Jean-Louis Bresson

Université René Descartes - Paris 5, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (16)43.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As a concentrated source of saturated fat, cheese consumption is considered to be associated with increased cholesterolemia and generally forbidden in dietary guidelines for adults with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of saturated fatty acids on lipid parameters and blood pressure with regards to different types of dairy products: Camembert and full-fat yoghurt. One-hundred and fifty-nine moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects without treatment were instructed to consume two full-fat yoghurts (2 × 125 g) per day for 3 weeks (run-in period) and then for a further period of 5 weeks, either two full-fat yoghurts or two 30 g servings of Camembert cheese per day. We observed that over the 5-week daily consumption of two servings of Camembert cheese, blood pressure and serum lipids did not change in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results suggest that fermented cheese such as Camembert could be consumed daily without affecting serum lipids or blood pressure.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized the innate immune response to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy using a systems approach based on proteomic and cytometric screens. Blood and urine were collected from patients receiving intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy before, and 2 and 4 hours after bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment, at the first and third instillation. Proteomic and cytometry based screens were performed. Molecular analyte profiling revealed a prime/boost pattern to the innate response to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin. We identified 36 statistically significant changes in the proteins induced during the third instillation compared to the initial treatment. These analytes were classified into 3 categories of 1) plasma proteins that leaked into the urine, 2) cytokines/chemokines produced locally during the first hours of inflammation and 3) other innate molecules that modulate the bladder microenvironment. To characterize the marked increase in the inflammatory response after multiple treatments we evaluated the cells present in the urine and again a prime/boost response was revealed. For the locally produced analytes it was possible to define the cell source(s) and, thus, provide a first generation map of what occurs during the initial phase of bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. This study provides in vivo information concerning the ability of bacillus Calmette-Guerin to sensitize the tissue microenvironment to enhance innate responses and establishes a framework for improving vaccination strategies while decreasing adverse events.
    The Journal of urology 03/2009; 181(4):1571-80. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autism (MIM#209850) and schizophrenia (MIM#181500) are both neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders characterized by a highly genetic component. Homeogenes and forkhead genes encode transcription factors, which have been involved in brain development and cell differentiation. Thus, they are relevant candidate genes for psychiatric disorders. Genetic studies have reported an association between autism and DLX2, HOXA1, EN2, ARX, and FOXP2 genes whereas only three studies of EN2, OTX2, and FOXP2 were performed on schizophrenia. Interestingly, most of these candidate genes contain trinucleotide repeats coding for polyamino acid stretch in which instability can be the cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Our goal was to identify variations of coding trinucleotide repeats in schizophrenia, autism, and idiopathic mental retardation. We screened the coding trinucleotide repeats of OTX1, EN1, DLX2, HOXA1, and FOXP2 genes in populations suffering from schizophrenia (247 patients), autism (98 patients), and idiopathic mental retardation (56 patients), and compared them with control populations (112 super controls and 202 healthy controls). Novel deletions and insertions of coding trinucleotide repeats were found in the DLX2, HOXA1, and FOXP2 genes. Most of these variations were detected in controls and no difference in their distribution was observed between patient and control groups. Two different polymorphisms in FOXP2 were, however, found only in autistic patients and the functional consequences of these variations of repeats have to be characterized and correlated to particular clinical features. This study did not identify specific disease risk variants of trinucleotide repeats in OTX1, EN1, DLX2, HOXA1, and FOXP2 candidate genes in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.
    Psychiatric genetics 01/2009; 18(6):295-301. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 is a probiotic strain able to interact with the immune system and to interfere with gastrointestinal pathogens. The derived strain DN-114 001Rif was studied during its transit through the upper and distal intestine of human volunteers. Seven volunteers participated in the study, which involved intestinal intubation to sample ileal contents and collection of fecal samples, with a wash-out period of 8 days between the 2 steps. The retrieval of the probiotic was analyzed in the ileum every 2 h for 8 h following the ingestion of one dose of the test product and in the feces prior to, during, and after daily consumption of the test product for 8 days. Persistence of the probiotic amplifiable DNA was assessed using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization allowed analysis of the composition of the dominant digestive microbiota. The ingestion of L. casei DN-114 001Rif led to a significant and transient increase of its amplifiable DNA in ileal and fecal samples. This is related to a high stability in the composition of dominant groups of the gut microbiota. Data from ileal samples are scarce and our study confirms the potentiality for interaction between probiotics and the human immune system.
    Canadian Journal of Microbiology 09/2008; 54(8):660-7. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 08/2008; 125(2):176-81. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R11 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R52 in the human digestive tract and their effects on the microbiota homeostasis. We designed an open human trial including 14 healthy volunteers. A 3-week exclusion period of fermented products was followed by a 12-day consumption period of 4 capsules daily containing 2 x 10(9)L. rhamnosus R11 and 1 x 10(8)L. acidophilus R52, and a 12-day wash-out period. The 2 strains and dominant bacterial groups of the microbiota were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of the capsule consumption period, high levels of L. rhamnosus R11 were detected in faecal samples from all volunteers, reaching a mean value of 7.1 log(10) colony-forming unit (CFU) equivalents/g of stool. L. acidophilus R52 was detected in the stools of only 1 volunteer, reaching a maximum level of 6.1 log(10) CFU equivalents/g of stool. Dilution plating enumerations performed in parallel provided less consistent and generally lower levels. No significant effect of capsule consumption was observed on microbiota homeostasis for the dominant faecal populations. Mean values of 8.8, 9.2, 9.9 and 10.6 log(10) CFU equivalents/g of stool were obtained for the Clostridium coccoides, Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Clostridium leptum groups, respectively.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2008; 14(1-3):90-9. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The survival of Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 was assessed after its ingestion in a fermented product or in a lyophilised form. Twelve healthy subjects were included in a randomised, open study with 2 parallel groups. The composition and activities of the faecal microbiota were monitored before (10-day baseline step), during (1-week product administration step) and after (10-day follow-up step) the ingestion of 1 of the 2 products. A colony immunoblotting method, fluorescent in situ hybridisation with group-specific DNA probes, and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis using group-specific primers were carried out to compare survival of B. animalis strain DN-173 010 after ingestion of the 2 products, together with analyses of enzyme activities and faecal metabolites. At the end of the supplementation step, the mean number of B. animalis DN-173 010 quantified by immunodetection in the faeces of 5 of 6 subjects in each treatment group was >/=10(8) colony-forming units/g faeces. These numbers corresponded to an average survival of 22% for the lyophilised form and 20% for the fermented product. At the same step, the PCR temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed a double band corresponding to the B. animalis DN-173 010 pattern for 11 subjects. No major modification was observed during the trial in either the dominant members of the faecal microbiota assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation or their activities. In conclusion, we show that the lyophilised form of B. animalis DN-173 010 survives transit and could represent a more convenient form to administer for long-term clinical trials.
    Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2008; 14(1-3):128-36. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to document for the first time in a general population of French children the prevalence and levels of cardiovascular risk factors and to assess separately in boys and girls whether these risk factors were associated with fat mass distribution independently of subcutaneous overall adiposity. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 452 children (235 boys and 217 girls) aged 8 to 17 years included in a 1999 population-based epidemiologic study (the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé II study) was made. Overweight was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force references and the 90th percentiles of the French body mass index curves. The thresholds of parameters defining cardiovascular and metabolic risks were the 95th percentile of the Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents for blood pressure and those of the American Academy of Pediatrics for lipids. Anthropometric and biological parameters were described by sex and according to overweight status. Partial correlations between cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measures of adiposity (body mass index, sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio) were calculated. Then, these correlations were additionally adjusted for the sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses. High plasma triglycerides, high insulin concentration, and low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration were associated with all measures of adiposity (|r| > or = 0.20, P < .002). When obese children were excluded, overweight children already had high triglycerides and low HDL-C levels, respectively, 2 and 20 times more frequently than normal-weight children did. Among overweight children, 7.7% had at least 2 risk factors among high blood pressure, high plasma triglycerides or glucose, and low HDL-C concentration vs 0.25% among normal-weight children (P = .002). After adjusting for the sum of skinfolds, an independent association between the risk factors and waist circumference was found in girls. In conclusion, (a) modest excess weight is associated with increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors. (b) In girls, abdominal fat distribution is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, independently of overall adiposity. (c) International definition of abdominal obesity in children is required to standardize studies and to progress in the evaluation of childhood obesity and its consequences.
    Metabolism 05/2007; 56(5):614-22. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy is characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected children are related to alterations in endocrine function of adipose tissue. A multicenter study was conducted in 130 HIV-infected children. Lipodystrophy definition was based on the central to peripheral skinfold ratio. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin concentrations, glycemia, and lipid profile were measured in all children. Fat redistribution syndrome was apparent in 32 children: 14 with atrophic (LPDA) and 18 with hypertrophic lipodystrophy (LPDH). Mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in LPDA and LPDH groups compared with the group with no lipodystrophy (LPD-). Fasting insulin concentration was significantly higher in LPDA and LPDH groups versus LPD-. Mean serum leptin concentration was significantly increased only in LPDH compared with LPDA and LPD- groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration decreased in the LPDA versus LPD- group. Controlling for puberty stage, gender, percentage of total fat mass, serum lipids, HIV treatment, and disease severity, adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with central obesity and insulin/glucose ratio. Fat redistribution had no significant effect on leptin concentration, which was directly related to the percentage of body fat, female gender, and insulin/glucose ratio. In conclusion, HIV-infected children with symptoms of fat redistribution have decreased levels of adiponectin, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
    Pediatric Research 09/2006; 60(2):225-30. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A human trial was carried out to assess the ileal and fecal survival of Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 ingested in fermented milk. Survival rates were up to 51.2% in the ileum and 28.4% in the feces. The probiotic bacterium has the capacity to survive during its transit through the human gut.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/2006; 72(8):5615-7. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to define the minimal effective dose (MED) of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) among five daily doses following chemotherapy for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection. Twenty-five patients were included in this double-blind dose-finding phase II study conducted according to a two-stage Bayesian design. The estimated probabilities of success for PBSC collection for the G-CSF doses of 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 microg/m2/day were 84%, 87.7%, 91%, 93.9 and 96.4%, respectively. Low G-CSF doses may be used with a similar probability of success as conventional doses and could allow significant savings.
    Haematologica 05/2006; 91(4):550-3. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The composition and activities of the faecal microbiota in twelve healthy subjects analysed in a single open study were monitored before (1-week baseline step), during (10 d supplementation step) and after (10 d follow-up step) the ingestion of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with group-specific DNA probes, real-time PCR using L. paracasei group-specific primers and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) using group-specific primers were carried out, together with bacterial enzyme activity and metabolite analyses to monitor the structure and activities of the faecal microbiota. L. casei DNA was detected in the faeces of all of the subjects by TTGE after 10 d supplementation. Its quantification by real-time PCR showed a 1000-fold increase during the test step compared with initial levels. No major modification in either the dominant members of the faecal microbiota or their activities was observed during the trial. In conclusion, the short-term consumption of a milk product containing L. casei DN-114 001 was accompanied by a high, transient increase in the quantity of this strain in the faeces of all of the subjects without markedly affecting biochemical or bacteriological factors.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 03/2006; 95(2):421-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the rate of progression of lipodystrophy and the associated metabolic disturbances over a 2-year period in children and to assess risk factors associated with lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances. Multicenter 2-year prospective study with a standardized evaluation. One hundred thirty children (median age = 10 years, 64 boys and 66 girls) receiving antiretroviral therapy were recruited in 3 pediatric clinics. Lipodystrophy was defined based on 4 skinfold thickness measurements. Fasting lipids and glucose profile were measured in all children. The proportion of children presenting with lipodystrophy was 24.6%. Nineteen percent of children had high-density lipoprotein values less than 1 mmol/L. Twenty-two percent and 15% of children had values greater than 2 standard deviations for age and gender for cholesterol and triglycerides, respectively. A total of 13.2% showed insulin resistance. A total of 42.7% showed at least 1 of these biologic disturbances. Prospective follow-up showed no progression at all over 2 years, except for a doubling of the number of children with insulin resistance. In multivariate analyses, ethnicity, previous severe clinical condition, duration of HIV infection, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor treatment were significantly associated with lipodystrophy. Tanner stage V of puberty, severe clinical symptoms and protease inhibitor treatment were independently associated with the risk of metabolic disturbances. Puberty seems to be the time when HIV-infected children taking potent antiretroviral therapy are more likely to develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, especially in children with a severe underlying HIV infection. Once developed, lipodystrophy and metabolic changes seem to be extremely stable with time.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2005; 40(2):161-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, there is significant controversy as to the survival of yogurt bacteria (namely, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) after passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Survival of both bacterial species in human feces was investigated by culture on selective media. Out of 39 samples recovered from 13 healthy subjects over a 12-day period of fresh yogurt intake, 32 and 37 samples contained viable S. thermophilus (median value of 6.3 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) of feces) and L. delbrueckii (median value of 7.2 x 10(4)CFU g(-1) of feces), respectively. The results of the present study indicate that substantial numbers of yogurt bacteria can survive human gastrointestinal transit.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2005; 250(2):185-7. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term glucocorticoid treatment contributes to the growth retardation in children after renal transplantation. We investigated whether determination of prednisone (PN) and prednisolone (PL) in plasma and PN, PL, and 6-beta-hydroxyprednisolone (betaOH-PL) in urine could help to predict growth. PN and PL pharmacokinetics were studied in 36 children, from 5 to 15 years of age, receiving daily (D) or alternate-day (AD) oral PN treatment. Statural growth velocity was evaluated over a 1-year period. We compared three groups of children according to the growth kinetics during the study year (catch-up, stable, or decline) for clinical and pharmacokinetic parameters. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed in order to determine pharmacokinetic parameters able to explain height 1 year after inclusion. Height at the beginning of the study, creatinine clearance, and type of D or AD treatment explained 94.2% of height variance 1 year after inclusion. Only PL clearance was associated with growth evolution, but introduction of PL clearance in the multivariate model did not improve the variance of height accounted for by the previous model. We, therefore, do not recommend using glucocorticoid pharmacokinetics to predict growth retardation in children with renal transplantation.
    Pediatric Nephrology 09/2004; 19(8):898-904. · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Jean-Louis Bresson