Jozef Bartunek

OLV Ziekenhuis Aalst, Alost, Flemish, Belgium

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Publications (222)1806.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated changes in electrocardiographic spatial QRS and T vectors as markers of electrical remodeling before and after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and their association with altered outcome. In 41 patients with LBBB, ECGpost was recorded during intrinsic rhythm after interrupting CRT pacing and compared to the pre-implant ECGpre and the ECG during CRT (ECGCRT). Mean spatial angles between QRS and T vectors were determined with the Kors matrix conversion. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was determined with nuclear isotope ventriculography before CRT implantation (LVEFpre) and at inclusion (LVEFpost). Following CRT, LVEF improved significantly from 26±10 to 36±14% (p=0.01). Duration of QRSpre (168±15ms) was not different from QRSpost (166±15ms). A smaller angle between QRSCRT and Tpost was related to a greater angle between Tpre and Tpost (Pearson's R -0.61 - p<0.001). During follow-up (30±2months) 9 patients (22%) died. Univariate Cox regression revealed higher mortality in the patients with lower LVEFpost (HR 1.10, p=0.01), a larger angle QRSCRTTpost (HR 1.03, p=0.03), a smaller angle QRSpreQRSpost (HR 0.97, p=0.03) and smaller angle TpreTpost (HR 0.95, p<0.01). After adjusting for LVEFpost, only smaller angle TpreTpost was associated with mortality (HR 0.96, p=0.03). Electrical remodeling can be quantified by measuring the angles between spatial QRS and T vectors before, during and after CRT. In absence of QRS duration changes, more extensive electrical remodeling is associated with a significantly better survival. QRS and T vector changes deserve further investigation to better understand the individual response to CRT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Electrocardiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.02.004 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: The ACCRUE (Meta-Analysis of Cell-based CaRdiac stUdiEs) is the first prospectively declared collaborative multinational database including individual data of patients (IPD) with ischemic heart disease treated with cell therapy. Objective: We analyzed the safety and efficacy of intracoronary cell therapy after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) including IPDs from 12 randomized trials (ASTAMI, Aalst, BOOST, BONAMI, CADUCEUS, FINCELL, REGENT, REPAIR-AMI, SCAMI, SWISS-AMI, TIME, LATE-TIME; n=1252). Methods and Results: The primary endpoint was freedom from combined major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; including all-cause death, re-AMI, stroke, and target vessel revascularization). The secondary endpoint was freedom from hard clinical endpoints (death, re-AMI, or stroke), assessed with random-effects meta-analyses and Cox regressions for interactions. Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes in end-diastolic volume (ΔEDV), end-systolic volume (ΔESV), and ejection fraction (ΔEF), analyzed with random-effects meta-analyses and analysis of covariance. We reported weighted mean differences between cell therapy and control groups. No effect of cell therapy on MACCE (14.0% vs. 16.3%, hazard ratio 0.86, 95%CI: 0.63;1.18) or death (1.4% vs 2.1%) or death/re-AMI/stroke (2.9% vs 4.7%) was identified in comparison to controls. No change in ΔEF (mean difference: 0.96%, 95%CI: -0.2;2.1), ΔEDV, or ΔESV was observed compared to controls. These results were not influenced by anterior AMI location, reduced baseline EF, or the use of MRI for assessing left ventricular parameters. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of IPD from randomized trials in patients with recent AMI revealed that intracoronary cell therapy provided no benefit, in terms of clinical events or changes in left ventricular function.
    Circulation Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304346 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extended anterior myocardial infarction (MI) is frequently followed by left ventricular (LV) remodeling ensuing in heart failure and aneurysmatic transformation of the infarcted myocardial segment. Therapies that attenuate or reverse pathological LV remodeling have been shown to improve functional status and outcomes. This case reports our recent experience with a catheter based technique for ventricular restoration.
    11/2014; 70(2):2295333714Y0000000100. DOI:10.1179/2295333714Y.0000000100
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of β- and α-adrenergic blockers on fractional flow reserve (FFR) and index of microvascular resistance (IMR). In 43 patients (pts) with intermediate stenoses, we measured FFR and IMR before and after nonselective β-blocker propranolol (30 μg/kg, n = 20) and selective β1-blocker metoprolol (40 μg/kg, n = 23) IC; (b) In additional 21 pts after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), FFR and IMR were measured before and after α-blocker phentolamine (3 mg) IC. Neither propranolol nor metoprolol changed values of FFR and IMR. Phentolamine slightly decreased FFR (from 0.88 ± 0.05 to 0.87 ± 0.06, p = 0.025) but did not change IMR. FFR decreased from >0.80 to ≤0.80 in 3 pts (14 %), but in none, the value decreased to <0.75. β-blockers do not affect FFR and IMR in intermediate stenoses. After PCI, a mild decrease in FFR occurs after α-blockers, though of limited clinical impact.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12265-014-9599-8 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:This study assessed the independent significance of color Doppler 3-D vena contracta area (VCA) at rest and during exercise as a predictor of clinical outcome in mild-moderate functional mitral regurgitation (FMR).Methods and Results:The subjects consisted of 62 patients (age, 68±11 years; 76% male) with chronic systolic heart failure and mild-moderate FMR (<2+/4) at rest. All patients underwent VCA assessment at rest and during semi-supine bicycle exercise. During median follow-up of 17 months (IQR, 13-20 months), 15 patients (24%) had composite endpoint of all-cause death (n=3), heart failure admission (n=11), and heart transplantation (n=1). At baseline, patients with vs. without endpoint had significantly larger VCA at rest (17±6 mm(2)vs. 13±7 mm(2), P=0.002) and at peak exercise (35±16 mm(2)vs. 21±12 mm(2), P<0.001). On Cox regression analysis, large (≥15-mm(2)) resting VCA (HR, 7.6; 95% CI: 1.93-13.02; P=0.004) and large (≥20-mm(2)) exercise-induced increase of VCA (HR, 5.1; 95% CI: 1.39-15.21; P=0.014) were independently associated with composite endpoint. Concomitant presence of large VCA at rest and its large increase during exercise occurred in 53% of patients with, vs. in only 8% without, endpoint (negative predictive value, 86%).Conclusions:The presence of relatively large VCA at rest and its significant increase during exercise is independently associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with mild-moderate FMR at rest.
    Circulation Journal 10/2014; 78(11). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-14-0183 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The presence of ergoreflex activity and its current relationship to hyperventilation and prognosis in cardiac patients is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated ergoreflex activity in cardiac patients with and without heart failure (CHF) as well as in healthy subjects, and we examined how ergoreceptor activity was related to a mortality risk score in CHF (MAGGIC). Methods and Results: Twenty-five healthy subjects and 76 patients were included, among whom were 25 with ischemic heart disease (IHD), 24 with stable CHF, and 27 with unstable CHF. Ergoreflex activity was measured with a dynamic handgrip exercise, followed by post-handgrip regional circulatory occlusion (PH-RCO). Ergoreflex activity contributed significantly to ventilation (median [interquartile range] %V) in unstable CHF (81 [73-91] %V without PH-RCO, 92 [82-107] %V with PH-RCO, and 11 [6-20] difference in %V; P <.001) and was positively correlated with the MAGGIC risk score (Spearman p = 0.431; P = .002). No ergoreflex activity was observed in healthy subjects (-4 [-10 to 5] difference in %V), IHD (0 [-8 to 3] Diff in %V) and stable CHF (-3 [-11 to 6] difference in %V). Conclusions: Ergoreflex activity contributes to hyperventilation, but only in CHF patients with persistent symptoms, and is closely related to the MAGGIC risk score. Ergoreflex activity was not present in patients with IHD or stable CHIP, suggesting other reasons for the increased ventilatory drive in those patients.
    Journal of Cardiac Failure 07/2014; 20(10). DOI:10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.07.006 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (Mitraclip) has recently been recommended as an alternative to conventional mitral valve repair for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation (MR). In this study, we report the first use of Mitraclip therapy in Belgium.
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet α2A-adrenergic receptors (ARs) mediate platelet aggregation in response to sympathetic stimulation. The 6.3-kb variant of α2A-AR gene is associated with increased epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. The cytochrome P450 2C19*2 (CYP2C19*2) loss-of-function allele influences P2Y12-mediated platelet inhibition and hence the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events. We assessed the influence of 6.3-kb α2A-AR gene variant on platelet aggregation and its interaction with CYP2C19*2 loss-of-function allele in patients with stable angina on aspirin and clopidogrel (dual antiplatelet therapy). Aggregation to 5 increasing doses of epinephrine (from 0.156 to 10 μmol/L) was assessed in aggregation units by Multiplate Analyzer and platelet reactivity in P2Y12 reactivity units and % inhibition by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay before percutaneous revascularization. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed with TaqMan Drug Metabolism assay. Of 141 patients, aggregation was higher in 6.3-kb carriers (n=52) when compared with wild types (n=89) at all epinephrine doses (P<0.05) apart from 10 μmol/L (P=0.077). Percentage inhibition was lower (P=0.048) in 6.3-kb α2A-AR carriers. Percentage inhibition was lower (P=0.005) and P2Y12 reactivity units was higher (P=0.012) in CYP2C19*2 allele carriers. Higher P2Y12 reactivity units (P=0.037) and lower percentage inhibition (P=0.009) were observed in carriers of both 6.3-kb α2A-AR variant and CYP2C19*2 allele when compared with wild-type or with either mutation on its own. The 6.3-kb α2A-AR variant is associated with increased platelet reactivity to epinephrine and has an additive effect along with CYP2C19*2 loss-of-function allele on P2Y12-mediated platelet responses in patients with stable angina on dual antiplatelet therapy.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2014; 34(6). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.303275 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Journal provides the clinician and scientist with the latest advances in discovery research, emerging technologies, preclinical research design and testing, and clinical trials. We highlight advances in areas of induced pluripotent stem cells, genomics, biomarkers, multimodality imaging, and antiplatelet biology and therapy. The top publications are critically discussed and presented along with anatomical reviews and FDA insight to provide context.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12265-014-9555-7 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present analysis addresses the potential clinical and physiologic significance of discordance in severity of coronary artery disease between the angiogram and fractional flow reserve (FFR) in a large and unselected patient population. Between September 1999 and December 2011, FFR and percent diameter stenosis (DS) as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography were obtained in 2986 patients (n = 4086 coronary stenoses), in whom at least one stenosis was of intermediate angiographic severity. Fractional flow reserve correlated slightly but significantly with DS [-0.38 (95% CI: -0.41; -0.36); P < 0.001]. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of a ≥50% DS for predicting FFR ≤ 0.80 were 61% (95% CI: 59; 63), 67% (95% CI: 65; 69), and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56; 0.72), respectively. In different anatomical settings, sensitivity and specificity showed marked variations between 35 to 74% and 58 to 76%, respectively, resulting in a discordance in 35% of all cases for these thresholds. For an angiographic threshold of 70% DS, the diagnostic performance by the Youden's index decreased from 0.28 to 0.11 for the overall population. The data confirm that one-third of a large patient population shows discordance between angiogram ≥50%DS and FFR ≤0.8 thresholds of stenosis severity. Left main stenoses are often underestimated by the classical 50% DS cut-off compared with FFR. This discordance offers physiologic insights for future trials. It is hypothesized that the discordance between angiography and FFR is related to technical limitations, such as imprecise luminal border detection by angiography, as well as to physiologic factors, such as variable minimal microvascular resistance.
    European Heart Journal 03/2014; 35(40). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu094 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information on exercise capacity and training in patients who underwent valvular surgery is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperative exercise capacity and functional improvement after exercise training according to the preoperative risk and type of surgery. In this prospective study, 145 patients who underwent aortic valve surgery (AVS) or mitral valve surgery (MVS) and who were referred for cardiac rehabilitation were stratified according to the preoperative risk (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]) and type of surgery (sternotomy vs ministernotomy or port access). Exercise capacity was evaluated at the start and end of cardiac rehabilitation. Postoperative exercise capacity and the benefit from exercise training were compared between the groups. Patients with a higher preoperative risk had a worse postoperative exercise capacity, with a lower load, peak VO2, anaerobic threshold and 6-minute walking distance (all p <0.001), and a higher VE/VCO2 slope (p = 0.01). In MVS, port access patients performed significantly better at baseline (all p <0.05), but in AVS, ministernotomy patients performed better than sternotomy patients with a concomitant coronary artery bypass graft (p <0.05). Training resulted in an improvement in exercise capacity in each risk group and each type of surgery (all p <0.05). This gain in exercise capacity was comparable for the EuroSCORE risk groups and for the types of surgery, for patients after AVS or MVS. In conclusion, exercise capacity after cardiac surgery is related to the preoperative risk and the type of surgery. Despite these differences in postoperative exercise capacity, a similar benefit from exercise training is obtained, regardless of their preoperative risk or type of surgery.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2014; 113(8). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.01.413 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    International journal of cardiology 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.01.088 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    Circulation 01/2014; 129(2):e21-2. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005709 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the risk of major clinical and thromboembolic events after cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in subjects treated with apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, compared with warfarin. Background In patients with atrial fibrillation, thromboembolic events may occur after cardioversion. This risk is lowered with vitamin K antagonists and dabigatran. Methods Using data from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of patients undergoing cardioversion. Results A total of 743 cardioversions were performed in 540 patients: 265 first cardioversions in patients assigned to apixaban and 275 in those assigned to warfarin. The mean time to the first cardioversion for patients assigned to warfarin and apixaban was 243 ± 231 days and 251 ± 248 days, respectively; 75% of the cardioversions occurred by 1 year. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. In patients undergoing cardioversion, no stroke or systemic emboli occurred in the 30-day follow-up period. Myocardial infarction occurred in 1 patient (0.2%) receiving warfarin and 1 patient receiving apixaban (0.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 1 patient (0.2%) receiving warfarin and 1 patient receiving apixaban (0.3%). Death occurred in 2 patients (0.5%) receiving warfarin and 2 patients receiving apixaban (0.6%). Conclusions Major cardiovascular events after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation are rare and comparable between warfarin and apixaban. (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation [ARISTOTLE]; NCT00412984)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; 63(11):1082–1087. · 15.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2013; 62(25):2454-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.014 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using 1- and 3-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol, a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and superelasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared with a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle without effect on biocompatibility or safety. Modeling-guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 12/2013; 6(6). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.112.000422 · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA) are increased in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether MPA are associated with the presence of functionally significant coronary stenoses or with coronary arterial endothelial dysfunction. One hundred forty five patients undergoing elective coronary angiography were prospectively enrolled. Functional significance of coronary stenosis was assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR). Thirty randomly selected patients underwent pacing protocol to evaluate Coronary endothelium-dependent vasomotor function (CVF). Whole blood was drawn to evaluate MPA. In patients with FFR ≤ 0.8 (FFRpos, n = 75), MPA did not significantly differ from FFR >0.8 patients (FFRneg, n = 70) (38.1 % [25.7-56.6] vs 34.0 % [20.5-49.9], p = 0.08). CVF was similar in FFRpos and FFRneg patients (percent vessel diameter change, %VDC = 7.19 % [6.01-10.9] vs 8.0 % [0.81-9.80], p = 0.78). Yet, patients with abnormal CVF showed higher MPA as compared to patients with preserved CVF (28.3 % [28.8-53.4] vs 20.5 % [17.0-32.9], p = 0.01). Moreover, MPA was inversely correlated with %VDC (R (2) = 0.26, p < 0.01). MPA levels are significantly higher in patients with abnormal coronary vasomotor function regardless of the presence of functionally significant coronary stenosis.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 12/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12265-013-9520-x · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-eluting stents (DES) are more effective than bare-metal stents (BMS) in small coronary vessel disease. Whether this is true in elderly patients, it is unclear, as frailty and a high rate of comorbidities could increase the rate of DES-related complications. To assess procedural and long-term clinical outcomes of elderly patients with small vessel disease treated with DES or BMS. Consecutive elderly patients (≥ 75 years old) treated with stenting of native small coronary arteries (reference vessel diameter and implanted stent<3mm) were recruited during 2004-2008. Procedural and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between patients treated with BMS and DES. Propensity score-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed to account for potential selection bias. Among 293 patients (175 BMS, 118 DES), peri-procedural myocardial infarction (12 [7%] vs. 5 [4%]; P=0.35) and blood transfusions (3 [2%] vs. 0; P=0.08) were not significantly different between the BMS and DES groups. Clinical follow-up (96% of patients, median [interquartile range] follow-up 3.5 [2.4] years) showed significantly lower adjusted major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.72; P=0.002) and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.76; P=0.009) in the DES group. No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or bleeding. In this retrospective, non-randomized analysis of the treatment of small vessel disease in elderly patients, DES were as safe and more effective than BMS with a significant reduction in TVR.
    Archives of cardiovascular diseases 11/2013; 106(11). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2013.06.056 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the risk of major clinical and thromboembolic events after cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in subjects treated with apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor compared with warfarin. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolic events may occur after cardioversion. This risk is lowered with vitamin K antagonists and dabigatran. Using data from ARISTOTLE, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of patients undergoing cardioversion. A total of 743 cardioversions in 540 patients were performed: 265 first cardioversions in patients assigned to apixaban and 275 in those receiving warfarin. The mean time to the first cardioversion for patients assigned to warfarin and apixaban was 243 + 231 and 251 + 248 days respectively; 75% of the cardioversions occurred by 1 year. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. In patients undergoing cardioversion, no stroke or systemic emboli occurred in the 30 day follow-up period. MI occurred in 1 patient (0.2%) receiving warfarin and 1 receiving apixaban (0.3%). Major bleeding occurred in 1 patient (0.2%) receiving warfarin and 1 receiving apixaban (0.3%). Death occurred in 2 patients (0.5%) receiving warfarin and 2 patients receiving apixaban (0.6%). Major cardiovascular events after cardioversion of AF are rare and comparable between warfarin and apixaban.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2013; 63(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.09.062 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active myocarditis (AM) is characterized by large heterogeneity of clinical presentation and evolution. This study describes the characteristics and the long-term evolution of a large sample of patients with biopsy-proven active AM, looking for accessible and valid early predictors of long-term prognosis. From 1981 to 2009, 82 patients with biopsy-proven AM were consecutively enrolled and followed-up for 147±107 months. All patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluation at baseline and at 6 months. At this time, improvement/normality of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), defined as a LVEF increase > 20 percentage points and/or presence of LVEF≥50%, was assessed. At baseline, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (LVEF <50%) and left atrium enlargement were independently associated with long-term heart transplantation (HTx)-free survival, regardless of the clinical pattern of disease onset. At 6 months, improvement/normality of LVEF was observed in 53% of patients. Persistence of NYHA III-IV classes, left atrium enlargement and improvement/normality of LVEF at 6 months emerged as independent predictors of long-term outcome. Notably, the short-term revaluation showed a significant incremental prognostic value when compared to the baseline evaluation (baseline model vs 6 months model: Area Under the Curve 0.79 vs 0.90, p=0.03). Baseline LV function is a marker for prognosis regardless of the clinical pattern of disease onset and its reassessment at 6 months appears useful for assessing longer term outcome.
    Circulation 10/2013; 128(22). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003092 · 14.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,806.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2015
    • OLV Ziekenhuis Aalst
      Alost, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2013
    • Uppsala University
      • UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research center
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2012
    • University of Glasgow
      • Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Klinički centar Srbije
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
  • 2010
    • Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2007–2010
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Service de cardiologie
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
    • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital, Belgium
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
    • Cardiovascular Research Foundation
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Leicester
      Leiscester, England, United Kingdom
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2004
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • Catharina Hospital
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 1997–2000
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996
    • Detská fakultná nemocnica s poliklinikou v Bratislave
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia