Ji Young Kim

Hong Kong Baptist University, Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong

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Publications (443)1146.02 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol (10, 20, 42, and 84ppm) were determined in stripped corn oil oxidised at 60°C. The degree of oxidation in oils was determined by analysing headspace oxygen content and conjugated dienoic acids (CDAs). Changes in moisture and α-tocopherol content were also monitored. The oxidative stability of stripped corn oil and stability of α-tocopherol differed significantly depending on the RH. As the concentration of α-tocopherol increased from 10 to 84ppm, oxidative stability decreased significantly irrespective of RH. The remaining α-tocopherol content decreased as RH increased, suggesting an important role for moisture content in the stability of α-tocopherol. Antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol were greatly influenced by both moisture content in oil and α-tocopherol concentration.
    Food chemistry. 01/2015; 167C:191-196.
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium-permeable and thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate the nociceptive transduction of noxious temperature in Drosophila nociceptors; yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we find that Subdued, a calcium-activated chloride channel of the Drosophila anoctamin family, functions in conjunction with the thermo-TRPs in thermal nociception. Genetic analysis with deletion and the RNAi-mediated reduction of subdued show that subdued is required for thermal nociception in nociceptors. Further genetic analysis of subdued mutant and thermo-TRP mutants show that they interact functionally in thermal nociception. We find that Subdued expressed in heterologous cells mediates a strong chloride conductance in the presence of both heat and calcium ions. Thus our analysis suggests that Subdued channels may amplify the nociceptive neuronal firing that is initiated by thermo-TRP channels in response to thermal stimuli. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 12/2014;
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    Chemical Engineering Journal 12/2014; · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp).
    Mitochondrial DNA 11/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells.
    Archives of toxicology. 11/2014;
  • A.G. Earnest, Ji Young Kim, N.D. Meyer
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    ABSTRACT: Text It will be shown that there exist only finitely many isometry classes of primitive integral positive definite quaternary quadratic ZZ-lattices that are strictly regular, in the sense that they primitively represent all integers primitively represented by their genus. Video For a video summary of this paper, please visit http://youtu.be/V6EzAKAwpfw.
    Journal of Number Theory 11/2014; 144:256–266. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings of increased cathelicidin protein and its proteolytic fragments in rosacea suggest a pathogenic role for cathelicidin in this disease. The relationship between cathelicidin and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is therefore of interest, as PAR-2, expressed principally in keratinocytes, regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between expression of PAR-2 and cathelicidin in rosacea and to test the effect of direct PAR-2 activation on cathelicidin expression in keratinocytes.
    Yonsei medical journal. 11/2014; 55(6):1648-55.
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    ABSTRACT: BCP and TPBi were used as an ETL material with a QTW structure in OLEDs.•The inter-layer of TCTA and mCP was used to reduce the roll-off effect.•The thickness of inter-layer affects efficiency of devices and roll-off properties.•It had a 23% of roll-off improvement.•The difference of the highest and the lowest efficiency is 64% and 52%.
    Optical Materials. 11/2014; 37.
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 plays a key role in regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence in response to various stresses. We screened a library of 7920 chemical compounds for the p53 activator and identified N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dimethyl-4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-9-carboxamide (PTP), which significantly increased p53-mediated reporter activity in colorectal cancer cells. PTP was found to induce p53 protein and activated transcription of downstream genes, such as p21 and PUMA, in HCT116 cells, leading to growth delay, G1-phase cell cycle arrest, cell senescence and cell death. Proximity ligation assay revealed that PTP weakened the interaction between p53 and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) in situ, thereby inhibiting MDM2-mediated p53 degradation. Although DNA damage has been known to promote phosphorylation of p53 and MDM2, thereby preventing their interaction and stabilizing p53, PTP did not cause DNA damage or activate any DNA damage response signaling. Instead, phosphorylation of p53 was mediated by Erk1/2 MAP kinase. In addition, PTP induced acetylation of p53 at Lys382 in a p300-dependent manner, but sirtuin (SIRT)1 and histone deacetylase (HDAC)1, a well-known p53-regulating deacetylase, were not involved. In the present study, the novel anticancer agent PTP was shown to cause the accumulation of p53 by inducing multiple post-translational modifications, as well as cell cycle arrest, senescence and cell death.
    International journal of oncology. 10/2014;
  • Ji Young Kim, Yung Chul Park
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The complete mitogenome (KM507782) of the Black-tailed gull L. crassirostris was 16,746 bp long, with A 30.6% (5128 bp), T 24.3% (4076 bp), C 30.9% (5176 bp), and G 14.1% (2366 bp). Total length of 13 protein-coding genes was 11,396 bp and 12 of them except for ND6 were encoded in heavy strand. The three initiation codons ATG, GTG and ATT were used in the protein-coding genes. The ATG was a common initiation codon which was found in most of the protein-coding genes, whereas GTG was used in COX1 and ND5 and ATT in only ND3, respectively. The total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1550 bp, ranging from 66 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Ser(UCN))).
    Mitochondrial DNA 10/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Ji Young Kim, Jung Sun Yoo, Yung Chul Park
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (KM507783) of the green crab spider Oxytate striatipes was determined. The mitochondrial genome of O. striatipes was 14,407 bp long with a total base composition of 35.80% A, 42.40% T, 8.60% C, and 13.20% G. Total length of 13 protein-coding genes was 10,801 bp and 9 of them were encoded on heavy strand. COX1 started with TTA, uncommon start codon in invertebrate mitogenomes. The total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1202 bp, varying from 46 bp (tRNA(Thr)) to 67 bp (tRNA(Trp) and tRNA(Gln)). The standard cloverleaf secondary structure was found in 8 tRNA genes and TV-replacement loop was not found in the other 14 tRNA genes.
    Mitochondrial DNA 10/2014; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical medial branch blocks are used to treat patients with chronic neck pain. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical aspects of the cervical medial branches to improve the accuracy and safety of radiofrequency denervation.
    Regional anesthesia and pain medicine. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant systems against reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the important factors to regulate homeostasis in various cells, tissues and organs. Although ROS are known to cause to muscular disorders, the effects of mitochondrial ROS in muscle physiology have not been fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of ROS on muscle mass and function using mice deficient in peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3), which is a mitochondrial antioxidant protein. Ablation of Prx3 deregulated mitochondrial network and membrane potential of myotubes, in which ROS levels were increased. We showed that DNA content of mitochondria and ATP production are also reduced in Prx3 KO muscle. Of note, the mitofusin 1 and 2 protein levels decreased in Prx3 KO muscle, a biochemical evidence of impaired mitochondrial fusion. Contractile dysfunction was examined by measuring isometric forces of isolated EDL and soleus muscles. Maximum absolute forces in both the EDL and soleus muscles were not significantly affected in Prx3 KO mice. However, fatigue trials revealed that the decrease in relative force was greater and more rapid in soleus from Prx3 KO compared to wild type mice. Taken together, these results suggest that Prx3 plays a crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis and, thereby controls the contractile functions of skeletal muscle.
    Free radical biology & medicine. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed ultrasound visibility of spinal structures in children and observed the extent of local anesthetic spread within the epidural space during caudal block. Spinal structures were evaluated with ultrasound from the sacral area to the thoracic area in 80 children, and drug spread levels were observed after caudal injection of 0.5, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 mL/kg local anesthetic. The conus medullaris, dural sac and dura mater were easily identified with ultrasound in most children. However, ligamentum flavum visibility declined with increasing vertebral level and markedly decreased at the thoracic level in children older than 7 mo or heavier than 8.5 kg. Drug spread was higher with increasing volume (p < 0.001) and in children ≤12 mo more than children >12 mo (p < 0.001); drug spread was significantly correlated with age (R(2) = 0.534). Spread levels assessed with ultrasound were roughly two to three segments lower than those in previous radiologic studies.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that triglyceride-raising APOA5-1131T > C may contribute to the increased risk of obesity in associated with dietary intake in Korean premenopausal women whose minor allele frequency is higher than that in Western people. Genetically-unrelated Korean premenopausal women (20 ~ 59 yrs, n = 1128) were genotyped for APOA5-1131T > C. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and dietary intakes were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity risk (BMI ≥ 25.0kg/m2) were calculated. Genotype distribution of APOA5-1131T > C of study subjects were like: TT:49.9%, TC:40.8% and CC:9.3%. We found a significant interaction between APOA5-1131T > C and total energy intake (TEI) for obesity after adjusted for age, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (p < 0.001). The risk of obesity in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers (TT + TC) was significantly increased when the subjects consume higher TEI (≥2,001 kcal/day, median value of the population) (OR:2.495, 95%CIs:1.325-4.696, p = 0.005), particularly when they maintain negative balance between total energy expenditure (TEE) and TEI (TEE/TEI < 1) (OR:2.917, 95%CIs:1.451-5.864, p = 0.003). The contributions of APOA5-1131CC homozygotes to obesity risk in those who consume higher TEI were all significantly high regardless of percentage energy intake from dietary macronutrients. Whereas, no significant association was observed in those who consume lower TEI (<2,001 kcal/day). Additionally, serum levels of triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and ApoA5 were associated with APOA5-1131T > C and TEI. These findings suggest that APOA5-1131 CC homozygotes may influence the susceptibility of the individual to obesity, particularly when they consume higher TEI, but the genetic effect may be attenuated when people maintain low or adequate energy intake.
    Nutrition Research 09/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 14-3-3 sigma (σ) is considered to be an important tumor suppressor and decreased expression of the same has been reported in many malignant tumors by hypermethylation at its promoter or ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis by estrogen-responsive ring finger protein (Efp). In this study, we investigated the significance of 14-3-3 σ expression in human breast cancer and its regulatory mechanism.
    Journal of breast cancer. 09/2014; 17(3):207-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Grounded in first- and second-level agenda building, this study explored the role of the U.S. Senate Majority Leader in shaping the salience of issues and issue attributes in news media coverage and policymaking in 2011. A total of 358 public relations messages, 164 newspaper articles, and 83 policymaking documents were analyzed. Significant correlations were found supporting agenda-building linkages at both levels. Different types of information subsidies were explored, including press releases, blog posts, Facebook posts, and Twitter messages.
    Public Relations Review 09/2014; · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors.
    Clinical endoscopy. 09/2014; 47(5):447-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.
    Scientific Reports 08/2014; 4:6230. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since alterations in blood fatty acid (FA) composition by dietary lipids are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic disorders, we hypothesized that serum phospholipid FA composition would reflect the early alteration of fasting glycemic status, even in people without metabolic syndrome (MetS). To examine this hypothesis, serum phospholipid FA, desaturase activities, fasting glycemic status, and cardiometabolic parameters were measured in study participants (n = 1022: 30-69 yrs, male: n = 527, female: n = 495, non-diabetics without disease) who were stratified into normal fasting glucose (NFG) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) groups. Total monounsaturated FA (MUFA), oleic acid (OA;18:1n-9), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA;20:3n-6), delta-9-desaturase activity (D9D;18:1n-9/18:0), and DGLA/linoleic acid (LA) (20:3n-6/18:2n-6) in serum phospholipids were significantly higher in IFG subjects than NFG controls. Study subjects were subdivided into four groups, based on fasting glucose levels and MetS status. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) was highest in IFG-MetS and lowest in NFG-nonMetS subjects. OA and D9D were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other three groups. DGLA and DGLA/LA were higher in MetS than in nonMetS, regardless of fasting glucose levels. The hs-CRPs and 8-epi-PFG2α were higher in IFG than in NFG, regardless of MetS status. Oxidized-LDLs were higher in IFG-MetS than in the other three groups. Total MUFAs, OA, and D9D were positively correlated with HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, TG, hs-CRP, and 8-epi-PFG2α. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with TG and hs-CRP. Total MUFA, Lastly, OA, palmitoleic acid, and D9D were associated with early alteration of fasting glycemic status, therefore suggesting that these may be useful markers for predicting the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases.
    Nutrition Research 08/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,146.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Hong Kong Baptist University
      • Department of Physics
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Bradley University
      Peoria, Illinois, United States
    • Wonju Severance Christian Hospital
      Genshū, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Dermatology
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kangwon National University Hospital
      Shunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Daegu
      Kayō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Woosong University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Geijitsu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Fayetteville State University
      Fayetteville, New York, United States
    • Dong-A University
      • College of Medicine
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Chungbuk National University
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Kangwon National University
      • Department of Forest Environment Protection
      Shunsen, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy (IPPH)
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Institute of Agriculture and Life Science
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Korea Food Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
    • National Institute of Biological Resources
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2009–2014
    • CHA University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • College of Oriental Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungsung University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Construction Technology
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Jeil Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Syracuse University
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Mathematical Sciences
      • • Department of Environmental Health
      • • Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Jeju National University
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju, South Korea
    • Chung-Ang University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Food Science and Biotechnology
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Samsung Biomedical Research Institute
      • • Graduate School of Clinical Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chinju National University of Education
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2002–2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      • • Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering
      • • School of Dentistry
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2003–2013
    • Yeungnam University
      • • Department of Rehabillitation Medicine
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Wonkwang University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Iksan, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Sejong University
      • Faculty of Molecular Biology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Ewha Womans University
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • International Potato Center
      Λίμα, Provincia de Lima, Peru
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Cancer and Cell Biology
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Computer Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2012
    • Chonnam National University
      • • School of Biological Sciences and Technology
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Yeoju, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • University of Toledo
      • • Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology
      Toledo, OH, United States
    • University of Ulsan
      • School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1996–2012
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Food and Nutrition
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Rochester
      • Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Florida
      • College of Journalism and Communications
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Gachon University
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2006–2011
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      • Division of Advanced Material
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2003–2011
    • Kumoh National Institute of Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2011
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • School of Dentistry
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Sangju, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2000–2010
    • University of Seoul
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2009
    • Hanyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Laboratory of Cellular Oncology
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2001–2009
    • Chosun University
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Medicine
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Cheongju University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2008
    • Pukyong National University
      • Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2005–2007
    • Medical University of Ohio at Toledo
      • Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2003
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea