues from the C terminus of subdomain II significantly impaired or completely abolished
the catalytic activity, respectively. These results define a complete and independently functional catalytic module of IPMS
consisting of both the N-terminal domain and the two subdomains. Structural comparison of LbIPMS2 and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis IPMS revealed two different conformations of subdomain II that likely represent two substrate-binding states related to cooperative
catalysis. The biochemical and structural analyses together with the previously published hydrogen-deuterium exchange data
led us to propose a conformation transition mechanism for feedback inhibition mediated by subdomains I and II that might associated
with alteration of the binding affinity toward acetyl-CoA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.559716 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The purpose of this study was to explore an objective measure to assess actual body shape of children and adolescents in China.
Based on the Chinese National Survey on Student's Constitution and Health (CNSSCH) in 2005, 210 927 children and adolescents' (7-18 years) body height, body weight, chest circumference, sitting height, chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height ratio, chest circumference-low limb ratio, and sitting height-low limb ratio measurements were used to develop an objective measure by using transformation variables and explored factor analysis (EFA). Discrimination power of the objective measure was evaluated based on BMI reference and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves (ROC).
The objective measure included four dimensions scores: transverse dimension (TD) indicating weight and chest circumference; length dimension (LD) indicating height and sitting height; transverse-length ratio dimension (TLD) indicating chest circumference-height ratio, chest circumference-sitting height and chest circumference-low limb ratio; proportion dimension (PD) indicating sitting height-low limb ratio. The whole dimension (WD) indicating the whole body shape was showed by the average of four dimensions scores. Four dimensions and WD scores were approximately 80 in children and adolescents with normal weight, and higher than those of overweight, obesity, and underweight (all P-values <0.001). Areas under ROC of overweight and obesity compared with normal weight ranged from 0.88 to 1.00 for scores of TD, TLD, and WD.
The objective measure which included four dimensions was explored, and TD, TLD, and WD had significant discrimination power.