[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bortezomib has been known as the most promising anti-cancer drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies reported that not all MM patients respond to bortezomib. To overcome such a stumbling-block, studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of bortezomib resistance. In this study, we established a bortezomib-resistant cell line (U266/velR) and explored its biological characteristics. The U266/velR showed reduced sensitivity to bortezomib, and also showed cross-resistance to the chemically unrelated drug thalidomide. U266/velR cells had a higher proportion of CD138 negative subpopulation, known as stem-like feature, compared to parental U266 cells. U266/velR showed relatively less inhibitory effect of prosurvival NF-κB signaling by bortezomib. Further analysis of RNA microarray identified genes related to ubiquitination that were differentially regulated in U266/velR. Moreover, expression level of CD52 in U266 cells was associated with bortezomib response. Our findings provide basis for developing therapeutic strategies in bortezomib-resistant relapsed and refractory MM patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-6 and TNF α were significantly increased in the bone marrow aspirate samples of patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared to those of normal controls. Furthermore, MM patients with advanced aggressive disease had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and TNF α than those with MM in plateau phase. TNF α increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from MM cells. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in signaling pathways by which TNF α promotes IL-6 secretion from MM cells are largely unknown. In our study, we found that TNF α treatments induce MEK and AKT phosphorylation. TNF α -stimulated IL-6 production was abolished by inhibition of JAK2 and IKK β or by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TNF receptors (TNFR) but not by MEK, p38, and PI3K inhibitors. Also, TNF α increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (ser727) including c-Myc and cyclin D1. Three different types of JAK inhibitors decreased the activation of the previously mentioned pathways. In conclusion, blockage of JAK/STAT-mediated NF- κ B activation was highly effective in controlling the growth of MM cells and, consequently, an inhibitor of TNF α -mediated IL-6 secretion would be a potential new therapeutic agent for patients with multiple myeloma.
BioMed Research International 09/2013; 2013:580135. DOI:10.1155/2013/580135 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human renal cell carcinoma (HRCC) is characterized by a high level of resistance to all treatment modalities. Therefore, the investigation of global gene expression in HRCC might help understand its biologic behavior and develop treatment strategies. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we initially compared gene expression profiles between HRCCs and adjacent normal tissues, and found that 87 were up-regulated and 127 genes were down-regulated. Next, a subset of genes, twofold differentially expressed, were validated by Northern blotting. Unexpectedly, caveolin-1, a gene reported to be a tumor suppressor gene, was found to be up-regulated in HRCC tissues. Expression level of caveolin-1 in SN12CPM6 (high metastatic clone) was higher than in SN12C (low metastatic clone), and SN12CPM6 was more resistant to doxorubicin (DXR) than SN12C. Caveolin-1 gene was slightly induced in surviving SN12C cells after DXR treatment. Furthermore, SN12CPM6-siCav1 cells, which were transfected with siRNA of cavelon-1 gene, were more sensitive to DXR, compared to SN12CPM6, but reduction of caveolin-1 gene expression did not affect tumor formation in subcapsule of kidney and lung metastasis. On the other hand, induction of caveolin-1 gene affected the production of lung metastasis under anti-cancer drug treatment: the incidence of pulmonary metastasis was significantly lower in SCID mice injected with SN12CPM6-siCav1 cells, and the number of pulmonary nodules decreased significantly (p = 0.0004). The above results together suggest that caveolin-1 may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells during DXR chemotherapy and surviving HRCC cells eventually might develop lung metastasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition from the chronic phase to blast crisis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gene expression profiles of leukemic cells from patients in the chronic and blast crisis phases were analyzed using an 8.7K cDNA chip and real-time PCR. A transient transfection analysis was conducted to evaluate the role of FLT3, which was significantly upregulated in the blast crisis patients. Abl and c-Kit induction was detected in K562 cells transfected with FLT3 cDNA (K562/FLT3), and Abl and c-Kit levels were reduced in K562/FLT3 cells transfected with FLT3-siRNA (K562/FLT3-siRNA). The induction of FLT3 in CML cells attenuated imatinib-induced apoptosis. The opposite effect was observed in K562/FLT3-siRNA cells. An increased level of cleaved PARP and decreased level of pro-caspase 3 were noted when K562/FLT3-siRNA cells were treated with imatinib. These findings indicate that FLT3 is associated with disease progression, despite imatinib therapy. These results may help in the prediction of disease progression in CML patients and the development of more appropriate therapeutic modalities.
Leukemia research 08/2010; 34(8):995-1001. DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2009.11.008 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we report a newly established chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line, SNUCML-02, which is resistant to imatinib and describe its biological characteristics.
Mononuclear cells were obtained from the bone marrow of a CML patient in blast crisis and were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 containing 20% fetal bovine serum. After 2 months of primary culture, these cells were injected into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient mice via tail vein. Eight weeks after injection, mice were sacrificed and ex vivo culture was performed from the bone marrow cells isolated from the mice. The established cell line was named as SNUCML-02 and the biological features were characterized by cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequencing analysis, cell proliferation assay, and Western blot analysis.
Cytogenetic studies using conventional G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization of SNUCML-02 demonstrated classical Philadelphia chromosome, (9;22)(q34;q11.2), and other abnormalities, such as add(11)(q23), +19 and +der(9;22). SNUCML-02 has the same BCR-ABL fusion transcript as was seen in K562 cells, but has no mutations in the ABL kinase domain. SNUCML-02 was more resistant to imatinib (STI571, Gleevec, Glivec) than other CML cell lines (K562, Kcl22, and BV173). SNUCML-02 has constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. In addition, interleukin-3 induced c-ABL phosphorylation and constitutively enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was not inhibited by imatinib in SNUCML-02.
SNUCML-02 is a new established cell line with a relatively high level of resistance to imatinib, which is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of CML progression, and will be useful in developing optimal therapeutic strategies for this ailment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations of nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) are known to be related to good prognosis in AML patients lacking FLT3 internal tandem
duplication (FLT3-ITD). Recently, NPM1 mutations other than type A were reported, but their clinical significance is not well
known. Retrospective medical record review of 106 de novo AML patients lacking FLT3-ITD, who received induction chemotherapy
from three centers in Korea between 1997 and 2007, was performed. Direct sequencing of NPM1 and RT-PCR for FLT3-ITD was performed
on genomic DNA derived from blood samples of patients before induction chemotherapy for detection of mutations. NPM1 mutation
was detected in 18 patients, where 13 were type A mutants and 5 were non-type A mutants. CR, CR1-D and OS was not different
according to NPM1 mutational status overall. But, non-type A NPM1 mutation was related to shorter CR1-D when compared with
NPM1 wild types and NPM1 type A mutation (p=0.004). OS was shorter in non-type A mutants when compared with NPM1 wild-type patients and NPM1 type A mutants (p=0.001). The type of mutation of NPM1 is important for prognosis in de novo AML lacking FLT3-ITD. Non-A type NPM1 mutation
is a poor prognostic factor.
International Journal of Hematology 07/2009; 90(1):1-5. DOI:10.1007/s12185-009-0350-1 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impact of FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase activation via internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the juxtamembrane region on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still controversial. Recent researches reveal a role of FLT3 in monocyte differentiation in hematopoiesis. We analyzed the clinical impact of FLT3 alterations in adult AML patients excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who received induction chemotherapy according to morphologic classification. Retrospective review of medical records from three centers in Korea between 1997 and 2007 was performed. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on genomic DNA derived from blood samples of patients before induction chemotherapy for FLT3-ITD detection. We assessed overall survival (OS), first disease-free survival (1-DFS), and response to induction chemotherapy. One hundred eighty-four patients (median age 49.1 years, range 16.0-76.5) with AML excluding APL received induction chemotherapy from three centers. FLT3-ITD was detected in 22 patients. One hundred forty-one patients were below age 60. One hundred seventy-nine patients received induction chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin (AId) regimen. One hundred nineteen patients achieved complete remission (CR) after first induction chemotherapy. FLT3-ITD was not related to achievement of CR. 1-DFS was longer in patients without FLT3-ITD (median 1-DFS 16.5 vs. 8.5 months, p = 0.025). 1-DFS was not different according to FLT3-ITD status in nonmonocyte lineage leukemia (p = 0.355), while 1-DFS was shorter in monocyte lineage leukemia for FLT3-ITD positive patients (20.9 vs. 2.4 months, p < 0.001). FLT3-ITD had no impact on OS except for monocyte lineage, where OS was significantly shorter in FLT3-ITD positive group (39.4 vs. 6.0 months, p = 0.026). Moreover FLT3-ITD was stronger prognostic factors in monocyte lineage AML than risk stratification based on cytogenetics. Status of FLT3-ITD should be analyzed differently in AML patients according to morphologic profile. FLT3-ITD is a predictive and prognostic marker only in monocyte lineage patients. This result suggests an existence of distinct subset of monocyte lineage AML with leukemogenesis involving FLT3 activating pathway.
Annals of Hematology 03/2009; 88(11):1089-97. DOI:10.1007/s00277-009-0733-7 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth of multiple myeloma cells is controlled by various factors derived from host bone marrow microenvironments. Interaction between multiple myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in the expression of adhesive molecules and secretion of growth factors involved in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth, survival, and resistance to anticancer drugs. Recently, the possibility of developing novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategies targeting both MM cells and MM cell-BMSC interactions has been discussed. Here we present data showing that curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric compounds extracted from the rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa, effectively reduced the growth of MM cells and BMSCs. Upon treatment with curcumin, IL-6/sIL-6R-induced STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation was dramatically reduced in the co-cultured cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and VEGF, factors that are associated with the progression of multiple myeloma, from both MM cells and BMSCs. In a combination treatment with curcumin and bortezomib, IL-6/sIL-6R-induced STAT3 and Erk phosphorylation was effectively inhibited. Moreover, this combination treatment synergistically inhibited the growth of MM cells co-cultured with BMSCs as compared to controls. Taken together, these results indicate that curcumin potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of bortezomib in MM suggesting this combination therapy to be of value in the clinical management of MM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) regulates the transcription of a number of genes involved in a variety of cellular responses, including cell survival, inflammation, and differentiation. NF-kappaB is activated by a variety of stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines, mitogens, growth factors, and stress-inducing agents. Aberrant NF-kappaB expression is considered to be one of the oncogenic factors of cancer and the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB is observed in several hematologic disorders [classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma (MM)], and the modulation of NF-kappaB activation is emerging as a promising novel anticancer therapeutic strategy.Therefore, we focused on the regulation of NF-kappaB activation in MM. When U266 cells were treated with 6-amino-4-quinazoline, an NF-kappaB activation inhibitor, we determined that it most effectively blocked the interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways among different signaling inhibitors. The results of the luciferase assay indicated that 6-amino-4-quinazoline inhibited NF-kappaB activation with diminished NF-kappaB protein bound to NF-kappaB DNA binding sites. In addition, 6-amino-4-quinazoline suppressed the production of IL-6, which affected MM cell proliferation. Furthermore, combined treatment with bortezomib and 6-amino-4-quinazoline effectively inhibited the IL-6 and soluble IL-6R-induced activation of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Our data showed that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation abrogated MM cell proliferation induced by the IL-6 pathway, and might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcumin is a naturally occurring biologically active compound, and it has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-oxidative properties. It is known for its anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects in several cancer cells. Curcumin's effects on the mechanisms of cell survival and the expression of various cytokines were investigated in U266 cells and the in vivo effects of curcumin were examined using an animal model.
The Korean journal of hematology 01/2008; 43(1). DOI:10.5045/kjh.2008.43.1.19
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although STI571 still plays a key role in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, emergence of resistance to STI571 is a major obstacle to successful outcome. Therefore, new agents that increase the sensitivity of chronic myeloid leukemia cells to STI571 are urgently required. SK-7041 is a novel hybrid synthetic histone deacetylase inhibitor derived from the hydroxamic acid of trichostatin A and pyridyl ring of MS-275. Its cytotoxic effects were examined both as a single agent and in combination with STI571 in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. SK-7041 exhibited growth inhibition of leukemia cells by downregulation of CDK4, cyclin E and cyclin B1 expression, and by upregulation of p21 expression with subsequent activation of the mitochondria-mediated caspase pathway. SK-7041 showed synergism on growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) when combined with STI571. The synergistic effect was mediated through the same mechanism as in SK-7041 alone, involving reduction of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Taken together, our findings suggest that SK-7041 is active against leukemia and offers new prospects for overcoming STI571 resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia.