[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichothecene mycotoxins, potent translational inhibitors that are associated with human food poisonings and damp-building illnesses, are of considerable concern to animal and human health. Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes but less is known about the anorectic effects of foodborne Type A trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin), airborne Type D trichothecenes (e.g. satratoxin G [SG]) or functionally analogous metabolites that impair protein synthesis. Here, we utilized a well-described mouse model of food intake to compare the anorectic potencies of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and SG to that of emetine, a medicinal alkaloid derived from ipecac that inhibits translation. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration with T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine and SG evoked anorectic responses that occurred within 0.5 h that lasted up to 96, 96, 3 and 96 h, respectively, with lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) being 0.1, 0.1, 2.5 and 0.25 mg/kg BW, respectively. When delivered via natural routes of exposure, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine (oral) and SG (intranasal) induced anorectic responses that lasted up to 48, 48, 3 and 6 h, respectively with LOAELs being 0.1, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. All four compounds were generally much more potent than DON which was previously observed to have LOAELs of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW after IP and oral dosing, respectively. Taken together, these anorectic potency data will be valuable in discerning the relative risks from trichothecenes and other translational inhibitors of natural origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) elicits robust anorectic and emetic effects in several animal species. However, less is known about the potential for naturally-occurring and synthetic congeners of this trichothecene to cause analogous responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that alterations in DON structure found in the plant metabolite deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) and two pharmacologically active synthetic DON derivatives, EN139528 and EN139544 differentially impact their potential to evoke food refusal and emesis. In a nocturnal mouse food consumption model, oral administration with DON, D3G, EN139528 or EN139544 at doses from 2.5 to 10 mg/kg BW induced anorectic responses that lasted up to 16, 6, 6 and 3 h, respectively. Anorectic potency rank orders were EN139544>DON>EN139528>D3G from 0 to 0.5 h but DON>D3G>EN139528>EN139544 from 0 to 3 h. Oral exposure to each of the four compounds at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg BW) stimulated plasma elevations of the gut satiety peptides cholecystokinin and to a lesser extent, peptide YY3-36 that corresponded to reduced food consumption. In a mink emesis model, oral administration of increasing doses of the congeners differentially induced emesis, causing marked decreases in latency to emesis with corresponding increases in both duration and number of emetic events. The minimum emetic doses for DON, EN139528, D3G and EN139544 were 0.05, 0.5, 2, and 5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that while all three DON congeners elicited anorectic responses that mimicked DON over a narrow dose range, they were markedly less potent than the parent mycotoxin at inducing emesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expression. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528's effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 5 is February 28, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Review of Food Science and Technology 01/2014; · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX) and nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg BW) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY3-36 concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY3-36 was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY3-36 might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces a ribotoxic stress response in mononuclear phagocytes that mediate aberrant multi-organ upregulation of TNF-α, interleukins and chemokines in experimental animals. While other DON congeners also exist as food contaminants or pharmacologically-active derivatives, it is not known how these compounds affect expression of these cytokine genes in vivo. To address this gap, we compared in mice the acute effects of oral DON exposure to that of seven relevant congeners on splenic expression of representative cytokine mRNAs after 2 and 6 h. Congeners included the 8-ketotrichothecenes 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), fusarenon X (FX), nivalenol (NIV), the plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (D3G) and two synthetic DON derivatives with novel satiety-inducing properties (EN139528 and EN139544). DON markedly induced transient upregulation of TNF-α IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-2, CCL-2 and CCL-7 mRNA expression. The two ADONs also evoked mRNA expression of these genes but to a relatively lesser extent. FX induced more persistent responses than the other DON congeners and, compared to DON, was: 1) more potent in inducing IL-1β mRNA, 2) approximately equipotent in the induction of TNF-α and CCL-2 mRNAs, and 3) less potent at upregulating IL-6, CXCL-2, and CCL-2 mRNAs. EN139528’s effects were similar to NIV, the least potent 8-ketotrichothecene, while D3G and EN139544 were largely incapable of eliciting cytokine or chemokine mRNA responses. Taken together, the results presented herein provide important new insights into the potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic DON congeners to elicit aberrant mRNA upregulation of cytokines associated with acute and chronic trichothecene toxicity.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2014; · 3.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune diseases.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100255. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates cereal-based food, interacts with the ribosome to cause translation inhibition and activate stress kinases in mononuclear phagocytes via the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ribosome functions as a platform for spatiotemporal regulation of translation inhibition and RSR. Specifically, we employed stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics to quantify the early (≤ 30 min) DON-induced changes in ribosome-associated proteins in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage. Changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome were determined using off-gel isoelectric focusing and titanium dioxide chromatography, respectively, in conjunction with LC-MS/MS. Following exposure of RAW 264.7 to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL), we observed an overall decrease in translation-related proteins interacting with the ribosome, concurrently with a compensatory increase in proteins that mediate protein folding, biosynthesis, and cellular organization. Alterations in the ribosome-associated phosphoproteome reflected proteins that modulate translational and transcriptional regulation, and others that converged with signaling pathways known to overlap with phosphorylation changes characterized previously in intact RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that the ribosome plays a central role as a hub for association and phosphorylation of proteins involved in the coordination of early translation inhibition as well as recruitment and maintenance of stress-related proteins - both of which enable cells to adapt and respond to ribotoxin exposure. This study provides a template for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of DON and other ribosome-targeting agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) targets the innate immune system and is of public health significance because of its frequent presence in human and animal food. DON-induced proinflammatory gene expression and apoptosis in the lymphoid tissue have been associated with a ribotoxic stress response (RSR) that involves rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To better understand the relationship between protein phosphorylation and DON's immunotoxic effects, stable isotope dimethyl labeling-based proteomics in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography was employed to quantitatively profile the immediate (≤30 min) phosphoproteome changes in the spleens of mice orally exposed to 5 mg/kg body weight DON. A total of 90 phosphoproteins indicative of novel phosphorylation events were significantly modulated by DON. In addition to critical branches and scaffolds of MAPK signaling being affected, DON exposure also altered phosphorylation of proteins that mediate PI3K/AKT pathways. Gene ontology analysis revealed that DON exposure affected biological processes such as cytoskeleton organization, regulation of apoptosis, and lymphocyte activation and development, which likely contribute to immune dysregulation associated with DON-induced RSR. Consistent with these findings, DON impacted phosphorylation of proteins within diverse immune cell populations, including monocytes, macrophages, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and mast cells. Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis further indicated that DON evoked several distinctive temporal profiles of regulated phosphopeptides. Overall, the findings from this investigation can serve as a template for future focused exploration and modeling of cellular responses associated with the immunotoxicity evoked by DON and other ribotoxins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a potent ribotoxic mycotoxin produced by the cereal blight fungus Fusarium graminearum, commonly contaminates grain-based foods. Oral exposure to DON causes decreased food intake, reduced weight gain and body weight loss in experimental animals - effects that have been linked to dysregulation of hormones responsible for mediating satiety at the central nervous system level. When diet-induced obese (DIO) mice are fed DON, they consume less food, eventually achieving body weights of control diet-fed mice. Here, we extended these findings by characterizing: 1) reversibility of DON-induced body weight loss and anorexia in DIO mice and 2) the role of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) which has been previously linked to initiation of the ribotoxic stress response. The results demonstrated that DON-induced weight loss was reversible in DIO mice and this effect corresponded to initiation of a robust hyperphagic response. When DIO mice deficient in PKR were exposed to DON, they exhibited weight suppression similar to DIO wild-type fed the toxin, suggesting the toxin's weight effects were not dependent on PKR. Taken together, DON's effects on food consumption and body weight are not permanent and, furthermore, PKR is not an essential signaling molecule for DON's anorectic and weight effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp. that frequently occurs in cereal grains, has been associated with human and animal food poisoning. Although a common hallmark of DON-induced toxicity is rapid onset of emesis, the mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. Recently our laboratory has demonstrated that the mink (Neovison vison) is a suitable small animal model for investigating trichothecene-induced emesis. The goal of the present study was to use this model to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and cholecystokinin (CCK), and the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in DON-induced emesis. Following intraperitoneal exposure to DON at 100 and 250 ug/kg bw, emesis induction ensued within 15 to 30 min and then persisted up to 120 min. Plasma DON measurement revealed that this emesis period correlated with the rapid distribution and clearance of the toxin. Significant elevations in both plasma PYY3-36 (30 to 60 min) and 5-HT (60 min) but not CCK were observed during emesis. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y receptor 2 antagonist JNJ-31020028 attenuated DON- and PYY-induced emesis whereas the CCK1 receptor antagonist devezapide did not alter DON's emetic effects. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron completely suppressed induction of vomiting by DON and the 5-HT inducer cisplatin. Granisetron pretreatment also partially blocked PYY3-36-induced emesis suggesting a potential upstream role for this gut satiety hormone in 5-HT release. Taken together, the results suggest that both PYY3-36 and 5-HT play contributory roles in DON-induced emesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin alternariol (AOH), a frequent contaminant in fruit and cereal products, is known to induce DNA damage with subsequent cell cycle arrest. Here we elucidated the effects of AOH on stages of cell cycle progression using the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. AOH resulted in an accumulation of cells in the G2/M-phase (4N). Most cells exhibited a large G2 nucleus whereas numbers of true mitotic cells were reduced relative to control. Both cyclin B1 and p-cdc2 levels increased, while cyclin B1 remained in the cytoplasm; suggesting arrest in the G2/M transition point. Remarkably, after exposure to AOH for 24h, most of the cells exhibited abnormally shaped nuclei, as evidenced by partly divided nuclei, nuclear blebs, polyploidy and micronuclei (MN). AOH treatment also induced abnormal Aurora B bridges, suggesting that cytokinesis was interfered within cells undergoing karyokinesis. A minor part of the resultant G1 tetraploid (4N) cells re-entered the S-phase and progressed to 8N cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecenemycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤30min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20 percent of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) suppresses growth in experimental animals - an adverse effect that was used to establish the tolerable daily intake for this toxin. DON ingestion has been recently found to suppress plasma insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS), a protein essential for growth. Studies were conducted to explore the feasibility of using plasma IGFALS as a biomarker of effect for DON. In the first study, weanling mice were fed 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10ppm DON and weight and plasma IGFALS determined at intervals over 9 wk. Reduced body weight gains were detectable beginning at wk 5 in the 10ppm dose and wk 7 at the 5ppm dose. Plasma IGFALS was significantly depressed at wk 5 in the 5 and 10ppm groups at wk 9 in the 10ppm group. Depressed IGFALS significantly correlated with reduced body weight at wk 5 and 9. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the BMDL and BMD for plasma IGFALS reduction were 1.1 and 3.0ppm DON and for weight reduction were 2.1 and 4.5ppm DON. In the second study, it was demonstrated that mice fed 15ppm DON diet had significantly less plasma IGFALS than mice fed identical amounts of control diet. Thus DON's influence on IGFALS likely reflects the combined effects of reduced food intake as well as its physiological action involving suppressors of cytokine signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that plasma IGFALS might be a useful biomarker for DON's adverse effects on growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternariol (AOH), a mycotoxin produced by Alternaria sp, is often found as a contaminant in fruit and cereal products. Here we employed the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 to test the hypothesis that AOH causes toxicity as a response to DNA damage. AOH at concentrations of 15-30μM almost completely blocked cell proliferation. Within 30min treatment, AOH (30μM) significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, DNA base oxidations as well as DNA strand breaks and/or alkaline labile sites were detected by the comet assay after 2h exposure of AOH. Cell death (mostly necrosis) was observed after prolonged exposure to the highest concentration of AOH (60μM for 24 and 48h) in our study. The DNA damage response involved phosphorylation (activation) of histone H2AX and check point kinase-1- and 2 (Chk-1/2). Moreover, AOH activated p53 and increased the expression of p21, Cyclin B, MDM2, and Sestrin 2; likewise the level of several miRNA was affected. AOH-induced Sestrin 2 expression was regulated by p53 and could at least partly be inhibited by antioxidants, suggesting a role of ROS in the response. Interestingly, the addition of antioxidants did not inhibit cell cycle arrest. Although the formation of ROS by itself was not directly linked cell proliferation, AOH-induced DNA damage and resulting transcriptional changes in p21, MDM2, and Cyclin B likely contribute to the reduced cell proliferation; while Sestrin 2 would contribute to the oxidant defense.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 09/2012; · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins. Capillary electrophoresis confirmed that the antibiotic anisomycin (≥25ng/ml), the macrocylic trichothecene satratoxin G (SG) (≥10ng/ml) and ribosome-inactivating protein ricin (≥300ng/ml) induced 18s and 28s rRNA fragmentation patterns identical to that observed for DON. Also, as found for DON, inhibition of p38, double-stranded RNA-activated kinase (PKR) and hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck) suppressed MAPK anisomycin-induced rRNA cleavage, while, in contrast, their inhibition did not affect SG- and ricin-induced rRNA fragmentation. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ and pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suppressed rRNA cleavage induced by anisomycin, SG and ricin, indicating that these ribotoxins shared with DON a conserved downstream pathway. Activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 concurrently with apoptosis further suggested that rRNA cleavage occurred in parallel with both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of programmed cell death. When specific inhibitors of cathepsins L and B (lysosomal cysteine cathepsins active at cytosolic neutral pH) were tested, only the former impaired anisomycin-, SG-, ricin- and DON-induced rRNA cleavage. Taken together, the data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2012; · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the acute toxic effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin), a known cause of human food poisoning, have been well-characterized in several animal species, much less is known about closely related 8-ketotrichothecenes that similarly occur in cereal grains colonized by toxigenic fusaria. To address this, we compared potencies of DON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), fusarenon X (FX) and nivalenol (NIV) in the mink emesis model following intraperitoneal (ip) and oral administration. All five congeners dose-dependently induced emesis by both administration methods. With increasing doses, there were marked decreases in latency to emesis with corresponding increases in emesis duration and number of emetic events. The effective doses resulting in emetic events in 50% of the animals (EDs(50)) for ip exposure to DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, FX and NIV were 80, 170, 180, 70, and 60 µg/kg bw respectively, and for oral exposure were 30, 40, 290, 30 and 250 µg/kg bw, respectively. The emetic potency of DON determined here was comparable to that reported in analogous studies conducted in pigs and dogs suggesting that the mink is a suitable small animal model for investigating acute trichothecene toxicity. The use of a mouse pica model, based on the consumption of kaolin, was also evaluated as a possible surrogate for studying emesis but was found unsuitable. From a public health perspective, comparative emetic potency data derived from small animal models such as the mink should be useful for establishing toxic equivalency factors for DON and other trichothecenes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of cereal-based foods, is a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to activate innate immune cells in vivo and in vitro. While it is recognized that DON induces transcription and mRNA stability of inflammation-associated mRNAs in mononuclear phagocytes, it is not known if this toxin affects translation of selected mRNA species in the cellular pool. To address this question, we employed a focused inflammation/autoimmunity PCR array to compare DON-induced changes in profiles of polysome-associated mRNA transcripts (translatome) to total cellular mRNA transcripts (transcriptome) in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model. Exposure to DON at 250 ng/ml (0.84 μM) for 6 h induced robust expression changes in inflammatory response genes including cytokines, cytokine receptors, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and transcription factors, with 73% of the changes being highly comparable within transcriptome and translatome populations. When expression changes of selected representative inflammatory response genes in the polysome and cellular mRNA pools were quantified in a follow-up study by real-time PCR, closely coordinated regulation of the translatome and transcriptome was confirmed, however, modest but significant differences in the relative expression of some genes within the two pools were also detectable. Taken together, DON's capacity to alter translation expression of inflammation-associated genes appears to be driven predominantly by selective transcription and mRNA stabilization that have been reported previously, however, a small subset of these genes appear to be further regulated at the translational level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. While this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute intraperitoneal (ip) exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide or ghrelin, however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in a dose-dependent fashion. Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5 mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15 to 120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Oralingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation as well as anorexia comparable to that observed for ip exposure. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY and CCK might be critical mediators of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.
Nutrition Research Reviews 06/2012; 25(1):162-79. · 3.86 Impact Factor