[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children’s blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source–recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0–5 years during the period 1999–2008 were collected. The study population’s mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children’s blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health 01/2012; 35(2). · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed differences in chlamydia screening rates according to race/ethnicity, insurance status, age, and previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) or pregnancy.
A retrospective cohort study was performed using electronic medical record and billing data for women 14 to 25 years of age in 2002-2007, assessing differences in the odds of a chlamydia test being performed at that visit.
Adjusted odds of a chlamydia test being performed were lower among women 14 to 15 years of age (odds ratio: 0.83 [95% confidence interval: 0.70-1.00]) and 20 to 25 years of age (20-21 years, odds ratio: 0.78 [95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.89]; 22-23 years, odds ratio: 0.76 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.87]; 24-25 years, odds ratio: 0.64 [95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.73]), compared with women 18 to 19 years of age. Black women had 3 times increased odds (odds ratio: 2.96 [95% confidence interval: 2.66-3.28]) and Hispanic women nearly 13 times increased odds (odds ratio: 12.89 [95% confidence interval: 10.85-15.30]) of testing, compared with white women. Women with public (odds ratio: 1.74 [95% confidence interval: 1.58-1.91]) and public pending (odds ratio: 6.85 [95% confidence interval: 5.13-9.15]) insurance had increased odds of testing, compared with women with private insurance. After first STI diagnosis, differences according to race/ethnicity persisted but were smaller; after first pregnancy, differences persisted.
Despite recommendations to screen all sexually active young women for chlamydia, providers screened women differently according to age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status, although differences were reduced after first STI or pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic chlamydia testing is recommended for all young women demonstrating sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms. Differential testing among symptomatic women may contribute to disparities in chlamydia rates. Our objective was to determine whether providers test young women with STI symptoms for chlamydia differently by age, race/ethnicity, or insurance status, and whether testing patterns differ by documentation of previous STI.
Retrospective cohort analysis using electronic medical records and billing data of women 14 to 25 years old with one or more diagnostic or procedure codes indicative of STI symptoms (N = 61,498 women). Random effects logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the odds of chlamydia testing given a woman presented for a nonpregnancy-related visit with STI symptoms. All analyses controlled for history of STI, setting, and year, and adjusted for within-person correlation.
A chlamydia test was performed in 38% of visits with codes indicating STI symptoms. Women aged <18 or >19 were less likely to be tested than women aged 18 to 19, with young women aged 14 to 15 having the lowest odds of being tested (Odd Ratio [OR]: 0.52). Providers were more likely to test minority (ORblack: 2.87; ORLatina: 2.10) compared with white women. Women were also more likely to be tested if they had public insurance (OR: 2.41) or were self-pay (OR: 2.35) compared with if they had private insurance. Women aged 14 to 15 and 16 to 17 with prior history of STI had increased odds of chlamydia testing (OR: 1.79 and 1.43, respectively) compared with women aged 18 to 19, changing the overall direction of association compared with women with no history of STI. The odds of testing were dramatically reduced for minority and nonprivately insured young women with history of STI, although significant differences persisted.
Provider chlamydia testing differs by age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status when a woman presents with STI symptoms and no prior history of STI. This bias may contribute to higher reported rates of chlamydia among younger, minority, and poor women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the occurrence of, and risk factors for, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurring during the post-partum year.
Demographic and clinical data for women who delivered a term infant with 5-minute Apgar score > or = 8 from 1992 through 1999 at a large urban hospital were extracted from an electronic medical record system.
During the study period, 15 206 deliveries occurred among 12 549 women. PID was diagnosed during the post-partum year of 148 (1.0%) deliveries. In univariate analysis, young age, black race, and both pre-delivery history and post-partum diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infection were associated with PID. In multivariate analysis, only young age and a positive test for gonorrhea before delivery or post-partum were independent predictors of PID.
Pelvic inflammatory disease was diagnosed during the post-partum year in 1% of women studied. Young maternal age was an important demographic risk factor. Further investigation of post-partum STD acquisition and progression to PID is needed to determine whether women are at increased risk following delivery.
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2006; 13(4):191-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used an electronic medical records system retrospectively to evaluate how frequently, in a public hospital and its clinics, combined gonorrhea/chlamydia tests were accompanied by a syphilis test before and during a syphilis outbreak. Among 70,330 gonorrhea/chlamydia tests (1996-2000), the proportion with a syphilis test increased from 13% (preoutbreak) to 50% (intervention period) for men and from 6% to 13% for nonpregnant women. The increased syphilis testing coincided with a multifaceted public health intervention.
American Journal of Public Health 08/2004; 94(7):1124-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor