John C Davis

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (59)416.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To 1) describe the distribution of patient global assessment (PtGA) scores of disease activity in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; Wegener's), 2) explore the discordance between PtGA scores and physician global assessment (PhGA) scores of disease activity, and 3) explore whether PtGA scores during disease remission are associated with future disease relapse. Data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) were used. PtGA and PhGA scores were assessed on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS). Presence of active disease was determined using the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for WG (BVAS/WG), and remission was defined as a BVAS/WG score of 0. Disease relapse was defined as a BVAS/WG score of >0 after remission had been achieved. Discordance between PtGA and PhGA scores was defined as a difference of ≥20 points between the two measures. Mixed linear models were used in longitudinal analysis of PtGA scores. Data were obtained from 180 patients in the WGET cohort, seen at a total of 1,719 study visits. The mean ± SD PtGA and PhGA disease activity scores (on 100-mm VAS) at baseline were 64.2 ± 27.4 and 55.5 ± 23.4, respectively. PtGA-PhGA discordance occurred in 53% of patients at baseline, and this was inversely associated with newly diagnosed disease (as opposed to relapsing disease) at baseline (odds ratio 0.37, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.20-0.68) but not with age, sex, or presence of renal or pulmonary disease. Patients were in disease remission during 62% of the study visits. The mean PtGA score during visits immediately prior to relapse was 4.52 points higher (95% CI 0.66-8.4) than that at other remission visits (P = 0.03). PtGA-PhGA discordance is common in GPA. A rise in the PtGA disease activity score during times defined by physicians as periods of remission is associated with subsequent occurrence of disease relapse. These findings support the addition of PtGA as an outcome measure for GPA.
    Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 02/2014; 66(2):428-32.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Functional limitations in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) may be due to peripheral joint or axial involvement. To determine if the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI ), an axial-focused measure, can detect limitations related to peripheral joint involvement equally well as the Health Assessment Questionnaire modified for the Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S ), a peripheral arthritis-focused measure, and vice versa, we compared associations of each questionnaire with spinal and hip range of motion, peripheral arthritis, and enthesitis in patients with AS. METHODS: We examined patients every 4 to 6 months in this prospective longitudinal study. We used mixed linear models to examine associations between ten physical examination measures and the BASFI and HAQ-S. RESULTS: We studied 411 patients for a median of 1.5 years (3 visits ). In multivariate analyses, cervical rotation, chest expansion, lateral thoracolumbar flexion, hip motion, tender joint count, and tender enthesis count were equally strongly associated with the BASFI and HAQ-S. Peripheral joint swelling was more strongly associated with the HAQ-S. Individual items of the BASFI were more likely than items of the HAQ-S to be associated with unrelated physical exam measures (e.g. association between difficulty rising from a chair and cervical rotation ), which may have diminished the axial/peripheral distinction for the BASFI. CONCLUSIONS: The BASFI and HAQ-S had similar associations with impairments in axial measures, while the HAQ-S had stronger associations with the number of swollen peripheral joints. The HAQ-S should be considered for use in studies focused on spondyloarthritis with peripheral joint involvement. © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis care & research. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE.: Radiographic damage and functional limitations both increase with the duration of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We examined whether radiographic damage contributed more to functional limitations in late AS than in early AS, and if the strength of association varied with the anatomic region of damage. METHODS.: In this cross-sectional study of 801 patients with AS, we examined associations of the lumbar modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS), cervical mSASSS, lumbar posterior fusion, cervical posterior fusion, and hip arthritis with the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-S). RESULTS.: Higher lumbar and cervical mSASSS were associated with more functional limitations, but there was an interaction between mSASSS and the duration of AS such that the strength of their association with functional limitations decreased with increasing duration of AS. Cervical posterior fusion was associated with worse functioning independent of mSASSS. Hip arthritis was significantly associated with functional limitations independent of measures of spinal damage. Among patients with AS ≥ 40 years, the number of comorbid conditions accounted for most of the variation in functioning. Results were similar for both the BASFI and HAQ-S. CONCLUSIONS.: Although both radiographic damage and functional limitations increase over time in AS, the relative contribution of radiographic damage to functional limitations is lower among patients with long-standing AS than early AS, suggesting patients may accommodate to limited flexibility. Damage in different skeletal regions impacts functioning over the duration of AS. Functional limitations due to comorbidity supervene in late AS.
    Arthritis care & research. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) is a rare autoimmune neutrophil-mediated vasculitis that can cause renal disease and mucosal manifestations. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are present in many patients, vary in level over time, and induce neutrophil activation through engagement with Fc receptors (FcRs). Given roles for FcRs in ANCA-mediated neutrophil activation and IgA antibodies in mucosal immunity, we hypothesized that FcR genetics and previously unappreciated IgA ANCA affect clinical presentation. We assembled a total of 673 patients and 413 controls from two multicenter cohorts, performed ELISA and immunofluorescence assays to determine IgA and IgG ANCA positivity, and used Illumina, TaqMan, or Pyrosequencing to genotype eight haplotype-tagging SNPs in the IgA FcR (FCAR) and to determine NA1/NA2 genotype of FCGR3B, the most prevalent neutrophil IgG FcR. We evaluated neutrophil activation by measuring degranulation marker CD11b with flow cytometry or neutrophil extracellcular trap formation with confocal microscopy. Functional polymorphisms in FCGR3B and FCAR differed between patient groups stratified by renal involvement. IgA ANCA were found in ∼30% of patients and were less common in patients with severe renal disease. Neutrophil stimulation by IgA or IgG ANCA led to degranulation and neutrophil extracellcular trap formation in a FcR allele-specific manner (IgA:FCAR P = 0.008; IgG:FCGR3B P = 0.003). When stimulated with IgA and IgG ANCA together, IgG ANCA induced neutrophil activation was reduced (P = 0.0001). FcR genotypes, IgA ANCA, and IgG ANCA are potential prognostic and therapeutic targets for understanding the pathogenesis and presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's).
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2011; 108(51):20736-41. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard treatment for severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) is daily oral cyclophosphamide (CYC), a cytotoxic agent associated with ovarian failure. In this study, we assessed the rate of diminished ovarian reserve in women with GPA who received CYC versus methotrexate (MTX). Patients in the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial received either daily CYC or weekly MTX and were randomized to etanercept or placebo. For all women ages <50 years, plasma samples taken at baseline or early in the study were evaluated against samples taken later in the study to compare levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), endocrine markers of remaining egg supply. Diminished ovarian reserve was defined as an AMH level of <1.0 ng/ml. Of 42 women in this analysis (mean age 35 years), 24 had CYC exposure prior to enrollment and 28 received the drug during the study. At study entry, women with prior CYC exposure had significantly lower AMH, higher FSH, and a higher rate of early menstruation cessation. For women with normal baseline ovarian function, 6 of 8 who received CYC during the trial developed diminished ovarian reserve, compared to 0 of 4 who did not receive CYC (P < 0.05). Changes in AMH correlated inversely with cumulative CYC dose (P < 0.01), with a 0.74 ng/ml decline in AMH level for each 10 gm of CYC. Daily oral CYC, even when administered for less than 6 months, causes diminished ovarian reserve, as indicated by low AMH levels. These data highlight the need for alternative treatments for GPA in women of childbearing age.
    Arthritis care & research. 12/2011; 63(12):1777-81.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess a generic measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as an outcome measure in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). Subjects were participants in the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) or the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Longitudinal Study (VCRC-LS). HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey that includes physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). Disease activity was assessed with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG). The data from 180 subjects in the WGET (median followup 2.3 years, mean number of visits 10) and 237 subjects in the VCRC-LS (median followup 2.0 years, mean number of visits 8) were analyzed. A 1 unit increase in the BVAS/WG corresponded to a 1.15 unit (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02, 1.29) decrease for the PCS and a 0.93 (95% CI 0.78, 1.07) decrease for the MCS in the WGET, and to a 1.16 unit decrease for the PCS (95% CI 0.94, 1.39) and a 0.79 unit decrease for the MCS (95% CI 0.51, 1.39) in the VCRC-LS. In both arms of the WGET study, SF-36 measures improved rapidly during the first 6 weeks of treatment followed by gradual improvement among patients achieving sustained remission (0.5 improvement in PCS per 3 months), but worsened slightly (0.03 decrease in PCS every 3 months) among patients not achieving sustained remission (P = 0.005). HRQOL, as measured by the SF-36, is reduced among patients with GPA. SF-36 measures are modestly associated with other disease outcomes and discriminate between disease states of importance in GPA.
    Arthritis care & research. 09/2011; 64(2):273-9.
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    ABSTRACT: An association between therapeutic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and solid malignancies was observed during the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET), which included 180 patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). The present study was conducted to determine the malignancy risk beyond the time of exposure to study therapy. The occurrence and type of solid malignancies were ascertained using a standardized data form. Data collected included vital status, histologic findings, and therapeutic interventions. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database was used to estimate a standardized incidence rate (SIR) for solid malignancies. Post-trial followup data were available for 153 patients (85% of the original cohort), with a median followup time of 43 months. Fifty percent of these patients had received etanercept. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the etanercept and placebo groups. Thirteen new solid malignancies were detected, 8 in the etanercept group and 5 in the placebo group. Compared to the general population, the risk of solid malignancies in the etanercept group was increased (SIR 3.92 [95% confidence interval 1.69-7.72]), but was not different from the risk in the placebo group compared to the general population (SIR 2.89 [95% confidence interval 0.94-6.73]). All solid malignancies occurred in patients who had been exposed to cyclophosphamide. The overall duration of disease and a history of malignancy before trial enrollment were associated with the development of malignancy during post-trial followup. The incidence of solid malignancy remained increased during long-term followup of the WGET cohort. However, this could not be attributed solely to etanercept exposure during the trial. Anti-TNF therapy with etanercept appears to further increase the risk of malignancy observed in patients with GPA treated with cytotoxic agents and should be avoided in these patients.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 04/2011; 63(8):2495-503. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To create a prognostic tool to quantify the 5-year cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with newly diagnosed Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) without premorbid CV disease. We reviewed CV outcomes during the long-term followup of patients in the first 4 European Vasculitis Study Group (EUVAS) trials of WG and MPA. CV events were defined as CV death, stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, or percutaneous coronary intervention. Logistic regression was performed to create a model to predict the absolute risk of a CV event. The model was tested using the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) cohort. Seventy-four (13.8%) of 535 patients with 5 years of followup from the EUVAS trials had at least 1 CV event: 33 (11.7%) of 281 WG versus 41 (16.1%) of 254 MPA. The independent determinants of CV outcomes were older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.11-1.90), diastolic hypertension (OR 1.97, 95% CI 0.98-3.95), and positive proteinase 3 (PR3) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) status (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.74). The model was validated using the WGET cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80). Within 5 years of diagnosis of WG or MPA, 14% of patients will have a CV event. We have constructed and validated a tool to quantify the risk of a CV event based on age, diastolic hypertension, and PR3 ANCA status in patients without prior CV disease. In patients with vasculitis, PR3 ANCA is associated with a reduced CV risk compared to myeloperoxidase ANCA or negative ANCA status.
    Arthritis care & research. 04/2011; 63(4):588-96.
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    ABSTRACT: There remains a need for biomarkers to guide therapy in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Our objective was to determine whether measures of platelet activation or inflammation are associated with disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Study subjects were participants in a clinical trial. Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), P-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and proteinase 3 (PR3)-specific ANCA were measured by ELISA using plasma samples obtained at baseline (active disease), at remission, and prior to, during, and after first flares. Disease activity was assessed by the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for WG (BVAS/WG). Association of biomarkers with disease activity was determined with conditional logistic and linear regression. Over a mean followup of 27 months, 180 subjects underwent 2044 visits; markers were measured in 563 samples. Longitudinally, all markers other than IL-6 were associated with disease activity. The strongest associations for active disease at baseline versus remission were observed for sCD40L (OR 4.72, 95% CI 2.47-9.03), P-selectin (OR 6.26, 95% CI 2.78-14.10), PR3-ANCA (OR 9.41, 4.03-21.99), and inversely for MCP-1 (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.57). BVAS/WG increased by 0.80 (95% CI 0.44-1.16), 0.83 (95% CI 0.42-1.25), and 0.81 (95% CI 0.48-1.15) per unit-increase in PR3-ANCA, sCD40L, and P-selectin, respectively; and decreased by 1.54 (95% CI 0.96-2.12) per unit-increase in MCP-1. Cytokines arising from within the circulation, including those of platelet activation, correlate with disease activity in WG.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 03/2011; 38(6):1048-54. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To re-examine the patterns of radiographic involvement in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This prospective study had institutional review board approval, and 769 patients with AS (556 men, 213 women; mean age, 47.1 years; age range, 18-87 years) provided written informed consent. Radiographs of the cervical spine, lumbar spine, pelvis, and hips were scored by using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) by an experienced radiologist. Differences in sacroiliitis grade between right and left sacroiliac joints, frequency of cervical- and lumbar-predominant involvement by sex, frequency of progression to complete spinal fusion, and association between hip arthritis and spinal involvement were computed for the cohort overall and for subgroups defined according to duration of AS in 10-year increments. Symmetric sacroiliitis was seen in 86.1% of patients. Lumbar predominance was more common during the first 20 years of the disease, after which the cervical spine and lumbar spine were equally involved. Men and women were equally likely to have cervical-predominant involvement. Complete spinal fusion was observed in 27.9% of patients with AS for more than 30 years and in 42.6% of patients with AS for more than 40 years. Patients with BASRI hip scores of 2 or greater had significantly higher BASRI spine scores. There were no sex differences in cervical-predominant involvement in AS. Hip arthritis was strongly associated with worse spinal involvement.
    Radiology 10/2010; 258(1):192-8. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of psychological variables in self-reported disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), while controlling for demographic and medical variables. Patients with AS (n = 294) meeting modified New York criteria completed psychological measures evaluating depression, resilience, active and passive coping, internality, and helplessness. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine the strength of the correlation of psychological variables with disease activity, as measured by the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). In the multivariate regression analysis, the psychological variables contributed significantly to the variance in BASDAI scores, adding an additional 33% to the overall R-square beyond that accounted for by demographic and medical variables (combined R-square 18%). Specifically, arthritis helplessness and depression accounted for the most significant portion of the variance in BASDAI scores in the final model. Arthritis helplessness and depression accounted for significant variability in self-reported disease activity beyond clinical and demographic variables in patients with AS. These findings have important clinical implications in the treatment and monitoring of disease activity in AS, and suggest potential avenues of intervention.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 02/2010; 37(4):829-34. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify susceptibility loci for ankylosing spondylitis, we undertook a genome-wide association study in 2,053 unrelated ankylosing spondylitis cases among people of European descent and 5,140 ethnically matched controls, with replication in an independent cohort of 898 ankylosing spondylitis cases and 1,518 controls. Cases were genotyped with Illumina HumHap370 genotyping chips. In addition to strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; P < 10(-800)), we found association with SNPs in two gene deserts at 2p15 (rs10865331; combined P = 1.9 x 10(-19)) and 21q22 (rs2242944; P = 8.3 x 10(-20)), as well as in the genes ANTXR2 (rs4333130; P = 9.3 x 10(-8)) and IL1R2 (rs2310173; P = 4.8 x 10(-7)). We also replicated previously reported associations at IL23R (rs11209026; P = 9.1 x 10(-14)) and ERAP1 (rs27434; P = 5.3 x 10(-12)). This study reports four genetic loci associated with ankylosing spondylitis risk and identifies a major role for the interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-1 cytokine pathways in disease susceptibility.
    Nature Genetics 02/2010; 42(2):123-7. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) diagnosis is often delayed. The availability of effective biologic agents for treating AS has increased the importance of early diagnosis. We tested questions derived from a comprehensive literature review and an advisory board in a case-control study designed to identify patients with AS from among patients with chronic back pain (CBP). Question items were cognitively tested among patients with AS, and then in case-control studies for validation and creation of a scoring algorithm and question item reduction. AS cases were recruited from a known database, and CBP subjects (controls) were recruited from clinics, employers, and from the SpineUniverse Web site. We used individual question items in a multivariate framework to discriminate between people with and without AS. Forty-three questions yielded 24 items for analyses; 12 of these were entered into a multivariate regression model. Individual items yielded odds ratios ranging from 0.07 to 30.31. Question items with a significant positive relationship to AS included male sex, neck or hip pain/stiffness, longer pain duration, decreased pain/stiffness with daily physical activity, pain relief within 48 hours of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and diagnosis of iritis. The tool demonstrated a sensitivity of 67.4 and a specificity of 94.6. The tool was developed from clinically and radiologically diagnosed AS cases and therefore is designed to distinguish AS cases among CBP subjects. In addition, approximately 54% of the AS cases in the study were treated with biologic agents, which may impact questionnaire responses. This tool can identify undiagnosed patients with AS and, potentially, those at an earlier stage in their disease course.
    Arthritis care & research. 01/2010; 62(1):19-27.
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    ABSTRACT: Functional status is an integral component of health-related quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of psychological variables in self-reported functional limitation in patients with AS, while controlling for demographic and medical variables. 294 AS patients meeting modified New York Criteria completed psychological measures evaluating depression, resilience, active and passive coping, internality and helplessness at the baseline visit. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine the strength of correlation of psychological variables with functional limitation, as measured by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI). In the multivariate regression analysis, the psychological variables contributed significantly to the variance in BASFI scores, adding an additional 24% to the overall R-square beyond that accounted by demographic and medical variables (R-square 32%), resulting in a final R-square of 56%. Specifically, arthritis helplessness, depression and passive coping beside age, ESR and the Bath AS Radiograph Index accounted for a significant portion of the variance in BASFI scores in the final model. Arthritis helplessness, depression, and passive coping accounted for significant variability in self-reported functional limitation beyond demographic and clinical variables in patients with AS. Psychological health should be examined and accounted for when assessing functional status in the AS patients.
    Arthritis research & therapy 12/2009; 11(6):R182. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To improve prognostic ability in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), we sought to identify demographic, clinical, and immunogenetic characteristics associated with radiographic severity in a large cohort of patients. Patients with AS for > or =20 years were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n = 398). Pelvic and spinal radiographs were scored using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index for the spine (BASRI-s), and radiographic severity was measured as the BASRI-s/duration of AS. Clinical factors and HLA-B, DR, DQ, and DP alleles associated with the highest quartile of the distribution of radiographic severity were identified by first using random forests and then using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Similar procedures were used to identify factors associated with the lowest quartile of radiographic severity. Radiographic severity (being in the top quartile of BASRI-s/duration of AS) was associated with older age at onset of AS (odds ratio [OR] 1.10 per year), male sex (OR 1.90), current smoker (OR 4.72), and the presence of HLA-B*4100 (OR 11.73), DRB1*0804 (OR 12.32), DQA1*0401 (OR 5.24), DQB1*0603 (OR 3.42), and DPB1*0202 (OR 23.36), whereas the presence of DRB1*0801 was strongly negatively associated (OR 0.03). Being in the lowest quartile of BASRI-s/duration of AS was also less likely among those with an older age at onset of AS (OR 0.94 per year), men (OR 0.28), and current smokers (OR 0.29). The accuracy of the prognosis of radiographic severity in AS is improved by knowing the age at disease onset, sex, smoking history, and the presence of HLA-B*4100, DRB1*0804, DQA1*0401, DQB1*0603, DRB1*0801, and DPB1*0202 alleles.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 07/2009; 61(7):859-66. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of golimumab in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the GO-RAISE study. Patients with active AS, a Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score > or =4, and a back pain score of > or =4 were randomly assigned in a 1.8:1.8:1 ratio to receive subcutaneous injections of golimumab (50 mg or 100 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with at least 20% improvement in the ASsessment in AS (ASAS20) criteria at week 14. At randomization, 138, 140, and 78 patients were assigned to the 50-mg, 100-mg, and placebo groups, respectively. After 14 weeks, 59.4%, 60.0%, and 21.8% of patients, respectively, were ASAS20 responders (P < 0.001). A 40% improvement in the ASAS criteria at week 24 occurred in 43.5%, 54.3%, and 15.4% of patients, respectively. Patients receiving golimumab also showed significant improvement in the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire score, the BASDAI score, and the Bath AS Functional Index score, but not the Bath AS Metrology Index score. Through week 24, 85.6% of golimumab-treated patients and 76.6% of patients in the placebo group had > or =1 adverse event, and 5.4% and 6.5% of patients, respectively, had > or =1 serious adverse event. Eight golimumab-treated patients and 1 placebo-treated patient had markedly abnormal liver enzyme values (> or =100% increase from baseline and a value >150 IU/liter), which were transient. Golimumab was effective and well tolerated in a large cohort of patients with AS during a 24-week study period.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2008; 58(11):3402-12. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to identify specific occupational activities associated with functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We asked patients diagnosed with AS for >or=20 years to report all past occupations, which we mapped to specific physical activities using the Occupational Information Network, which is the US Department of Labor job classification database. For each occupation reported, we obtained ratings for 13 physical abilities of the worker and 13 aspects of the work environment or work tasks (work context) thought to be most relevant to patients with AS. Averages for each measure, weighted by the number of years in each job, were related to the degree of functional limitation as assessed by the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and to the extent of spinal radiographic damage as assessed by the Bath AS Radiology Index for the spine (BASRI-s). Among 397 patients, those with a history of jobs requiring dynamic flexibility (the ability to repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach) had more functional limitations than those whose past jobs required little or no dynamic flexibility (adjusted mean BASFI score 48.3 in the top quartile versus 38.1 in all others). Those whose past jobs required more dynamic flexibility, extent flexibility, and exposure to whole body vibration also had significantly higher BASRI-s scores. Bending, twisting, and stretching are the occupational activities associated with greater functional limitations and radiographic damage in patients with longstanding AS. Exposure to whole body vibration was also associated with more radiographic damage.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 07/2008; 59(6):822-32. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of adalimumab on pain, fatigue, and stiffness in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Adalimumab Trial Evaluating Long-Term Safety and Efficacy for Ankylosing Spondylitis (ATLAS) was an ongoing 5-year study that included an initial 24-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind period. Patients were randomized to adalimumab 40 mg or placebo by subcutaneous injection every other week. Pain was assessed by the bodily pain domain scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and also by total back pain and nocturnal pain using visual analog scales. Fatigue was measured by the SF-36 vitality domain and question 1 of the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Morning stiffness was measured by the mean of BASDAI questions 5 and 6. Of 315 patients enrolled, 208 received adalimumab 40 mg and 107 received placebo. At Week 12, adalimumab-treated patients experienced significant improvement compared with placebo-treated patients in the SF-36 bodily pain score (p < 0.001), total back pain score (p < 0.001), nocturnal pain score (p < 0.001), fatigue (p < 0.01), and morning stiffness (p < 0.001). Pain, fatigue, and morning stiffness were significantly correlated (p < 0.001) with baseline values of patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and physical function, and with improvements in these values at Week 12 by regression analysis. Treatment effects occurred rapidly (within 2 wks) and were maintained through 24 weeks of treatment. Adalimumab significantly improved symptoms of pain, fatigue, and stiffness in patients with AS. Improved symptoms were associated with improved physical function and HRQOL.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2008; 35(7):1346-53. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) with respect to its selection and weighting of items.Methods This study used the BVAS/WG data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. The scoring frequencies of the 34 predefined items and any “other” items added by clinicians were calculated. Using linear regression with generalized estimating equations in which the physician global assessment (PGA) of disease activity was the dependent variable, we computed weights for all predefined items. We also created variables for clinical manifestations frequently added as other items, and computed weights for these as well. We searched for the model that included the items and their generated weights yielding an activity score with the highest R2 to predict the PGA.ResultsWe analyzed 2,044 BVAS/WG assessments from 180 patients; 734 assessments were scored during active disease. The highest R2 with the PGA was obtained by scoring WG activity based on the following items: the 25 predefined items rated on ≥5 visits, the 2 newly created fatigue and weight loss variables, the remaining minor other and major other items, and a variable that signified whether new or worse items were present at a specific visit. The weights assigned to the items ranged from 1 to 21. Compared with the original BVAS/WG, this modified score correlated significantly more strongly with the PGA.Conclusion This study suggests possibilities to enhance the item selection and weighting of the BVAS/WG. These changes may increase this instrument's ability to capture the continuum of disease activity in WG.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2008; 59(6):884 - 891. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain is a side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) use, but the natural history and health implications of changes in weight that occur during the treatment of inflammatory disease are not understood. We evaluated data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. Patients were categorized according to clinical outcome at 1 year: remission (no disease flares), single flare, or multiple flares. Risk factors for gaining > or =10 kg were examined in multivariate models. Weights at baseline and 1 year were available for 157 (93%) of the 168 patients analyzed. During year 1, the mean cumulative prednisone dosage in the multiple flares subgroup was 7.9 gm, compared with 6.0 gm and 3.9 gm in the single flare and remission subgroups, respectively (P < 0.001). Patients in these subgroups gained an average of 2.6 kg, 4.1 kg, and 5.8 kg, respectively (P = 0.005). Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative GC dose (R = 0.10, P = 0.25). Thirty-five patients (22.3%) gained and maintained > or =10 kg in the first year. New diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis at baseline was an independent predictor of gaining > or =10 kg at 1 year (odds ratio 19.7, 95% confidence interval 2.4-162.6, P = 0.006). Among the 78 patients in the remission subgroup, 40 sustained remissions through the 2-year time point. For these 40 patients, the mean weight gained at year 1 did not regress by the end of year 2, despite the absence of continued GC use. Disease control was associated with lower cumulative GC doses but greater weight gain. More than one-fifth of patients gained >10 kg in the first year of treatment. The quantity of weight gained by patients during treatment has potential future health implications.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2008; 59(5):746-53. · 7.48 Impact Factor

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Institutions

  • 2008–2012
    • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
      Maryland, United States
    • United BioSource Corporation
      Maryland, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Rheumatology
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Duke University Medical Center
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • University of the Pacific (California - USA)
      Stockton, California, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • MetroHealth Medical Center
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
      • Cedars Sinai Medical Center
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Medicine
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2005–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Maastricht University
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands