[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical exercise training is perhaps the single most effective intervention to both prevent and treat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence now suggests that the liver plays an important role in determining the overall health benefits of exercise training.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adipokine omentin is highly and selectively expressed in visceral adipose tissue and its circulating levels are decreased in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we assessed the relationships between plasma omentin levels and cardiometabolic variables in T2DM men and age-matched overweight healthy controls. Next, only in the T2DM men, the effects of 24-wk treatment with pioglitazone or metformin on plasma omentin levels were investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crosstalk between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle has gained considerable interest, since this process, specifically in obesity, substantially drives the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss novel concepts and targets of this bidirectional organ communication system. This includes adipo-myokines like apelin and FGF21, inflammasomes, autophagy, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Literature analysis shows that the crosstalk between fat and muscle involves both extracellular molecules and intracellular organelles. We conclude that integration of these multiple crosstalk elements into one network will be required to better understand this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) is involved in tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes. Plasma levels are elevated in patients with insulin resistance and T2DM. We recently showed that CHI3L1 and its receptor protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) are expressed in skeletal muscle. Activation of PAR-2 by CHI3L1 protects against TNFα-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the effect of exercise on CHI3L1 and PAR-2 signaling remains unknown. The aim of this work was to study the impact of exercise on CHI3L1 production and the effect of CHI3L1/PAR-2 signaling on skeletal muscle growth and repair.
Three human exercise studies were used to measure CHI3L1 plasma levels (n=32). In addition, muscle and adipose tissue CHI3L1 mRNA expression was measured in response to acute and long-term exercise (n=24). Primary human skeletal muscle cells were differentiated in vitro and electrical pulse stimulation was applied. In addition, myoblasts were incubated with CHI3L1 protein and activation of MAP kinase signaling as well as proliferation was measured.
Circulating CHI3L1 levels and muscle CHI3L1 mRNA were increased after acute exercise. In addition, CHI3L1 mRNA expression as well as CHI3L1 secretion was enhanced in electrically stimulated cultured myotubes. Incubation of cultured human myoblasts with CHI3L1 protein leads to a strong activation of p44/42, p38 MAPK and Akt as well as enhanced myoblast proliferation.
Our findings suggest that CHI3L1 is induced by acute exercise and that CHI3L1/PAR-2 signaling activates myocyte proliferation, which is important for restructuring of skeletal muscle in the response to exercise training. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a glycoprotein of 110 kDa, which is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of a variety of cells. This exopeptidase selectively cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and the incretin hormones. Expression of DPP4 is substantially dysregulated in a variety of disease states including inflammation, cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Since the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are major regulators of post-prandial insulin secretion, inhibition of DPP4 by the gliptin family of drugs has gained considerable interest for the therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the DPP4-incretin axis and evaluate most recent findings on DPP4 inhibitors. Furthermore, DPP4 as a type II transmembrane protein is also known to be cleaved from the cell membrane involving different metalloproteases in a cell-type-specific manner. Circulating, soluble DPP4 has been identified as a new adipokine, which exerts both para- and endocrine effects. Recently, a novel receptor for soluble DPP4 has been identified, and data are accumulating that the adipokine-related effects of DPP4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, circulating DPP4 is augmented in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects, and it may represent a molecular link between obesity and vascular dysfunction. A critical evaluation of the impact of circulating DPP4 is presented, and the potential role of DPP4 inhibition at this level is also discussed.
Frontiers in Immunology 08/2015; 6:386. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00386
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is not only releasing lipids but also various adipokines that are both dysregulated in the obese state and may contribute to obesity-associated vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. We have previously shown that the combination of adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) and oleic acid (OA) increases proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in a synergistic way. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a component within CM that is responsible for most of the observed effects. In this study, we investigate novel mechanisms that underlie the combined effects of adipokine and oleic acid-induced proliferation of VSMC. Oleic acid leads to significant lipid accumulation in VSMC that is further enhanced by the combined treatment with CM. Accordingly CM stimulates CD36 expression in VSMC while OA is not affecting CD36. Silencing of CD36 was established and prevents lipid accumulation in all tested conditions. CD36 silencing also abrogates CM- and OA-induced proliferation and considerably reduces proliferation induced by the combination of CM and OA. At the same time, VEGF secretion and VEGF-receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) by VSMC was not affected by CD36 silencing. However, VEGF was not able to induce any proliferation in VSMC after CD36 silencing that also blunted VEGF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Finally, combined silencing of CD36 together with a blocking antibody against VEGF prevented most of CMOA-induced proliferation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CD36 is mediating CM-induced proliferation of VSMC. Induction of CD36 by adipokines enhances the response of VSMC towards VEGF and OA.
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 07/2015; 121(3):1-7. DOI:10.3109/13813455.2015.1045520 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional factors such as casein hydrolysates and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to exert beneficial metabolic effects. We aimed to investigate how a casein hydrolysate (eCH) and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could affect human primary adipocyte function in vitro. Incubation conditions with the different nutritional factors were validated by assessing cell vitality with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neutral red incorporation. Intracellular triglyceride content was assessed with Oil Red O staining. The effect of eCH, a non-peptidic amino acid mixture (AA), and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on adiponectin and leptin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular adiponectin expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were analyzed by Western blot, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) release was explored by ELISA. The eCH concentration dependently increased adiponectin secretion in human primary adipocytes through its intrinsic peptide bioactivity, since the non-peptidic mixture, AA, could not mimic eCH's effects on adiponectin secretion. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and DHA combined with arachidonic acid (ARA) upregulated adiponectin secretion. However, only DHA and DHA/ARA exerted a potentanti-inflammatory effect reflected by prevention of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced NF-κB activation and MCP-1 secretion in human adipocytes. eCH and DHA alone or in combination with ARA, may hold the key for nutritional programming through their anti-inflammatory action to prevent diseases with low-grade chronic inflammation such as obesity or diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is an important drug target for diabetes and a novel adipokine. However, it is unknown how soluble DPP4 (sDPP4) is cleaved from the cell membrane and released into the circulation. We show here that MMP1, MMP2 and MMP14 are involved in DPP4 shedding from human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and MMP9 from adipocytes. Hypoxia increased DPP4 shedding from SMC which is associated with increased mRNA expression of MMP1. Our data suggest that constitutive as well as hypoxia-induced DPP4 shedding occurs due to a complex interplay between different MMPs in cell type-specific manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as one of the major targets for antidiabetic drugs. This study describes two AMPK-activating agents 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethylthio)-6-ethoxybenzo[d]thiazole and 2-(propylthio)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol, that increase the rate of glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and also augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E β-cells and rat islets. We believe that such unique bi-functional compounds can be further used for the development of a new class of antidiabetic drugs.
Chemical Communications 08/2014; 50(76). DOI:10.1039/c4cc03310h · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The health-promoting effects of regular exercise are well known, and myokines may mediate some of these effects. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin has been described as a myokine for some time. However, its regulation and impact on skeletal muscle has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we report decorin to be differentially expressed and released in response to muscle contraction using different approaches. Decorin is released from contracting human myotubes, and circulating decorin levels are increased in response to acute resistance exercise in humans. Moreover, decorin expression in skeletal muscle is increased in humans and mice after chronic training. Because decorin directly binds myostatin, a potent inhibitor of muscle growth, we investigated a potential function of decorin in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. In vivo overexpression of decorin in murine skeletal muscle promoted expression of the pro-myogenic factor Mighty, which is negatively regulated by myostatin. We also found Myod1 and follistatin to be increased in response to decorin overexpression. Moreover, muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin1 and MuRF1, which are involved in atrophic pathways, were reduced by decorin overexpression. In summary, our findings suggest that decorin secreted from myotubes in response to exercise is involved in the regulation of muscle hypertrophy and hence could play a role in exercise-related restructuring processes of skeletal muscle.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2014; 450(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.06.123 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DPP4 is an ubiquitously expressed cell-surface protease that is shedded to the circulation as soluble DPP4 (sDPP4). We recently identified sDPP4 as a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate direct effects of sDPP4 on human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) and to identify responsible signaling pathways. Using physiological concentrations of sDPP4, we could observe a concentration-dependent activation of ERK1/2 (3-fold) after 6h, which remained stable for up to 24h. Additionally, sDPP4 treatment induced a 1.5-fold phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunit p65. In accordance with sDPP4-induced stress and inflammatory signaling, sDPP4 also stimulates hVSMC proliferation. Furthermore we could observe an increased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 (2.5-, 2.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) by the sDPP4 treatment. All direct effects of sDPP4 on signaling, proliferation and inflammation could completely be prevented by DPP4 inhibition. Bioinformatic analysis and signaling signature induced by sDPP4 suggest that sDPP4 might be an agonist for PAR2. After silencing of PAR2, the sDPP4-induced ERK activation as well as the proliferation was totally abolished. Additionally, the sDPP4-induced upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 could completely be prevented by the PAR2 silencing. In conclusion, we show for the first time that sDPP4 directly activates the MAPK and NF-κB signaling cascade involving PAR2 and resulting in the induction of inflammation and proliferation of hVSMC. Thus, our in vitro data might extend the current view of sDPP4 action and shed light on cardiovascular effects of DPP4-inhibitors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 06/2014; 1842(9). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.06.004 · 4.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of ‘functional body composition’ integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss, there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus an understanding of body weight regulation involves an examination of the relationships between organs and tissues rather than individual organ and tissue masses only. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by crosstalks between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue crosstalk mediators are determinants of body composition and its change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks' concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of irisin as an exercise-regulated myokine inducing browning of WAT has attracted a lot of interest as a potential new strategy to combat obesity and its associated disorders, such as type 2 diabetes. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relevance of irisin in humans. The regulation of FNDC5 mRNA expression by exercise and contraction could not be reproduced by a number of human studies using several exercise protocols and in vitro approaches. Furthermore, the nature of FNDC5 fragments and the presence of irisin in humans are questionable and probably contribute to conflicting data obtained with commercially available ELISA kits. Most importantly, the concentration of circulating irisin in humans is not clear, since different studies using different kits measure irisin levels in a wide range. Data about the role of irisin in states of human obesity and metabolic diseases are conflicting and in case changes of irisin levels have been observed, they were only moderate with 10 - 20 %. Independently of the presence and regulation of FNDC5/irisin in humans, the application of recombinant irisin could still represent a therapeutic strategy to fight obesity. However, the current data obtained in human cell models show, that FNDC5/irisin has no effect on browning of the major WAT depots in humans and is likely to selectively target a small subpopulation of adipocytes, located in classical BAT regions, such as the supraclavicular adipose tissue. Thus, other candidates, such as BMP7 or CNPs seem to me more prominent candidates as inducers of browning in humans.
Journal of Endocrinology 04/2014; 222(1). DOI:10.1530/JOE-14-0189 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ of the body in non-obese individuals and is now considered to be an active endocrine organ releasing a host of so-called myokines. These myokines are part of a complex network that mediates communication between muscle, the liver, adipose tissue, the brain and other organs. Recent data suggest that myokines regulated by muscle contraction may play a key role in mediating the health-promoting effects of regular physical activity. Although hundreds of myokines have recently been described in proteomic studies, we currently have a rather limited knowledge of the specific role these myokines play in the prevention of insulin resistance, inflammation and associated metabolic dysfunction. Several myokines are known to have both local and endocrine functions, but in many cases the contribution of physical activity to the systemic level of these molecules remains as yet unexplored. Very recently, novel myokines such as irisin, which is thought to induce a white to brown shift in adipocytes, have gained considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarise the most recent findings on the role of myokines in the regulation of substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. We further explore the role of myokines in the regulation of inflammation and provide a critical assessment of irisin and other myokines regarding their potential as therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CHI3L1 is a glycoprotein consisting of 383 amino acids with a molecular mass of 40 kDa, and its serum level is elevated in inflammatory diseases. Although CHI3L1 is described as a biomarker of inflammation, the function of this protein is not completely understood. Here, we examined the regulation of CHI3L1 in primary human skeletal muscle cells. Moreover, we analyzed potential autocrine effects of CHI3L1. We show that myotubes express CHI3L1 in a differentiation-dependent manner. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate CHI3L1 expression (6-fold) and release (3-fold). Importantly, CHI3L1 treatment blocked tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) -induced inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle cells. We show that this effect is mediated via protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2). In addition, CHI3L1 treatment diminished the TNFα-induced expression and secretion of IL-8, MCP1 and IL-6. Also, impaired insulin action at the level of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3α/ß phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was normalized by CHI3L1. In conclusion, the novel myokine CHI3L1 which is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines can counteract TNFα-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells, potentially involving an auto/paracrine mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of adipokines has revealed adipose tissue as a central node in the inter-organ crosstalk network, which mediates the regulation of multiple organs and tissues. Adipose tissue is a true endocrine organ that produces and secretes a wide range of mediators regulating adipose tissue function in an auto-/paracrine manner and important distant targets like the liver, skeletal muscle, the pancreas and the cardiovascular system. In metabolic disorders such as obesity, enlargement of adipocytes leads to adipose tissue dysfunction and a shift in the secretory profile with an increased release of pro-inflammatory adipokines. Adipose tissue dysfunction has a central role in the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Besides the well-acknowledged role of adipokines in metabolic diseases, and the increasing number of adipokines being discovered in the last years, the mechanisms underlying the release of many adipokines from adipose tissue remain largely unknown. In order to combat metabolic diseases, it is crucial to better understand how adipokines can modulate adipose tissue growth and function. Therefore, we will focus on adipokines with a prominent role in auto-/paracrine crosstalk within the adipose tissue such as RBP4, HO-1, WISP2, SFRPs and chemerin. In order to depict the endocrine crosstalk between adipose tissue with skeletal muscle, the cardiovascular system and the pancreas, we will report the main findings regarding the direct effects of adiponectin, leptin, DPP4 and visfatin on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, cardiovascular function and β-cell growth and function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Adipokines have been implicated in the induction of proliferative and pro-atherogenic alterations in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC). Other reports demonstrated the importance of the miRNA cluster miR-143/145 in the regulation of VSMC homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Here we investigated whether the detrimental effects of adipokines on hVSMC function could be ascribed to alterations in miR-143/145 expression. Exposure of hVSMC to conditioned media (CM) from primary human subcutaneous adipocytes increased the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMA), and the miR-143/145 cluster, but markedly impaired the insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and its substrate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Furthermore, CM promoted the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and p38, which have both been linked to miR-143/145 induction. Accordingly, the induction of miR-143/145 as well as the inhibition of insulin-mediated Akt- and eNOS-phosphorylation was prevented when hVSMC were treated with pharmacological inhibitors for Alk-4/5/7 and p38 before the addition of CM. Transfection of hVSMC with precursor miR-143, but not with precursor miR-145, resulted in impaired insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. This inhibition of insulin signaling by CM and miR-143 is associated with a reduction in the expression of the oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8 (ORP8). Finally, knock-down of ORP8 resulted in impaired insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt in hVSMC. Thus, the detrimental effects of adipocyte-derived conditioned media on insulin action in primary hVSMC can be ascribed to the Alk- and p38-dependent induction of miR-143 and subsequent downregulation of ORP8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) encoded by the ZC3H12a gene (also known as Regnase-1) is involved in the regulation of degradation of mRNA of inflammatory modulators and for processing of pre-miRNA. These functions depend on the presence of the PIN domain. Moreover, MCPIP1 was described as a negative regulator of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways although mechanisms underlying such activity remain unknown. We aimed at determining the role of MCPIP1 in adipogenesis. Here, we present evidence that Mcpip1 transcription is transiently activated during 3T3-L1 transition from pre- to adipocytes. However Mcpip1 protein expression is also strongly decreased at day one after induction of adipogenesis. Knockdown of Mcpip1 results in an upregulation of C/EBPβ and PPARγ mRNAs, whereas overexpression of MCPIP1 reduces the level of both transcription factors and impairs adipogenesis. MCPIP1-dependend modulation of C/EBPβ and PPARγ levels results in a modulation of the expression of downstream controlled genes. In addition, decreased C/EBPβ, but not PPARγ, depends on the activity of the MCPIP1 PIN domain, which is responsible for RNase properties of this protein. Together, these data confirm that MCPIP1 is a key regulator of adipogenesis.