Jeffrey M Perlman

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (152)564.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Moderate hypothermia (temperature <36°C) at birth is common in premature infants and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. A multidisciplinary practice plan was implemented to determine in premature infants <35 weeks old whether a multifaceted approach would reduce the number of inborn infants with an admitting axillary temperature <36°C by 20% without increasing exposure to a temperature >37.5°C. The plan included use of occlusive wrap a transwarmer mattress and cap for all infants and maintaining an operating room temperature between 21°C and 23°C. Data were obtained at baseline (n = 66), during phasing in (n = 102), and at full implementation (n = 193). Infant axillary temperature in the delivery room (DR) increased from 36.1°C ± 0.6°C to 36.2°C ± 0.6°C to 36.6°C ± 0.6°C (P < .001), and admitting temperature increased from 36.0°C ± 0.8°C to 36.3°C ± 0.6°C to 36.7°C ± 0.5°C at baseline, phasing in, and full implementation, respectively (P < .001). The number of infants with temperature <36°C decreased from 55% to 6.2% at baseline versus full implementation (P < .001), and intubation at 24 hours decreased from 39% to 17.6% (P = .005). There was no increase in the number of infants with a temperature >37.5°C over time. The use of occlusive wrap, mattress, and cap increased from 33% to 88% at baseline versus full implementation. Control charts showed significant improvement in DR ambient temperature at baseline versus full implementation. The practice plan was associated with a significant increase in DR and admitting axillary infant temperatures and a corresponding decrease in the number of infants with moderate hypothermia. There was an associated reduction in intubation at 24 hours. These positive findings reflect increased compliance with the practice plan.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Ericalyn Kasdorf, Murray Engel, Linda Heier, Jeffrey M. Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hippocampal injury is most often seen in conjunction with basal ganglia (BG) injury following hypoxia-ischemia in term newborns. Objective was to determine perinatal characteristics leading to selective hippocampal injury versus BG injury on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in term encephalopathic infants following intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia treated with selective head cooling (SHC), and to correlate specific injury to subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods Retrospective chart review of obstetric/perinatal risk factors and patient characteristics in term infants treated with SHC. All infants met standard enrollment criteria for cooling. MRI was obtained at a median of 7 days of life. Abnormal outcome was defined as spastic quadriplegia, cognitive delay, both, or death. Results 57 infants were included for analysis. DWI findings included normal (n=31), BG injury (n=16), and selective hippocampal injury (n=10). No differences in gestational age, birthweight, sex or labor complications between groups. More infants in the BG vs. hippocampal group required delivery room CPR (p=0.05), exhibited persistent severe acidosis, severe amplitude EEG suppression, and encephalopathy at birth (p <0.05). Abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome or death was seen in 88% vs. 10% of infants in the BG vs. the hippocampal group respectively (p=0.0001). Conclusions Infants with hippocampal injury on DWI recovered from an intrapartum asphyxial insult more rapidly as reflected by an earlier correction of acid-base status, without the need for CPR, and were less severely encephalopathic. These findings highlight the exquisite vulnerability of the hippocampus to acute hypoxia unaffected by SHC, whereas the normal appearance of the basal ganglia in these infants suggests a neuroprotective effect of cooling.
    Pediatric Neurology. 01/2014;
  • Ericalyn Kasdorf, Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-ischemia is an infrequent event which may occur prior to or during delivery, following a period of decreased placental and/or fetal blood flow. Following recovery, a reperfusion phase and secondary energy failure may occur 6-48 h subsequent to the initial insult. Therapeutic hypothermia may be offered to infants at risk for evolving encephalopathy if identified within the 6 h therapeutic window, and should be instituted as early as possible for eligible infants. Additionally, the clinician must pay close attention to supportive measures such as avoidance of hyperthermia, as well as comprehensive management of clinical or electrographic seizures, blood pressure, blood glucoses, and carbon dioxide levels.
    Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 09/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Ericalyn Kasdorf, Murray Engel, Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment following patent ductus arteriosus surgical ligation. The mechanisms are unclear, but intraoperative stress or pain may contribute. The objectives of this study were to determine if pain, evidenced by an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, during patent ductus arteriosus ligation would be accompanied by an increase in amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) voltage. This was an observational, pilot study of infants born at 22.6-35.1 weeks with patent ductus arteriosus requiring surgical ligation. The aEEG was recorded prior to, during surgery, and for 2 hours following surgery. Mean heart rate, blood pressure, and aEEG voltage were analyzed for each recording period. Seventeen preterm infants were studied at a mean postmenstrual age of 26.6 weeks. Following anesthetic induction, aEEG became suppressed and remained suppressed during the postoperative period. Heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly intraoperatively. The aEEG voltage did not increase with an increase in heart rate. Infants received between 3.7-47 μg/kg of fentanyl. There was no correlation between aEEG voltage and vital sign changes. aEEG is not a useful tool as a marker of pain during patent ductus arteriosus ligation, rather a more standardized approach to pain management should be considered.
    Pediatric Neurology 08/2013; 49(2):102-6. · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Sithembiso Velaphi, Jeffrey Perlman
    The Lancet 07/2013; · 39.06 Impact Factor
  • Ericalyn Kasdorf, Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperthermia at the time of or following a hypoxic-ischemic insult has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Moreover, an elevation in temperature during labor has been associated with a variety of other adverse neurologic sequelae such as neonatal seizures, encephalopathy, stroke, and cerebral palsy. These outcomes may be secondary to a number of deleterious effects of hyperthermia including an increase in cellular metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow alteration, release of excitotoxic products such as free radicals and glutamate, and hemostatic changes. There is also an association between chorioamnionitis at the time of delivery and cerebral palsy, which is thought to be secondary to cytokine-mediated injury. We review experimental and human studies demonstrating a link between hyperthermia and perinatal brain injury.
    Pediatric Neurology 05/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: "Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB) is a simulation-based one-day course developed to help reduce neonatal mortality globally. The study objectives were to 1) determine the effect on practical skills and management strategies among providers using simulations seven months after HBB training, and 2) describe neonatal management in the delivery room during the corresponding time period before/after a one-day HBB training in a rural Tanzanian hospital. METHODS: The one-day HBB training was conducted by Tanzanian master instructors in April 2010. Two simulation scenarios; "routine care" and "neonatal resuscitation" were performed by 39 providers before (September 2009) and 27 providers after (November 2010) the HBB training. Two independent raters scored the videotaped scenarios. Overall "pass/fail" performance and different skills were assessed. During the study time period (September 2009-November 2010) no HBB re-trainings were conducted, no local ownership was established, and no HBB action plans were implemented in the labour ward to facilitate transfer and sustainability of performance in the delivery room at birth. Observational data on neonatal management before (n=2745) and after (n=3116) the HBB training was collected in the delivery room by observing all births at the hospital during the same time period. RESULTS: The proportion of providers who "passed" the simulated "routine care" and "neonatal resuscitation" scenarios increased after HBB training; from 41 to 74% (p=0.016) and from 18 to 74% (p≤0.0001) respectively. However, the number of babies being suctioned and/or ventilated at birth did not change, and the use of stimulation in the delivery room decreased after HBB training. CONCLUSION: Birth attendants in a rural hospital in Tanzania performed significantly better in simulated neonatal care and resuscitation seven months after one day of HBB training. This improvement did not transfer into clinical practice.
    Resuscitation 04/2013; · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: resource-limited countries, including Tanzania. Without change, these countries will fail to meet Millennium Development Goal 4 targets by 2015. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The Helping Babies Breathe program was implemented in 8 hospitals in Tanzania in 2009. It has been associated with a sustained 47% reduction in early neonatal mortality within 24 hours and a 24% reduction in fresh stillbirths after 2 years. abstract BACKGROUND: Early neonatal mortality has remained high and un-changed for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic inter-ventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths.
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    ABSTRACT: resource-limited countries, including Tanzania. Without change, these countries will fail to meet Millennium Development Goal 4 targets by 2015. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The Helping Babies Breathe program was implemented in 8 hospitals in Tanzania in 2009. It has been associated with a sustained 47% reduction in early neonatal mortality within 24 hours and a 24% reduction in fresh stillbirths after 2 years. abstract BACKGROUND: Early neonatal mortality has remained high and un-changed for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic inter-ventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Early neonatal mortality has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic interventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths.METHODS:Master trainers from the 3 major referral hospitals, 4 associated regional hospitals, and 1 district hospital were trained in the HBB program to serve as trainers for national dissemination. A before (n = 8124) and after (n = 78 500) design was used for implementation. The primary outcomes were a reduction in early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of fresh stillbirths (FSB).RESULTS:Implementation was associated with a significant reduction in neonatal deaths (relative risk [RR] with training 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.65; P ≤ .0001) and rates of FSB (RR with training 0.76; 95% CI 0.64-0.90; P = .001). The use of stimulation increased from 47% to 88% (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.82-1.90; P ≤ .0001) and suctioning from 15% to 22% (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.33-1.46; P ≤ .0001) whereas face mask ventilation decreased from 8.2% to 5.2% (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.60-0.72; P ≤ .0001).CONCLUSIONS:HBB implementation was associated with a significant reduction in both early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of FSB. HBB uses a basic intervention approach readily applicable at all deliveries. These findings should serve as a call to action for other resource-limited countries striving to meet Millennium Development Goal 4.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: The interruption of placental blood flow induces circulatory responses to maintain cerebral, cardiac, and adrenal blood flow with reduced renal, hepatic, intestinal, and skin blood flow. If placental compromise is prolonged and/or severe, total circulatory failure is likely with cerebral hypoperfusion and resultant hypoxic ischemic cerebral injury with collateral renal, cardiac, and hepatic injury. Management strategies should be targeted at restoring cerebral perfusion and oxygen delivery and minimizing the extent of secondary injury. Specifically, the focus should include the judicious use of supplemental oxygen, avoidance of hypoglycemia and elevated temperature in the delivery room, and the early administration of therapeutic hypothermia to high-risk infants.
    Clinics in perinatology 12/2012; 39(4):785-802. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Intermittent fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor using an acoustic stethoscope is the most frequent method for fetal assessment of well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence concerning reliability and efficacy of this technique is almost nonexistent. Objectives: To determine the value of routine intermittent FHR monitoring during labor in the detection of FHR abnormalities, and the relationship of abnormalities to the subsequent fresh stillbirths (FSB), birth asphyxia (BA), need for neonatal face mask ventilation (FMV), and neonatal deaths within 24 h. Methods: This is a descriptive observational study in a delivery room from November 2009 through December 2011. Research assistants/observers (n = 14) prospectively observed every delivery and recorded labor information including FHR and interventions, neonatal information including responses in the delivery room, and fetal/neonatal outcomes (FSB, death within 24 h, admission neonatal area, or normal). Results: 10,271 infants were born. FHR was abnormal (i.e. <120 or >160 beats/min) in 279 fetuses (2.7%) and absent in 200 (1.9%). Postnatal outcomes included FSB in 159 (1.5%), need for FMV in 695 (6.8%), BA (i.e. 5-min Apgar score <7) in 69 (0.7%), and deaths in 89 (0.9%). Abnormal FHR was associated with labor complications (OR = 31.4; 95% CI: 23.1-42.8), increased need for FMV (OR = 7.8; 95% CI: 5.9-10.1), BA (OR = 21.7; 95% CI: 12.7-37.0), deaths (OR = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-17.5), and FSB (OR = 35; 95% CI: 20.3-60.4). An undetected FHR predicted FSB (OR = 1,983; 95% CI: 922-4,264). Conclusions: Intermittent detection of an absent or abnormal FHR using a fetal stethoscope is associated with FSB, increased need for neonatal resuscitation, BA, and neonatal death in a limited-resource setting. The likelihood of an abnormal FHR is magnified with labor complications.
    Neonatology 08/2012; 102(3):235-42. · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Gail S Ross, Alfred N Krauss, Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: Discordant birth weight twins have been shown to have high rates of adverse perinatal outcomes, but little is known about their growth and development. To determine whether smaller and larger birth weight premature twins in concordant and discordant birth weight groups differ on measures of physical growth and intelligence at 3 years. Prospective cohort study. Eight-four children, 52 concordant and 32 discordant birth weight twin pairs, were measured for height, weight, and head circumference and on intelligence at 3 years. Perinatal and demographic variables, including birth weight, head circumference, small for gestational age, zygosity, in vitro fertilization, gender and social class were recorded. Smaller and larger birth weight twins did not differ significantly from each other on any growth parameters in either concordant or discordant birth weight groups at 3 years of age. Smaller birth weight twins in the discordant birth weight group performed significantly less well on Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores (Verbal IQ for smaller twins was 8.6 points lower, p<0.005; Performance IQ, 11.9 points lower, p<0.03; Full Scale IQ, 12.4 points lower, p<0.004), but there were no significant intra-twin differences between larger and smaller birth weight concordant twins. Smaller discordant birth weight twins performed significantly less well on intelligence, although they did not differ significantly from their larger twins on growth parameters at 3 years old. We conclude that smaller discordant birth weight twins had less optimal intra-uterine environments than their larger birth weight twin, which affected both their birth weights and brain development.
    Early human development 05/2012; 88(9):753-6. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early neonatal mortality within the first 24 hours contributes substantially to overall neonatal mortality rates. The definition of birth asphyxia (BA) is imprecise, and reliable cause-specific mortality data are limited; thus the estimated proportion of BA-related deaths globally remains questionable. The objective was to determine the presumed causes of neonatal death within the first 24 hours in a rural hospital in Northern Tanzania. This is a prospective descriptive observational study conducted in the delivery room and adjacent neonatal area. Research assistants were trained to observe and record events related to labor, neonatal resuscitation, and 24-hour postnatal course. BA was defined as failure to initiate spontaneous respirations and/or 5-minute Apgar score <7, prematurity as gestational age <36 weeks, and low birth weight (LBW) as birth weight <3rd centile for gestational age. Data were analyzed with χ(2) and Student's t tests. Over 1 year, 4720 infants were born and evaluated. Of these, 256 were admitted to the neonatal area. Forty-nine infants died secondary to BA (61%), prematurity (18%), LBW (8%), infection (2%), congenital abnormalities (8%), and unclear reason (2%). The 5-minute Apgar score was ≥7 in 50% of the infants who died secondary to BA. Most cases of early neonatal mortality were related to BA, and prematurity and LBW are additional important considerations. Reducing perinatal mortality requires a multifaceted approach with attention to issues related to BA, potential complications of prematurity, and LBW. The 5-minute Apgar score is a poor surrogate of BA.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2012; 129(5):e1238-43. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Trang K Huynh, Rae Jean Hemway, Jeffrey M Perlman
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the two-thumb technique is superior to the two-finger technique for administering chest compressions using the floor surface and the preferred location for performing infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (ie, floor, table, or radiant warmer). Twenty Neonatal Resuscitation Program trained medical personnel performed CPR on a neonatal manikin utilizing the two-thumb vs two-finger technique, a compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2 for 2 minutes in random order on the floor, table, and radiant warmer. Compression depth favored the two-thumb over two-finger technique on the floor (27 ± 8 mm vs 23 ± 7), table (26 ± 7 mm vs 22 ± 7), and radiant warmer (29 ± 4 mm vs 23 ± 4) (all P < .05). Per individual subject, the compression depth varied widely using both techniques and at all surfaces. More variability between compressions was observed with the two-finger vs two-thumb technique on all surfaces (P < .05). Decay in compression over time occurred and was greater with the two-finger vs two-thumb technique on the floor (-5 ± 7 vs -1 ± 6 mm; P < .05) and radiant warmer (-3 ± 6 vs -0.3 ± 2 mm; P < .05), compared with the table (-3 ± 9 vs -4 ± 5 mm). Providers favored the table over radiant warmer, with the floor least preferred and most tiring. The two-thumb technique is superior to the two-finger technique, achieving greater depth, less variability, and less decay over time. The table was considered most comfortable and less tiring. The two-thumb technique should be the preferred method for teaching lay persons infant CPR preferably using an elevated firm surface.
    The Journal of pediatrics 04/2012; 161(4):658-61. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most cases of delivery room cardiopulmonary arrest result from an asphyxial process. Experimental evidence supports an important role for ventilation during asphyxial arrest. The optimal compression: ventilation (CV) ratio remains unclear and recommendations for newborns have varied from 3:1, 5:1 and 15:2. OBJECTIVE: Compare 3:1, 5:1 and 15: 2 CV ratios using the two-thumb technique in relationship to depth of compressions, decay of compression depth over time, compression rates and breaths delivered. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects, physicians and neonatal nurses, participated with compressions performed on a manikin. Evaluations included 2 min of compressions using 3:1, 5:1 and 15:2 CV ratios. RESULTS: Compression depth was comparable between groups. By paired analysis per subject, the depth was only greater for 3:1 versus 15:2 (ie, 0.91±2.2 mm) (p=0.01) and greater for women than men. Comparing the initial and second minute of compressions, no decay in compression depth for 3:1 ratio was noted, however significant decay was observed for 5:1 and 15:2 ratios (p<0.05). The compression rates were least and ventilations breaths were highest for 3:1 as opposed to the other ratios (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Providers using a 3:1 versus 15:2 achieve a greater depth of compressions over 2 min with a greater difference noted in women. More consistent compression depth over time was achieved with 3:1 as opposed to the other ratios. Thus, the 3:1 ratio is appropriate for newly born infants requiring resuscitation.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 04/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal brain injury in term infants remains a significant clinical problem. Recently a change appears to have occurred in the pattern of such injuries. We sought to characterize the incidence, etiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of these injuries. A retrospective chart review identified clinical characteristics of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, and placental pathologic findings. Perinatal depression was defined as hypotonia and the need for respiratory support. From January 2004-December 2009, 29,597 term deliveries occurred. Brain injuries in 33 infants (live term births) included hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (n = 8; 0.27/1000), subdural hemorrhage (n = 10; 0.34/1000), intraventricular/intraparenchymal hemorrhage (n = 5; 0.17/1000), and focal cerebral infarctions (n = 4; 0.14/1000). Thirteen of 33 infants (39%) were triaged to a regular nursery. Delayed presentations included apnea (n = 6), desaturation episodes (n = 3), and seizures (n = 4). Twenty of 33 (61%) were admitted directly to the neonatal intensive care unit because of perinatal depression or evolving hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Clinical signs included seizures (n = 12) and apnea (n = 2). Nine of 19 manifested electroencephalographic seizures. Pathology included chorioamnionitis (n = 7) and fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (n = 5). The latter was associated with focal cerebral infarctions in 3/4 cases. Most cases attributable to perinatal brain injury, except for evolving hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, are not identified according to any perinatal characteristics until the onset of signs, limiting opportunities for prevention.
    Pediatric Neurology 02/2012; 46(2):106-10. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines for the techniques of resuscitating newly born infants have undergone major revisions over the past 25 years. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) is committed to "periodically developing and publishing a consensus on resuscitation science" every five years with the most recent Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) statement published in 2010. The CoSTR document is used as a basis for developing specific resuscitation guidelines felt to be appropriate for implementation in respective countries. A "gaps in knowledge" summary is created at the conclusion of a cycle. It is a goal that identification of these knowledge gaps will stimulate investigators to pursue more targeted studies to help close the gaps. The current document is based on the "gaps in knowledge" summary for neonatal resuscitation that was created at the conclusion of the 2005-2010 ILCOR cycle.
    Resuscitation 01/2012; 83(5):545-50. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged.
    Resuscitation 12/2011; 83(7):869-73. · 4.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
564.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New York City, New York, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • Ministry of Health & Social Welfare, Tanzania
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2011–2012
    • Stavanger University Hospital
      Stavenger, Rogaland, Norway
  • 2010–2012
    • American Academy of Pediatrics
      Elk Grove Village, Illinois, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2008
    • Pediatrix Medical Group
      Sunrise, Florida, United States
  • 2006
    • Texas Children's Hospital
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 1991–2005
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Radiology
      Dallas, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Colorado
      • Section of Neonatology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 1995
    • Parkland Memorial Hospital
      Dallas, Texas, United States