[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study objectives:
To develop and evaluate a screening questionnaire and a two-step screening strategy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in healthy workers.
Setting and participants:
A total of 1,861 employees comprising healthy blue- and white-collar workers in two representative plants in the Netherlands from a worldwide consumer electronic company were approached to participate.
Employees were invited to complete various sleep questionnaires, and undergo separate single nasal flow recording and home polysomnography on 2 separate nights.
Measurements and results:
Of the 1,861 employees, 249 provided informed consent and all nasal flow and polysomnography data were available from 176 (70.7%). OSAS was diagnosed in 65 (36.9%). A combination of age, absence of insomnia, witnessed breathing stops, and three-way scoring of the Berlin and STOPBANG questionnaires best predicted OSAS. Factor analysis identified a six-factor structure of the resulting new questionnaire: snoring, snoring severity, tiredness, witnessed apneas, sleep quality, and daytime well-being. Subsequently, some questions were removed, and the remaining questions were used to construct a new questionnaire. A scoring algorithm, computing individual probabilities of OSAS as high, intermediate, or low risk, was developed. Subsequently, the intermediate risk group was split into low and high probability for OSAS, based on nasal flow recording. This two-step approach showed a sensitivity of 63.1%, and a specificity of 90.1%. Specificity is important for low prevalence populations.
A two-step screening strategy with a new questionnaire and subsequent nasal flow recording is a promising way to screen for OSAS in a healthy worker population.
Development and validation of a screening instrument for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in healthy workers. Netherlands Trial Register (www.trailregister.nl), number: NTR2675.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 10/2015; · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of first degree relative (FDR) of young breast cancer patients.
Data were used from our prospective population-based cohort study which started in 1983. The family history (FH) was registered with regard to FDR: the presence or absence of invasive breast cancer in none vs. one or more FDRs at any age.
A total of 1109 women, ≤50 years with 1128 breast conserving treatments was seen. The incidence of FDR was 17.0% for one FDR and 3.2% ≥2 FDR. The three groups, none, 1 or ≥2 FDR, were comparable. The local failure rate is comparable for all three groups. Women with a positive FH and metachronous bilateral breast cancer (MBBC) showed a lower local failure (HR 0.2; 95% CI 0.05-0.8). A positive FH was an independent predictor for a better disease-specific survival (HR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9).
A positive FH, based on FDR implies a better prognosis in relation to survival for young women treated with BCT. In contrast to no FH for FDR, MBBC in women with a positive FH was not associated with an increased risk of local recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity and overweight are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. The effect of physical activity may be partially mediated by concordant weight loss. We studied the effect on serum sex hormones, which are known to be associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, that is attributable to exercise by comparing randomly obtained equivalent weight loss by following a hypocaloric diet only or mainly by exercise.
Overweight, insufficiently active women were randomised to a diet (N = 97), mainly exercise (N = 98) or control group (N = 48). The goal of both interventions was to achieve 5-6 kg of weight loss by following a calorie-restricted diet or an intensive exercise programme combined with only a small caloric restriction. Primary outcomes after 16 weeks were serum sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Both the diet (-4.9 kg) and mainly exercise (-5.5 kg) groups achieved the target weight loss. Loss of body fat was significantly greater with exercise versus diet (difference -1.4 kg, P < 0.001). In the mainly exercise arm, the reduction in free testosterone was statistically significantly greater than that of the diet arm (treatment effect ratio [TER] 0.92, P = 0.043), and the results were suggestive of a difference for androstenedione (TER 0.90, P = 0.064) and SHBG (TER 1.05, P = 0.070). Compared with the control arm, beneficial effects were seen with both interventions, diet and mainly exercise, respectively, on oestradiol (TER 0.86, P = 0.025; TER 0.83, P = 0.007), free oestradiol (TER 0.80, P = 0.002; TER 0.77, P < 0.001), SHBG (TER 1.14; TER 1.21, both P < 0.001) and free testosterone (TER 0.91, P = 0.069; TER = 0.84, P = 0.001). After adjustment for changes in body fat, intervention effects attenuated or disappeared.
Weight loss with both interventions resulted in favourable effects on serum sex hormones, which have been shown to be associated with a decrease in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Weight loss induced mainly by exercise additionally resulted in maintenance of lean mass, greater fitness, greater fat loss and a larger effect on (some) sex hormones. The greater fat loss likely explains the observed larger effects on sex hormones.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01511276 . Registered on 12 January 2012.
Breast cancer research: BCR 09/2015; 17(1):120. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0633-9 · 5.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To determine whether a double dose of intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide is more effective for knee arthritis than a 40-mg dose.
In this 12-week randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 mg and 80 mg of intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide were compared in patients with knee arthritis. Evaluated variables included a Likert burden scale, visual analog scale pain scale, degree of arthritis activity, presence of swelling, and presence of functional limitation.
Ninety-seven patients were randomized. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding any outcomes.
An 80-mg dose of triamcinolone acetonide had no additional benefit compared with 40 mg as treatment for knee arthritis.
Nederlands Trial Register; trial registration number: NTR2298.
The Journal of Rheumatology 08/2015; 42(10). DOI:10.3899/jrheum.141630 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Web-based alcohol interventions have demonstrated efficacy in randomized controlled trials. However, most studies have involved self-help interventions without therapeutic support.
To examine the results of a 3-month web-based alcohol treatment program using intensive, asynchronous (non-simultaneous) therapeutic support ( www.alcoholdebaas.nl ) at 9-month follow-up assessment.
This study reports the follow-up results of 144 problem drinking participants who received a web-based alcohol treatment program. We investigated whether the intervention effects at treatment completion (3 months) continued to exist at 6 and 9 months of follow-up. The primary outcome measure was weekly alcohol consumption. Repeated measures analysis with a mixed model approach was used to address loss to follow-up.
Weekly alcohol consumption significantly improved between baseline and 9 months (F(1,74) = 85.6, p < 0.001). Post-hoc tests revealed that the reduction occurred during the first 3 months (from 39.9-11.4 standard units a week). Although alcohol consumption had risen to 19.5 units per week at 9 months, it still decreased by more than 20 units compared to baseline drinking. Significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes were found on the secondary outcomes (depression, general health, and quality of life) at 9 months.
The web-based alcohol treatment with intensive asynchronous therapeutic support has been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and improving health status at post treatment assessments. The present study showed that most of these improvements were sustained after 9 months. Despite the lack of a control group and the high dropout rate, our findings suggest that web-based treatment can achieve relevant health gains in the long term.
eprint link: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/qtMPs2FTKXVyNtPNKae5/full
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/00952990.2015.1044606 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions.
This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders.
A two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants' self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participant's eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest.
A total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F97=63.07, P<.001, d=.82) and all secondary outcome measures (effect sizes between d=.34 to d=.49), except for Body Mass Index. WL participants also improved on most outcomes; however, effects were smaller in this group with significant between-group effects for eating disorder psychopathology (F201=9.42, P=.002, d=.44), body dissatisfaction (F201=13.16, P<.001, d=.42), physical health (F200=12.55, P<.001, d=.28), mental health (F203=4.88, P=.028, d=.24), self-esteem (F202=5.06, P=.026, d=.20), and social functioning (F205=7.93, P=.005, d=.29). Analyses for the individual subgroups BN, BED, and EDNOS showed that eating disorder psychopathology improved significantly over time among Web-based CBT participants in all three subgroups; however, the between-group effect was significant only for participants with BED (F78=4.25, P=.043, d=.61).
Web-based CBT proved to be effective in improving eating disorder psychopathology and related health among female patients with eating disorders.
Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2415; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2415 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6T2io3DnJ).
Journal of Medical Internet Research 06/2015; 17(6):e152. DOI:10.2196/jmir.3946 · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance rates are increasing. This is, among others, caused by incorrect or inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To target this, a multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship-team (A-Team) was implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen on a urology ward. Goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical effects of the case-audits done by this team, looking at length of stay (LOS) and antimicrobial use.
Automatic e-mail alerts were sent after 48 h of consecutive antimicrobial use triggering the case-audits, consisting of an A-Team member visiting the ward, discussing the patient's therapy with the bed-side physician and together deciding on further treatment based on available diagnostics and guidelines. Clinical effects of the audits were evaluated through an Interrupted Time Series analysis and a retrospective historic cohort.
A significant systemic reduction of antimicrobial consumption for all patients on the ward, both with and without case-audits was observed. Furthermore, LOS for patients with case-audits who were admitted primarily due to infections decreased to 6.20 days (95% CI: 5.59-6.81) compared to the historic cohort (7.57 days; 95% CI: 6.92-8.21; p = 0.012). Antimicrobial consumption decreased for these patients from 8.17 DDD/patient (95% CI: 7.10-9.24) to 5.93 DDD/patient (95% CI: 5.02-6.83; p = 0.008). For patients with severe underlying diseases (e.g., cancer) these outcome measures remained unchanged.
The evaluation showed a considerable positive impact. Antibiotic use of the whole ward was reduced, transcending the intervened patients. Furthermore, LOS and mean antimicrobial consumption for a subgroup was reduced, thereby improving patient care and potentially lowering resistance rates.
Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2015; 6:546. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00546 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss.
The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97), exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Both interventions aimed for 5-6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire.
Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1%) and 5.5 kg (6.9%) with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain 'health change' increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1) with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7) with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other.
In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable diet-induced weight loss.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0127520. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127520 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore rehabilitation professionals' opinions about the influence and the pathways of injury compensation (IC) on health and disability in patients with whiplash associated disorder (WAD).
Semi-structured interviews were performed among a purposeful selected sample of Dutch expert-professionals in the field of rehabilitation of patients with WAD. Inclusion continued until saturation was reached. Inductive and deductive thematic analyses were performed.
Ten rehabilitation expert-professionals (five females), working as physician, psychologist or physiotherapist, were interviewed. All expert-professionals acknowledged that IC can influence rehabilitation, health and disability. The expert-professionals provided three causal pathways; a pathway through prolonged distress, a behavioral pathway, and patient characteristics that may either attenuate or worsen their response. They assess the influence of IC mainly with interview techniques. Most professionals discuss the potential influence of IC with their patients, because they want to give clear information to the patient. Some emphasize that their role is neutral in relation with the IC. Others mention that financial consequences can accompany functional improvement.
Rehabilitation expert-professionals believe that IC may affect rehabilitation, health and disability in patients with WAD. Three pathways are mentioned by the experts-professionals. Implications for Rehabilitation According to rehabilitation expert-professionals, an injury compensation (IC) can lead to distress, by creating a (conscious or unconscious) conflict of interests within a patient between striving for compensation on one hand, and recovery on the other hand. Patient characteristics can either attenuate or worsen IC-related distress. Reliable and valid tools need to be developed to assess the influence of IC on health, disability and rehabilitation, and to limit the negative effects. Rehabilitation professionals can discuss the possible unintended effects of IC with their patients to clarify their current situation.
Disability and Rehabilitation 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/09638288.2015.1035455 · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection can lead to severe complications during wound healing. We have developed an electrochemical sensor for fast and simple detection of wound infection based on the quantification of myeloperoxidase activity as a marker for infection.
Applicability of the enzyme was confirmed with a correlation study with silver standard wound diagnostics. Significant higher enzyme activities comparing non infected and infected wound fluids were determined (P = 0.01). To eliminate supplemental substrate addition, the chlorination activity of the enzyme – the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from chloride and hydrogen peroxide – was investigated in different wound fluids and correlated with the peroxidation activity measurements. Significant activity differences were likewise obtained (P = 0.01). Based on this we constructed an electrochemical hydrogen peroxide sensor system for the quantification of chlorination activity in wound fluids. Furthermore, immobilized glucose oxidase was integrated into the system to provide hydrogen peroxide required by myeloperoxidase.
Infected wound fluids were indeed identified by using the sensor system quantifying the consumption of hydrogen peroxide consumed by myeloperoxidase. Thereby, immobilized glucose oxidase was shown to produce enough hydrogen peroxide for the myeloperoxidase reaction from glucose present in wound fluids. There is a strong need for a simple but effective sensor system to determine infections in wounds. This sensor measuring hydrogen peroxide consumption could effectively identify infected wound fluids based on the myeloperoxidase activity.
Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 03/2015; 209:265-274. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.125 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study differences in adherence to common inhaled medications in COPD.
Adherence of 795 patients was recorded from pharmacy records over 3 years in the COMIC cohort. It was expressed as percentage and deemed good at ≥75-≤125%, sub-optimal ≥50-<75%, and poor <50% (underuse) or >125% (overuse). Most patients used more than one medication, so we present 1379 medication periods.
The percentages of patients with good therapy adherence ranged from 43.2 (beclomethasone) -75.8% (tiotropium); suboptimal from 2.3 (budesonide) -23.3% (fluticasone); underuse from 4.4 (formoterol/budesonide) -18.2% (beclomethasone); and overuse from 5.1 (salmeterol) -38.6% (budesonide). Patients using fluticasone or salmeterol/fluticasone have a 2.3 and 2.0-fold increased risk of suboptimal versus good adherence compared to tiotropium. Patients using salmeterol/fluticasone or beclomethasone have a 2.3- and 4.6-fold increased risk of underuse versus good adherence compared to tiotropium. Patients using budesonide, salmeterol/fluticasone, formoterol/budesonide, ciclesonide and beclomethasone have an increased risk of overuse versus good adherence compared to tiotropium. Adherence to inhalation medication is inversely related to lung function.
Therapy adherence to inhalation medication for the treatment of COPD is in our study related to the medication prescribed. Tiotropium showed the highest percentage of patients with good adherence, followed by ciclesonide, both dosed once daily. The idea of improving adherence by using combined preparations cannot be confirmed in this study. Further research is needed to investigate the possibilities of improving adherence by changing inhalation medication.