Jason D Morrow

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (488)2864.86 Total impact

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    Dataset: cPLA2

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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. We tested the hypothesis that urinary F2 isoprostanes, a robust marker of oxidative stress, was increased in patients with depression and associated with symptoms and response to treatment. Urinary F2 isoprostanes was compared in 18 patients with depression and 36 age and sex matched control subjects. In patients, we tested the association between oxidative stress, depression questionnaires and antidepressant treatment. Urinary F2 isoprostane excretion was significantly higher in patients with depression than in control subjects. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Depression symptom severity scores were not correlated with F2 isoprostane excretion. Nine patients were treated with sertraline or bupropion for 8 weeks. Depression severity rating scale scores decreased significantly and F2 isoprostane excretion increased. The increase in F2 isoprostane excretion was inversely correlated with the improvement in Hamilton Depression Rating 17 items. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased in patients with depression. However, although treatment with either bupropion or sertraline reduces the symptoms of depression, it may increase F2 isoprostane excretion. These results suggest that alternative mechanisms, beyond oxidative stress, may be involved in the development of depression and subsequent responses to treatment.
    12/2012; 206(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.018
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can be underestimated in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Novel CVD risk markers in this population are needed. We hypothesized that eicosanoid metabolite production is increased with metabolic complications of ART. Our objective was to determine relationships between urine eicosanoids and traditional CVD risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected persons receiving ART. Cross-sectional analysis of 107 individuals from a prospective cohort study with urine eicosanoids (isoprostane [15-F(2t)-IsoP], prostaglandin-E metabolite [PGE-M], thromboxane metabolite [11dTxB(2)], prostacyclin metabolite [PGI-M]) determined by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 15-F(2t)-IsoP was higher (P=0.003), 11dTxB(2) tended to be higher (P=0.07) and PGE-M was lower (P=0.003) in females than in males. The overall median Framingham score was 4 (IQR 1-7). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, CD4(+) T-cells, smoking status, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, aspirin use and body mass index (BMI), associations included: higher 15-F(2t)-IsoP with female sex (P=0.004) and current smoking (P=0.04), lower PGE-M with female sex (P=0.005) and higher BMI (P=0.03), higher 11dTxB(2) with increasing age (P=0.02) and current smoking (P=0.04), lower 11dTxB(2) with higher BMI (P=0.02), and higher PGI-M with current smoking (P=0.04). In this pilot study of predominantly virologically suppressed HIV-infected individuals on ART, there were sex-specific differences in urinary eicosanoids, with females having more risk-associated parameters despite a low Framingham score. Eicosanoids might be useful CVD biomarkers in ART-treated, HIV-infected patients. Future studies should examine eicosanoids while assessing effects of specific ART regimens and targeted interventions on CVD outcomes.
    Antiviral therapy 12/2011; 17(3):485-93. DOI:10.3851/IMP1990 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2011) 119, 604–616. Fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be beneficial for neurological function and human health. It is widely thought that oxidation products of EPA are responsible for biological activity, although the specific EPA peroxidation product(s) which exert these responses have not yet been identified. In this work we provide the first evidence that the synthesized representative cyclopentenone IsoP, 15-A3t-IsoP, serves as a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage activation. The anti-inflammatory activities of 15-A3t-IsoP were observed in response not only to lipopolysaccharide, but also to tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1b stimulation. Subsequently, this response blocked the ability of these compounds to stimulate nuclear factor kappa b (NFκB) activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. The bioactivity of 15-A3t-IsoP was shown to be dependent upon an unsaturated carbonyl residue which transiently adducts to free thiols. Site directed mutagenesis of the redox sensitive C179 site of the Ikappa kinase beta subunit, blocked the biological activity of 15-A3t-IsoP and NFκB activation. The vasoprotective potential of 15-A3t-IsoP was underscored by the ability of this compound to block oxidized lipid accumulation, a critical step in foam cell transformation and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Taken together, these are the first data identifying the biological activity of a specific product of EPA peroxidation, which is formed in abundance in vivo. The clear mechanism linking 15-A3t-IsoP to redox control of NFκB transcription, and the compound’s ability to block foam cell transformation suggest that 15-A3t-IsoP provides a unique and potent tool to provide vaso- and cytoprotection under conditions of oxidative stress.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2011; 119(3):604-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07422.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mortality rate for acute lung injury (ALI) is reported to be between 35-40%, and there are very few treatment strategies that improve the death rate from this condition. Previous studies have suggested that signaling through the prostaglandin (PG) I(2) receptor may protect against bleomycin-induced ALI in mice. We found that mice that overexpress PGI synthase (PGIS) in the airway epithelium were significantly protected against bleomycin-induced mortality and had reduced parenchymal consolidation, apoptosis of lung tissue, and generation of F(2)-isoprostanes compared with littermate wild-type controls. In addition, we show for the first time in both in vivo and in vitro experiments that PGI(2) induced the expression of NADP (H): quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (Nqo 1), an enzyme that prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species. PGI(2) induction of Nqo 1 provides a possible novel mechanism by which this prostanoid protects against bleomycin-induced mortality and identifies a potential therapeutic target for human ALI.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 07/2011; 301(4):L615-22. DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00224.2010 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is implicated in prostate cancer by several lines of evidence. We studied the relationship between the level of F2-isoprostanes, a validated biomarker of oxidative stress, and prostate cancer and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This case-control analysis within the Nashville Men's Health Study included men recruited at prostate biopsy. Body morphometrics, health history and urine were collected from more than 2,000 men before biopsy. F2-isoprostanes were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry within an age matched sample of Nashville Men's Health Study participants that included 140 patients with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, 160 biopsy negative controls and 200 prostate cancer cases. Multivariable linear and logistic regression was used to determine the associations between F2-isoprostane level, and high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. Mean patient age was 66.9 years (SD 7.2) and 10.1% were nonwhite. Adjusted geometric mean F2-isoprostane levels were higher in patients with prostate cancer (1.82, 95% CI 1.66-2.00) or high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (1.82, 95% CI 1.68-1.96) than in controls (1.63, 95% CI 1.49-1.78, p <0.001), but were similar across Gleason scores (p = 0.511). The adjusted odds of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer increased with increasing F2-isoprostane quartile (p-trend = 0.015 and 0.047, respectively) and the highest F2-isoprostane quartile was associated with significantly increased odds of prostate cancer (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.17-5.09, p = 0.017). Pre-diagnosis urine F2-isoprostane level is increased in men with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or prostate cancer, suggesting urinary F2-isoprostane provides a biomarker for the role for oxidative stress in prostate carcinogenesis. F2-isoprostanes may also serve to estimate the efficacy of interventions targeting oxidative stress mechanisms in prostate cancer prevention or treatment.
    The Journal of urology 06/2011; 185(6):2102-7. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.020 · 4.47 Impact Factor

  • Bone 05/2011; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.279 · 3.97 Impact Factor

  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 12/2010; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.10.244 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the U.S. and is now recognized as a global epidemic. There are currently no FDA-approved drugs to block the cell death that results from oxygen and glucose deprivation. This void in clinical medicine has sparked an intense interest in understanding endogenous cellular protective pathways that might be exploited for therapeutic development. The work highlighted here describes the critical role between redox tone and energetic stress signaling in mediating mitophagy and determining neuronal cell fate following acute oxygen glucose deprivation.
    Autophagy 10/2010; 6(7):948-9. DOI:10.1523/j.neurosci.6366-09.2010 · 11.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning is a phenomenon in which low-level stressful stimuli upregulate endogenous defensive programs, resulting in subsequent resistance to otherwise lethal injuries. We previously observed that signal transduction systems typically associated with neurodegeneration such as caspase activation are requisite events for the expression of tolerance and induction of HSP70. In this work, we sought to determine the extent and duration of oxidative and energetic dysfunction as well as the role of effector kinases on metabolic function in preconditioned cells. Using an in vitro neuronal culture model, we observed a robust increase in Raf and p66(Shc) activation within 1 h of preconditioning. Total ATP content decreased by 25% 3 h after preconditioning but returned to baseline by 24 h. Use of a free radical spin trap or p66(shc) inhibitor increased ATP content whereas a Raf inhibitor had no effect. Phosphorylated p66(shc) rapidly relocalized to the mitochondria and in the absence of activated p66(shc), autophagic processing increased. The constitutively expressed chaperone HSC70 relocalized to autophagosomes. Preconditioned cells experience significant total oxidative stress measured by F(2)-isoprostanes and neuronal stress evaluated by F(4)-neuroprostane measurement. Neuroprostane levels were enhanced in the presence of Shc inhibitors. Finally, we found that inhibiting either p66(shc) or Raf blocked neuroprotection afforded by preconditioning as well as upregulation of HSP70, suggesting both kinases are critical for preconditioning but function in fundamentally different ways. This is the first work to demonstrate the essential role of p66(shc) in mediating requisite mitochondrial and energetic compensation after preconditioning and suggests a mechanism by which protein and organelle damage mediated by ROS can increase HSP70.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2010; 30(15):5242-52. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6366-09.2010 · 6.34 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 04/2010; 183(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.2092 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Wei Liu · Jason D. Morrow · Huiyong Yin ·
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 03/2010; 41(9). DOI:10.1002/chin.201009267
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a potentially important aetiological factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and cancer, yet studies often find inconsistent results. The associations between three of the most widely used biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e. F(2)-isoprostanes for lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and the comet assay with FPG for oxidative DNA damage, were compared in a sample of 135 healthy African-American and white adults. Modest associations were observed between F(2)-isoprostanes and the comet assay (r = 0.22, p = 0.01), but there were no significant correlations between 8-oxo-dG and the comet assay (r = -0.09) or F(2)-IsoP (r = -0.04). These results are informative for researchers seeking to compare results pertaining to oxidative stress across studies and/or assessment methods in healthy disease-free populations. The development and use of oxidative stress biomarkers is a promising field; however, additional validation studies are necessary to establish accuracy and comparability across oxidative stress biomarkers.
    Biomarkers 12/2009; 14(8):587-95. DOI:10.3109/13547500903183954 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In the general population, highly sensitive creactive protein (hsCRP) is an established predictor of future coronary events. Little is known about its utility in chronic inflammatory conditions such as HIV infection. We assessed relationships between hsCRP and metabolic parameters over time in HIV-infected patients on ART. Data are from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults enrolled June 2005 to July 2007. Participants were receiving ART, had HIV-1 RNA,10,000 copies per milliliter, and no diabetes or CVD. Nonlinear mixed-effect regression models assessed relationships between body mass index (BMI), lipids, and hsCRP over time adjusting for covariates. Ninety-four individuals had data from $1 study visit. Median age was 44 years, 27% were female, 57% white, and 54% were on protease inhibitors. Median CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 RNA, and hsCRP were 502 cells per cubic millimeter, 50 copies per milliliter, and 2.94 mg/dL, respectively. Median Framingham score was 3. Multivariate analysis identified associations between increased hsCRP and greater BMI (P = 0.001), higher non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.013) and triglycerides (P = 0.017), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.015). Among HIV-infected adults with low estimated CVD risk and virologic suppression on ART, hsCRP was elevated and independently associated with BMI and lipid changes. Future studies should assess associations between hsCRP and clinical outcomes.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2009; 52(4):480-7. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b939e5 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a role in the development and progression of several tumor types including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Measurements of urinary PGE metabolite (PGE-M) can be used as an index of systemic PGE(2) production. In ever smokers, increased levels of urinary PGE-M reflect increased COX-2 activity. In this study, we determined whether baseline levels of urinary PGE-M were prognostic for ever smoker HNSCC patients. A retrospective chart review of ever smoker HNSCC patients treated with curative intent was done. Fifteen of 31 evaluable patients developed progressive disease (recurrence or a second primary tumor) after a median follow-up of 38 months. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with (n = 15) or without disease progression (n = 16) with regard to stage, site, treatment received, smoking status, and aspirin use during follow-up. Median urinary PGE-M levels were significantly higher in HNSCC patients with disease progression (21.7 ng/mg creatinine) compared with patients without (13.35 ng/mg creatinine; P = 0.03). Importantly, patients with high baseline levels of urinary PGE-M had a significantly greater risk of disease progression (hazard ratio, 4.76, 95% CI, 1.31-17.30; P < 0.01) and death (hazard ratio, 9.54; 95% CI, 1.17-77.7; P = 0.01) than patients with low baseline levels of urinary PGE-M. These differences were most evident among patients with early-stage disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that high baseline levels of urinary PGE-M indicate a poor prognosis in HNSCC patients. Possibly, HNSCC patients with high COX-2 activity manifested by elevated urinary PGE-M will benefit from treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor.
    Cancer Prevention Research 11/2009; 2(11):957-65. DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0093 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Wei Liu · Jason D. Morrow · Huiyong Yin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation has been implicated in a number of human diseases including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. F2-Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are isomers of prostaglandin PGF2α that are generated in vivo from the free radical-initiated peroxidation of arachidonic acid independent of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Since the discovery of the IsoPs in the early 1990s, a large body of evidence has been accumulated to indicate that quantification of these F2-IsoPs represents the most reliable biomarker to assess oxidative stress in vivo. A variety of analytical approaches have been developed for the quantification of these novel compounds; these methods include mass spectrometry (MS) detection coupled to gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) separation, and detection using immunological approaches. This article summarizes our current methodology to quantify F2-IsoPs in biological fluids and tissues using GC-MS. This method includes solid-phase extraction (SPE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) purification, chemical derivatization, and MS detection using negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) coupled with GC. The protocol described herein has been optimized and validated to provide the best sensitivity and selectivity for quantification of F2-IsoPs from a variety of biological sources.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10/2009; 47(8-47):1101-1107. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.07.028 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transplant recipients have an elevated risk of skin cancer, with a 65- to 250-fold increase in squamous cell carcinoma. Usage of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with the development of skin cancer. We hypothesized that the increased incidence of skin cancer was due to the action of CsA within keratinocyte mitochondria where it can inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening. Normally, MPTP opening is induced by oxidative stress such as that caused by UV light and leads to cell death, thereby eliminating a cell that has been exposed to genotoxic insult. However, in the presence of CsA, damaged cells may survive and consequently form tumors. To test this hypothesis, we treated keratinocytes with levels of CsA used therapeutically in transplant patients and assessed their viability following UVA-irradiation. CsA prevented cell death by inhibiting MPTP opening, even though the levels of oxidative stress were increased markedly. Nim811, a non-immunosuppressive drug that can block the MPTP had a similar effect while the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus that does not interact with the mitochondria had no effect. These findings suggest that CsA may promote skin cancer in transplant patients by allowing keratinocyte survival under conditions of increased genotoxic stress.
    Mitochondrion 10/2009; 10(2):94-101. DOI:10.1016/j.mito.2009.10.001 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    Viswanathan Saraswathi · Jason D Morrow · Alyssa H Hasty ·
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is often associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Together, these metabolic perturbations greatly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although fish oil is a well-established hypolipidemic agent, the mechanisms by which it mediates its lipid-lowering effects are not clear. In addition, it has not been established whether dietary fish oil has different effects in lean and obese mice. LDL receptor deficient (LDLR-/-) and leptin deficient mice on a LDLR-/- background (ob/ob;LDLR-/-) were fed a high fat diet (39% total fat) supplemented with 6% olive oil or fish oil for 6 wk. Fish oil supplementation resulted in lower concentrations of plasma total cholesterol (P < 0.01), triglycerides (P < 0.01), and free fatty acids (P < 0.001) in lean LDLR-/- mice, but not in ob/ob;LDLR-/- mice. In contrast, a fish oil diet did not modulate insulin sensitivity in lean LDLR-/- mice, but it improved insulin sensitivity in ob/ob;LDLR-/- mice (P < 0.05) compared with olive oil fed ob/ob;LDLR-/- mice. Interestingly, plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher and hepatic steatosis was reduced in both mouse models upon fish oil feeding. Finally, fish oil fed LDLR-/- mice exhibited higher hepatic AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas AMPK phosphorylation was not elevated by fish oil feeding in ob/ob;LDLR-/- mice. Taken together, our data suggest that fish oil reduces hepatic steatosis in both lean and obese mice, has potent plasma lipid lowering effects in lean mice, and exerts insulin sensitizing effects in obese mice.
    Journal of Nutrition 10/2009; 139(12):2380-6. DOI:10.3945/jn.109.111567 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COX-2, formally known as prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), catalyzes the committed step in prostaglandin biosynthesis. COX-2 is induced during inflammation and is overexpressed in colon cancer. In vitro, an 18-amino acid segment, residues 595-612, immediately upstream of the C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum targeting sequence is required for N-glycosylation of Asn(594), which permits COX-2 protein to enter the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation system. To determine the importance of this COX-2 degradation pathway in vivo, we engineered a del595-612 PGHS-2 (Delta 18 COX-2) knock-in mouse lacking this 18-amino acid segment. Delta 18 COX-2 knock-in mice do not exhibit the renal or reproductive abnormalities of COX-2 null mice. Delta 18 COX-2 mice do have elevated urinary prostaglandin E(2) metabolite levels and display a more pronounced and prolonged bacterial endotoxin-induced febrile response than wild type (WT) mice. Normal brain tissue, cultured resident peritoneal macrophages, and cultured skin fibroblasts from Delta 18 COX-2 mice overexpress Delta 18 COX-2 relative to WT COX-2 expression in control mice. These results indicate that COX-2 can be degraded via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway in vivo. Treatment of cultured cells from WT or Delta 18 COX-2 mice with flurbiprofen, which blocks substrate-dependent degradation, attenuates COX-2 degradation, and treatment of normal mice with ibuprofen increases the levels of COX-2 in brain tissue. Thus, substrate turnover-dependent COX-2 degradation appears to contribute to COX-2 degradation in vivo. Curiously, WT and Delta 18 COX-2 protein levels are similar in kidneys and spleens from WT and Delta 18 COX-2 mice. There must be compensatory mechanisms to maintain constant COX-2 levels in these tissues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(45):30742-53. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.052415 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, yet no neuroprotective agents for treatment are clinically available. There is a pressing need to understand the signaling molecules that mediate ischemic cell death and identify novel neuroprotective targets. Cyclopentenone isoprostanes (IsoPs), formed after free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid, are used as markers of stress, but their bioactivity is poorly understood. We have recently shown that 15-A(2t)-IsoP is a potent neurotoxin in vitro and increases the free radical burden in neurons. In this work, we demonstrate that 15-A(2t)-IsoP is abundantly produced in stroke-infarcted human cortical tissue. Using primary neuronal cultures we found that minimally toxic exposure to 15-A(2t)-IsoP does not alter ATP content, but in combination with oxygen glucose deprivation resulted in a significant hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and dramatically increased neuronal cell death. In the presence of Ca(2+), 15-A(2t)-IsoP led to a rapid induction of the permeability transition pore and release of cytochrome c. Taken with our previous work, these data support a model in which ischemia causes generation of reactive oxygen species, calcium influx, lipid peroxidation, and 15-A(2t)-IsoP formation. These factors combine to enhance opening of the permeability transition pore leading to cell death subsequent to mitochondrial cytochrome c release. These data are the first documentation of significant 15-A(2t)-IsoP formation after acute ischemic stroke and suggest that the addition of 15-A(2t)-IsoP to in vitro models of ischemia may help to more fully recapitulate stroke injury.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 09/2009; 47(10):1422-31. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.08.011 · 5.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

35k Citations
2,864.86 Total Impact Points


  • 1989-2012
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
      • • Center in Molecular Toxicology
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2008
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005-2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2007
    • Cardiff University
      • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1993-2007
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Emory University
      • Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2004
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Surgery
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Maine Medical Center
      Portland, Maine, United States
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Neurology
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2002-2004
    • Appalachian State University
      • Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science
      بون، كارولاينا الشمالية, North Carolina, United States
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2000-2002
    • Gateway-Vanderbilt Cancer Treatment Center
      Clarksville, Tennessee, United States
    • University of Tennessee
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Utah
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Essex
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Colchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • Middle Tennessee Medical Center
      Murfreesboro, Tennessee, United States
  • 1997
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Newark, DE, United States
  • 1996
    • Nashville Online
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 1992
    • Meharry Medical College
      • Department of Physiology
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States