Jin Wook Kim

Hoseo University, Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea

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Publications (164)253.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Blue phosphorescence organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with interfacial mixed layer (IML) were fabricated to observe their electrical characteristics. The IML was composed of mCP as host material in the emissive layer (EML) and 3TPYMB as material for the electron transport layer (ETL) with the blue phosphorescent dopant FIrpic. PHOLEDs with IML were improved by 41% of current density and 35% of luminous efficiency compared to PHOLEDs without IML. The electron and energy transition mechanisms between EML and ETL in the presence of IML were confirmed through I–V–L characteristics and blue color coordinates.
    Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials 07/2014; · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blue PHOLEDs with interfacial mixed layer (IML) were fabricated to observe their electrical characteristics. IML was composed of mCP as host material in EML and 3TPYMB as electron transport material with phosphorescent blue dopant of FIrpic. PHOLED with IML were improved 41% of current density and 35% of luminous efficiency comparing to PHOLED without IML.
    SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. 06/2014; 45(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We fabricated white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with the primary color(Red, Green and Blue) in single emissive layer using NPB, TCTA and TAPC as hole transporting layer (HTL) having different triplet energy level to observe triplet exciton's behavior. White PHOLED with TAPC having higher triplet energy level shows 51cd/A of luminous efficiency, and CIEXY color coordinate of (0.35, 0.40) at 10V.
    SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. 06/2014; 45(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Temozolomide resistance is associated with multiple DNA repair pathways. We investigated homeobox (HOX) genes for their role in temozolomide resistance, focusing on the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, and we tested their therapeutic implications in conjunction with O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status. Two glioblastoma cell lines with different MGMT statuses were used to test the augmented anticancer effect of temozolomide with HOXA10 inhibition. In vitro experiments, including gene expression studies with RNA interference, were performed to verify the related pathway dynamics. HOXA10 inhibition reinforced temozolomide sensitivity independent of MGMT status and was related to the impaired double-strand DNA breakage repair process resulting from the downregulation of Rad51 paralogs. Early growth response 1 (EGR1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were the regulatory mediators between HOXA10 and the HR pathway. Moreover, HOXA10 inhibition selectively affected the nuclear function of PTEN without interfering with its cytoplasmic function of suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The mechanism of HR pathway regulation by HOXA10 harbors another target mechanism for overcoming temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma patients.
    Genes & cancer. 05/2014; 5(5-6):165-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is a metastatic cancer invading the central nervous system (CNS). We previously reported a metabolomic diagnostic approach as tested on an animal model and compared with current modalities. Here, we provide a proof of concept by applying it to human LC originating from lung cancer, the most common cause of CNS metastasis. Cerebrospinal fluid from LC (n = 26) and normal groups (n = 41) were obtained, and the diagnosis was established with clinical signs, cytology, MRI and biochemical tests. The cytology on the CSF, the current gold standard, exhibited 69% sensitivity (~ 100% specificity) from the first round of CSF tapping. In comparison, the NMR spectra on the CSF showed a clear difference in the metabolic profile between the LC and normal groups. Multivariate analysis and cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 92%, the specificity of 96%, and the AUC of 0.991. Further spectral and statistical analysis identified myo-inositol (p < 5 x 10-14), creatine (p < 7 x 10-8), lactate (p < 9 x 10-4), alanine (p < 7.9 x 10-3), and citrate (p < 3 x 10-4) as the most contributory metabolites, whose combination exhibited an ROC diagnostic AUC of 0.996. In addition, the metabolic profile could be correlated with the grading of radiological leptomeningeal enhancement (R2 = 0.3881 and p = 6.66 x 10-4), suggesting its potential utility in grading LC. Overall, we propose that the metabolomic approach might augment current diagnostic modalities for LC, the accurate diagnosis of which remains a challenge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • The American surgeon 04/2014; 80(4):114-115. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is primarily caused by lethal heart disorders resulting in structural and arrhythmogenic abnormalities, is one of the prevalent modes of death in most developed countries. Myocardial ischemia, mainly due to coronary artery disease, is the most common type of heart disease leading to SCD. However, postmortem diagnosis of SCD is frequently complicated by obscure histological evidence. Here, we show that certain mRNA species, namely those encoding hemoglobin A1/2 and B (Hba1/2 and Hbb, respectively) as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (Pdk4), exhibit distinct postmortem expression patterns in the left ventricular free wall of SCD subjects when compared with their expression patterns in the corresponding tissues from control subjects with non-cardiac causes of death. Hba1/2 and Hbb mRNA expression levels were higher in ischemic SCD cases with acute myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease without recent infarction, and even in cardiac death subjects without apparent pathological signs of heart injuries, than control subjects. By contrast, Pdk4 mRNA was expressed at lower levels in SCD subjects. In conclusion, we found that altered myocardial Hba1/2, Hbb, and Pdk4 mRNA expression patterns can be employed as molecular signatures of fatal cardiac dysfunction to forensically implicate SCD as the primary cause of death.
    Molecules and Cells 03/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed this retrospective study to analyze the outcome of patients with cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We analyzed 19 patients with CSHs who were treated with SRS between 1998 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 35-73 years), and 16 (84.2 %) of the patients were female. SRS was performed as a primary treatment for 18 patients and to treat a residual lesion after surgical resection in one patient. Nine (47.4 %) patients had cranial neuropathies in 14 cranial nerves before SRS, whereas five (26.3 %) patients were initially asymptomatic. The mean volume of the CSHs was 6.1 ± 7.2 cm(3) (range, 0.3-32.3 cm(3)), and the median marginal dose at the 50 % isodose line was 14.5 Gy (range, 11.5-16.0 Gy). The mean follow-up period was 37 months (range, 12-85 months). At the last follow-up, the lesion volume had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume had decreased to 26 % (range, 0-70 %) of the initial volume at the last follow-up MRI. The first follow-up MRI, performed 6.1 ± 1.0 months after the SRS, showed that the tumor volume had decreased to 41 % (range, 0-88 %) of the initial volume. All 14 of the cranial neuropathies observed before SRS had improved, with complete remission in 12 (85.7 %) cranial nerves and partial remission in two (14.3 %). There were no radiation-induced neuropathies or complications during the follow-up period. SRS appears to be an effective and safe treatment modality for the management of CSHs.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 03/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to characterize physical properties and sediment structure (micro- and macro structures) for gassy sediments from the southeastern inner shelf of Korea, physical property measurements and sediment structure analysis for two sediment cores were carried out. One core (SG12-PC4) was collected from gassy sediments, and the other core (SG12-PC10) was obtained from gas-free sediments. The micro- and macro-structures for the gassy core were investigated using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning and soft X-radiography. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs were used for understanding the clay fabric in the gassy sediments. Wet bulk density and porosity for both gassy sediments and gas-free sediments are characterized by a general trend caused by compaction with burial depth. On the other hand, the velocity shows different patterns in both burial depth and the correlation between velocity and other physical properties. Thus, the gas plays an important role in the control of velocity in the gassy sediments. This is clearly seen in the relationship between characteristic CT images and low velocity in the depth intervals characterized by gas and/or degassing cracks. In addition, shear strength measurements for gassy sediments have lower values than gas-free sediments, due to the weak bond between clay particles caused by gas and/or degassing. This suggests that original clay microstructure could be rearranged due to forces that gas exerts on clay particles. From CT images of both cross section and top-views, we may estimate possible conduits of gas migration within the gas-charged interval. Using SEM photomicrographs, the various traces (e.g., displacement of clay particles, oval-shape depressions) created by the escape of gas bubbles were identified on the images. Therefore, the presence of gas in marine sediments may control not only the variation of physical properties (e.g., velocity, shear strength) but also the arrangement of clay particles.
    Quaternary International 01/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. Methods We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Results Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (<3.5 ng/mL) increased after the 12-week desmopressin treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Conclusion Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment.
    Urology 01/2014; 83(4):837–842. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    Jin Wook Kim
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on modulation of growth hormone (GH) and its downstream actions on periparturient dairy cows undergoing physiological and metabolic adaptations. During the periparturient period, cows experience a negative energy balance implicating that the feed intake does not meet the total energy demand for the onset of lactation. To regulate this metabolic condition, key hormones of somatotropic axis such as GH, IGF-I and insulin must coordinate adaptations required for the preservation of metabolic homeostasis. The hepatic GHR1A transcript and GHR protein are reduced at parturition, but recovers on postpartum. However, plasma IGF-I concentration remains low even though hepatic abundance of the GHR and IGF-I mRNA return to pre-calving value. This might be caused by alternation in IGFBPs and ALS genes, which consequently affect the plasma IGF-I stability. Plasma insulin level declines in a parallel manner with the decrease in plasma IGF-I after parturition. Increased GH stimulates the lipolytic effects and hepatic glucose synthesis to meet the energy requirement for mammary lactose synthesis, suggesting that GH antagonizes insulin-dependent glucose uptake and attenuates insulin action to decrease gluconeogenesis.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2014; 27(1):147-54. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and AimRecent prospective studies have shown that the sequential therapy has not achieved the target Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rate of >80% in Korea. The aim of this study was to therefore assess the efficacy of the hybrid therapy as a first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in a prospective trial. Methods From December 2012 to August 2013, 184 patients with confirmed H. pylori infections received either the 14-day of hybrid therapy or the 14-day of sequential therapy. Eradication outcomes were evaluated using a 13C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after treatment cessation. ResultsA total of 184 patients (90 receiving hybrid treatment and 94 receiving sequential treatment) completed the study. The eradication rates of the hybrid and sequential therapy groups were 81.1% (73/90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 73.0–89.2%) and 79.8% (75/94; 95% CI = 71.7–87.9%), respectively, by intention-to–treat analysis (P = 0.821). By per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 85.9% (73/85; 95% CI = 78.5–93.3%) and 82.0% (73/89; 95% CI = 74.0–89.9%; P = 0.489), respectively. There were no significant intergroup differences in treatment compliance or discontinuation induced by severe side effects. Conclusions The hybrid therapy achieved acceptable eradication rate (85.9%), but not statistically significantly higher rates than the sequential therapy (82.0%). Further studies are therefore needed to identify first-line treatments with even better eradication rates in the Korean population.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 01/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Problems related to string inclusion and non-inclusion have been vigorously studied in diverse fields such as data compression, molecular biology and computer security. Given a finite set of positive strings and a finite set of negative strings , a string α is a consistent superstring if every positive string is a substring of α and no negative string is a substring of α. The shortest (resp. longest) consistent superstring problem is to find a string α that is the shortest (resp. longest) among all the consistent superstrings for the given sets of strings. In this paper, we first propose a new graph model for consistent superstrings for given and . In our graph model, the set of strings represented by paths satisfying some conditions is the same as the set of consistent superstrings for and . We also present algorithms for the shortest and the longest consistent superstring problems. Our algorithms solve the consistent superstring problems for all cases, including cases that are not considered in previous work. Moreover, our algorithms solve in polynomial time the consistent superstring problems for more cases than the previous algorithms. For the polynomially solvable cases, our algorithms are more efficient than the previous ones.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 01/2014; 372(2016):20130134. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cause of testicular cancer remains controversial and thought to be multifactorial. However, more recent data show that carcinogenic potential of altered testicular environment might induce cancer and that early surgical correction might decrease the chance of cancer development. We report a case of a 20-month-old boy who underwent radical orchiectomy because of testicular cancer detected 9 months after orchiopexy of undescended testis.
    Urology 12/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy for recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA). A multi-center retrospective trial enrolled seventy-two patients with histologically proven AO/AOA who underwent TMZ chemotherapy for their recurrent tumors from 2006 to 2010. TMZ was administered orally (150 to 200 mg/m(2)/day) for 5 days per 28 days until unacceptable toxicity occurred or tumor progression was observed. TMZ chemotherapy cycles administered was median 5.3 (range, 1-41). The objective response rate was 24% including 8 cases (11%) of complete response and another 23 patients (32%) were remained as stable disease. Severe side effects (≥grade 3) occurred only in 9 patients (13%). Progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was a median 8.0 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-10.0). The time to recurrence of a year or after was a favorable prognostic factor for PFS (p<0.05). Overall survival (OS) was apparently differed by the patient's histology, as AOA patients survived a median OS of 18.0 months while AO patients did not reach median OS at median follow-up of 11.5 months (range 2.7-65 months). Good performance status of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 and 1 showed prolonged OS (p<0.01). For recurrent AO/AOA after surgery followed by radiation therapy, TMZ could be recommended as a salvage therapy at the estimated efficacy equal to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy at first relapse. For patients previously treated with PCV, TMZ is a favorable therapeutic option as 2nd line salvage chemotherapy with an acceptable toxicity rate.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 12/2013; 54(6):489-95. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output.
    International Journal of Urology 11/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is a prevalent disease of the aging male with much confusion to its associated presentation, diagnosis, and comorbidities. We investigated the overall prevalence of TDS and its putative symptoms and associated diseases in a nationwide study on participants recruited from routine checkup. One thousand eight hundred seventy-five participants seeking biennial health checkup were enrolled from a nationwide distribution of randomly selected registry of primary clinics. Putative symptoms and comorbidities were assessed for serum testosterone-dependent prevalence change, independent of age. The identified symptoms were then assessed by multivariate backward stepwise binominal regression to determine the optimal reference level of testosterone and the strength of the associated comorbidities. TDS was assessed by serum testosterone, the Aging Males' Symptom scale, and the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male questionnaire. Patient body habitus measurements and history of associated comorbidities were also described. The dependent variables included the age-specific prevalence of decreased testosterone and the probability of TDS-specific symptoms. Grossly 10.2% of the participants fell into the criteria for TDS. Testosterone was highly age dependent, and most putative symptoms of TDS showed significant age dependence but was not affected by serum testosterone levels. However, the symptoms of decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, and comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and obesity showed relevant dependence on serum testosterone levels as well as age above 50 years of age. Furthermore, these symptoms were also affected at different serum testosterone thresholds. Decreased libido increased significantly at serum testosterone levels of 550 ng/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.295, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.047-1.601), and erectile dysfunction was affected by serum testosterone levels at 250 ng/dL (OR = 1.369, 95% CI = 1.005-1.866). Most symptoms and diseases thought to be associated with TDS are primarily age dependent. Few sexual symptoms and diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity show testosterone dependence only at older ages. Moon DG, Kim JW, Kim JJ, Park KS, Park JK, Park NC, Kim SW, and Lee SW. Prevalence of symptoms and associated comorbidities of testosterone deficiency syndrome in the Korean general population. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 11/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether computed tomography (CT) parameters can predict the success of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) and establish a model for predicting the success rates of a single URSL procedure for the treatment of a single ureteral stone. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 237 patients who underwent URSL for ureteral stones diagnosed by CT between January 2009 and June 2012. Stone-free status was defined as the absence of stones or residual stone fragments <2 mm by ureteroscopy and plain abdominal radiography. We analyzed the correlations between the outcome of URSL and the patients' sex, age, height, body weight, body mass index, and history of ureteral stone. Stone factors such as the diameter (D), stone height (H), volumetric stone burden (VSB; D (2) × H × 5 mm × π × 1/6), estimated stone location (ESL; number of axial cut images between the stone and uretero-vesical junction), tissue rim sign (RS; 0-3), perinephric edema (0-3), hydronephrosis (0-3), and Hounsfield unit (HU) were also analyzed. We then developed a model to predict the probability of successful URSL by applying a logistic model to our data. The success rate of URSL was 85.7 % (203/237). Univariate analysis found that stone diameter, length, VSB, ESL, HU and RS significantly affected the stone-free rate. Multivariate analysis indicated that stone diameter, ESL and RS independently influenced the stone-free rate. The logistic model indicated that success rates = 1/[1 + exp{-6.146 + 0.071(D) + 0.153(ESL) + 1.534(RS)}] with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.825. Stone diameter, ESL, and RS were independent predictors of the outcome of a single URSL for a single ureteral stone.
    Urolithiasis. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are promising as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has been suggested that different cell cultures possess different capacities to support pre-implantation development of SCNT embryos. The aim of this study is to investigate whether two culture medium (RCMEP, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [DMEM]) affect gene expression of ASCs, subsequent development of interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) and gene expression of cloned embryos. The RCMEP-cultured cells contained significantly greater amounts of SOX2, NANOG, OCT4, DNMT1, and MeCP2 than DMEM-cultured cells (P < 0.05). In iSCNT, the use of DMEM medium for culturing cells resulted in similar development to the blastocyst stage than those derived from RCMEP cultured cells (4.5% and 3.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). The expression of all transcripts except for DNMT1 in cloned blastocysts from RCMEP cultured cells followed those of cloned blastocysts derived from DMEM cultured cells. The alteration of gene expression in ASCs by culture medium was not manifested in the iSCNT embryos derived from these cells. Although the culture medium can induce changes of gene expression by ASCs, such alterations in donor cells did not affect the developmental competence or gene expression patterns of iSCNT embryos.
    Theriogenology 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Jin Wook Kim, Young Jun Choi
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    ABSTRACT: Kim JW, Choi YJ. Feminisation of poverty in 12 welfare states: consolidating cross-regime variations? According to some theorists, the feminisation of poverty has become a common feature in the majority of advanced welfare states, but there have been very few attempts to provide a detailed picture from a comparative perspective. Considering this background, the aim of present study was to illuminate the feminisation of poverty in 12 welfare states between the 1980s and the 2000s and to analyse whether there has been any convergence or divergence between these welfare states. The scope and depth of the feminisation of poverty and the changing role of welfare states were assessed via an analysis of the antipoverty role of public transfers in each country. Using the Luxembourg Income Study dataset, this article argues that while the feminisation of poverty has been slowed down and even reversed in certain cases, cross-regime differences have become increasingly visible.
    International Journal of Social Welfare 10/2013; 22(4). · 0.54 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

488 Citations
253.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Hoseo University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Graduate School of Flexible Pinted Electronics
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2007–2014
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inha University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Earth System Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2013
    • Korea University
      • Department of Urology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Sogang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute-KERI
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1999–2010
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Computer System Engineering
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1998–2010
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      • • School of Computer Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1999–2000
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea