ABSTRACT: Our aim was to reveal the molecular characteristics of human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) genes from 1947 to 2009 in China.
129 HA gene sequences were downloaded from NCBI's GenBank and analyzed by DNASTAR software. Additionally, the three-dimensional structure of HA protein was predicted by the SWISS-MODEL service.
First, 2009 Chinese HA genes were 99% identical to those of Mexican and American ones; their key sites remained highly conserved. Second, 50 Chinese strains from 1947 to 2009 clustered by the year of isolation, and 2009 strains had only 70% identity to 1947-2008 ones. Third, over the past 60 years, 3 receptor-binding (RB) sites and 2 of the 8 glycosylation sites (amino acids 279 and 290) underwent considerable changes while the cleavage sites remained stable. Fourth, the human HA sequences differed completely from swine and avian isolates. Finally, the mutation of cleavage sites can change the three-dimensional structures, but single mutations cannot.
Thus, in the past 60 years, Chinese H1N1 influenza HA genes kept stable with high affinity and low pathogenicity to human except changes in 2 glycosylation and 3 RB sites which were associated with the pandemic strength, range and host specificity of viruses.
Intervirology 02/2011; 54(5):233-45. · 2.34 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This paper described the epidemiology and controlling experiences of influenza H1N1 in Hangzhou in the past 1 year. A total of 2,078 cases confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR till March 31, 2010, were analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software. During the early pandemic stage, a patient must be tested for H1N1 nucleic acid once he/she had influenza-like symptoms with the epidemiological history in 7 days, and be diagnosed if it was positive. But in the pandemic peak, we made efforts to identify and save severe cases combined with pneumonia or hypoxemia or respiratory failure or septic shock or multiple organ dysfunctions and failure. In general, the prevalence was 2.77/100,000 (2,078/7,510,844); severity rate, 10.44% (217/2,078); fatality rate, 0.48% (10/2,078). The carrier and secondary attack rate were 9.52% (58/612) and 8.66% (53/612), respectively. About 50% of serious cases and 100% of deaths had the basic underlying diseases: cardiovascular diseases, 13.66% (25/217); chronic lung disease, 12.02% (22/217); pregnant, 7.1% (13/217). Of all cases aged from 1 month to 89 years, 52.99% (1,435/2,708) were in the 10-29 years, with most of them distributed in downtown area. The timeline showed two epidemic peaks occurred in September and November 2009, respectively. Furthermore, the hemagglutinin gene remained 99% identical with the American and vaccine strains, but only 70% with the 1947-2008 Chinese strains. In conclusion, Hangzhou pandemic influenza H1N1 was caused by the highly conserved virus, with low prevalence, transmission, and mortality, because we took efficient controlling methods.
Journal of Medical Virology 12/2010; 82(12):1985-95. · 2.82 Impact Factor
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 02/2009; 30(1):99-100.