[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Abdominal infections are frequent causes of sepsis and septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are associated with adverse outcomes. We analyzed the characteristics, treatments and outcome of ICU patients with abdominal infections using data extracted from a one-day point prevalence study, the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU (EPIC) II. Methods: EPIC II included 13,796 adult patients from 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries. Infection was defined using the International Sepsis Forum criteria. Microbiological analyses were performed locally. Participating ICUs provided patient follow-up until hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results: Of the 7,087 infected patients, 1,392 (19.6%) had an abdominal infection on the study day (60% male, mean age 62 +/- 16 years, SAPS II score 39 +/- 16, SOFA score 7.6 +/- 4.6). Microbiological cultures were positive in 931 (67%) patients, most commonly Gram-negative bacteria (48.0%). Antibiotics were administered to 1366 (98.1%) patients. Patients who had been in the ICU for <= 2 days prior to the study day had more Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic isolates, and fewer enterococci than patients who had been in the ICU longer. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 29.4% and 36.3%, respectively. ICU mortality was higher in patients with abdominal infections than in those with other infections (29.4% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, hematological malignancy, mechanical ventilation, cirrhosis, need for renal replacement therapy and SAPS II score were independently associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: The characteristics, microbiology and antibiotic treatment of abdominal infections in critically ill patients are diverse. Mortality in patients with isolated abdominal infections was higher than in those who had other infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Infections are a leading cause of death in patients with advanced cirrhosis, but there are relatively few data on the epidemiology of infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with cirrhosis. AimsWe used data from the Extended Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) II one-day point-prevalence study to better define the characteristics of infection in these patients. Methods
We compared characteristics, including occurrence and types of infections in non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic patients who had not undergone liver transplantation. ResultsThe EPIC II database includes 13,796 adult patients from 1,265 ICUs: 410 of the patients had cirrhosis. The prevalence of infection was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (59 vs. 51%, p<0.01). The lungs were the most common site of infection in all patients, but abdominal infections were more common in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (30 vs. 19%, p<0.01). Infected cirrhotic patients more often had Gram-positive (56 vs. 47%, p<0.05) isolates than did infected non-cirrhotic patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was more frequent in cirrhotic patients. The hospital mortality rate of cirrhotic patients was 42%, compared to 24% in the non-cirrhotic population (p<0.001). Severe sepsis and septic shock were associated with higher in-hospital mortality rates in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic patients (41% and 71% vs. 30% and 49%, respectively, p<0.05). Conclusions
Infection is more common in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic ICU patients and more commonly due to Gram-positive organisms, including MRSA. Infection in patients with cirrhosis was associated with higher mortality rates than in non-cirrhotic patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/liv.12520 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become major public health problems. Little is known about the influence of diet on the incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between (healthy) diet, alcohol, protein, and sodium intake, and incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS All 6213 individuals with type 2 diabetes without macroalbuminuria from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) were included in this observational study. Recruitment spanned from January 2002 to July 2003, with prospective follow-up through January 2008. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Chronic kidney disease was defined as new microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria or glomerular filtration rate decline of more than 5% per year at 5.5 years of follow-up. We assessed diet using the modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). The analyses were adjusted for known risk factors, and competing risk of death was considered. RESULTS After 5.5 years of follow-up, 31.7% of participants had developed CKD and 8.3% had died. Compared with participants in the least healthy tertile of mAHEI score, participants in the healthiest tertile had a lower risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84) and lower risk of mortality (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.48-0.78). Participants consuming more than 3 servings of fruits per week had a lower risk of CKD compared with participants consuming these food items less frequently. Participants in the lowest tertile of total and animal protein intake had an increased risk of CKD compared with participants in the highest tertile (total protein OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30). Sodium intake was not associated with CKD. Moderate alcohol intake reduced the risk of CKD (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.87) and mortality (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A healthy diet and moderate intake of alcohol may decrease the incidence or progression of CKD among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Sodium intake, within a wide range, and normal protein intake are not associated with CKD. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00153101.
JAMA Internal Medicine 08/2013; 173(18). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9051 · 13.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Presentation of an unusual case of amnesic syndrome following a suspected AVM. The subject was a 14-year-old female (N) who suffered a large right temporo-parietal intra-parenchymal hemorrhage with extension into the ventricular system requiring surgical evacuation. She presented with a significant anterograde amnesic disorder that was generalized and not circumscribed to the visual domain. A neuropsychological assessment was recommended to investigate the nature and extent of her amnesic symptoms. Two aspects were found to be fundamental in this case, firstly, the inconsistency between the image findings of acute cerebral injury and her general amnesic disorder, and secondly, her capacity to keep up with academic demands despite persisting memory impairment. Method: N was assessed on four occasions over a period of 4 years to monitor her recovery. The initial assessment was comprehensive and covered intellectual functions, attention, processing speed, general memory, and executive functions. The subsequent reviews targeted for the most part the areas of impairment to evaluate the recovery process. Follow-up MRI findings were also reviewed. Results: The initial neuropsychological findings 5-6 weeks post-injury confirmed the presence of a moderate to severe impairment in general memory. Subsequent reviews indicated some gains overall, but she demonstrated persisting mild memory dysfunctions particularly in the area of visual memory. Conclusions: Ns general memory impairment was surprising given her right hemispheric injury. Her profile suggested some probable left hemispheric injury. Ns grades at school indicated that her mild memory impairments were not affecting her ability to keep up academically at a level that was consistent with her intellectual ability. The etiology of her memory impairment as well as the course of recovery over time will discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin potently activates platelets through the protease-activated receptor PAR-1. Vorapaxar is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin through antagonism of PAR-1.
We randomly assigned 26,449 patients who had a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease to receive vorapaxar (2.5 mg daily) or matching placebo and followed them for a median of 30 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After 2 years, the data and safety monitoring board recommended discontinuation of the study treatment in patients with a history of stroke owing to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage.
At 3 years, the primary end point had occurred in 1028 patients (9.3%) in the vorapaxar group and in 1176 patients (10.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for the vorapaxar group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001). Cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or recurrent ischemia leading to revascularization occurred in 1259 patients (11.2%) in the vorapaxar group and 1417 patients (12.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.001). Moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 4.2% of patients who received vorapaxar and 2.5% of those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.93; P<0.001). There was an increase in the rate of intracranial hemorrhage in the vorapaxar group (1.0%, vs. 0.5% in the placebo group; P<0.001).
Inhibition of PAR-1 with vorapaxar reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or ischemic events in patients with stable atherosclerosis who were receiving standard therapy. However, it increased the risk of moderate or severe bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRA 2P-TIMI 50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00526474.).
New England Journal of Medicine 03/2012; 366(15):1404-13. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1200933 · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide a global, up-to-date picture of the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients and compare Candida with bacterial bloodstream infection.
A retrospective analysis of the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU Study (EPIC II). Demographic, physiological, infection-related and therapeutic data were collected. Patients were grouped as having Candida, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and combined Candida/bacterial bloodstream infection. Outcome data were assessed at intensive care unit and hospital discharge.
EPIC II included 1265 intensive care units in 76 countries.
Patients in participating intensive care units on study day.
Of the 14,414 patients in EPIC II, 99 patients had Candida bloodstream infections for a prevalence of 6.9 per 1000 patients. Sixty-one patients had candidemia alone and 38 patients had combined bloodstream infections. Candida albicans (n = 70) was the predominant species. Primary therapy included monotherapy with fluconazole (n = 39), caspofungin (n = 16), and a polyene-based product (n = 12). Combination therapy was infrequently used (n = 10). Compared with patients with Gram-positive (n = 420) and Gram-negative (n = 264) bloodstream infections, patients with candidemia were more likely to have solid tumors (p < .05) and appeared to have been in an intensive care unit longer (14 days [range, 5-25 days], 8 days [range, 3-20 days], and 10 days [range, 2-23 days], respectively), but this difference was not statistically significant. Severity of illness and organ dysfunction scores were similar between groups. Patients with Candida bloodstream infections, compared with patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bloodstream infections, had the greatest crude intensive care unit mortality rates (42.6%, 25.3%, and 29.1%, respectively) and longer intensive care unit lengths of stay (median [interquartile range]) (33 days [18-44], 20 days [9-43], and 21 days [8-46], respectively); however, these differences were not statistically significant.
Candidemia remains a significant problem in intensive care units patients. In the EPIC II population, Candida albicans was the most common organism and fluconazole remained the predominant antifungal agent used. Candida bloodstream infections are associated with high intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates and resource use.
Critical care medicine 12/2010; 39(4):665-70. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318206c1ca · 6.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. The relationship between the degree of albuminuria and CV risk is unclear.
To estimate the risk of CV events in high-risk individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without DM who have microalbuminuria and to determine whether levels of albuminuria below the microalbuminuria threshold increase CV risk.
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, a cohort study conducted between 1994 and 1999 with a median 4.5 years of follow-up.
Community and academic practices in North and South America and Europe.
Individuals aged 55 years or more with a history of CV disease (n = 5545) or DM and at least 1 CV risk factor (n = 3498) and a baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement.
Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death); all-cause death; and hospitalization for congestive heart failure.
Microalbuminuria was detected in 1140 (32.6%) of those with DM and 823 (14.8%) of those without DM at baseline. Microalbuminuria increased the adjusted relative risk (RR) of major CV events (RR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-2.05), all-cause death (RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.84-2.38), and hospitalization for congestive heart failure (RR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.54-4.10). Similar RRs were seen for participants with or without DM, even after adjusting for other CV risk factors (eg, the adjusted RR of the primary aggregate end point was 1.97 [95% CI, 1.68-2.31] in those with DM and 1.61 [95% CI, 1.36-1.90] in those without DM). Compared with the lowest quartile of ACR (<0.22 mg/mmol), the RRs of the primary aggregate end point in the second quartile (ie, ACR range, 0.22-0.57 mg/mmol) was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.95-1.30); third quartile, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.19-1.60; ACR range, 0.58-1.62 mg/mmol); and fourth quartile, 1.97 (95% CI, 1.73-2.25; ACR range, >1.62 mg/mmol) (P for trend <.001, even after excluding those with microalbuminuria). For every 0.4-mg/mmol increase in ACR level, the adjusted hazard of major CV events increased by 5.9% (95% CI, 4.9%-7.0%).
Our results indicate that any degree of albuminuria is a risk factor for CV events in individuals with or without DM; the risk increases with the ACR, starting well below the microalbuminuria cutoff. Screening for albuminuria identifies people at high risk for CV events.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2001; 286(4):421-6. · 30.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with congestive heart failure do not receive the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors because of intolerance. We sought to determine the tolerability of an angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan cilexetil, among patients considered intolerant of ACE inhibitors.
Patients with CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35%, and history of discontinuing an ACE inhibitor because of intolerance underwent double-blind randomization in a 2:1 ratio to receive candesartan (n = 179) or a placebo (n = 91). The initial dosage of candesartan was 4 mg/d; the dosage was increased to 16 mg/d if the drug was tolerated. A history of intolerance of ACE inhibitor was attributed to cough (67% of patients), hypotension (15%), or renal dysfunction (11%).
The study drug was continued for 12 weeks by 82.7% of patients who received candesartan versus 86.8% of patients who received the placebo. This 4.1% greater discontinuation rate with active therapy was not significant; the 95% confidence interval ranged from 4.8% more discontinuation with placebo to 13% more with candesartan. Titration to the 16-mg target dose was possible for 69% of patients who received candesartan versus 84% of those who received the placebo. Frequencies of death and morbidity were not significantly different between the candesartan and placebo groups (death 3.4% and 3.3%, worsening heart failure 8.4% and 13.2%, myocardial infarction 2.8% and 5.5%, all-cause hospitalization 12.8% and 18.7%, and death or hospitalization for heart failure 11.7% and 14.3%).
Candesartan was well tolerated by this population. The effect of candesartan on major clinical end points, including death, remains to be determined.
American Heart Journal 05/2000; 139(4):609-17. DOI:10.1016/S0002-8703(00)90037-1 · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the characteristics of diabetic and nondiabetic participants in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease and who have microalbuminuria (MA), and to identify the key determinants of MA in these two groups.
Albuminuria was measured in 97% of patients enrolled in the HOPE Study as part of the MICRO-HOPE (MA, CV, and Renal Outcomes in HOPE) substudy. Baseline clinical characteristics of diabetic and nondiabetic participants with MA were recorded, and the univariate and multivariate relationship between these characteristics and the presence of MA was estimated for both groups.
Baseline urinary albumin determinations were available in 3,574 (97.8%) diabetic participants and 5,708 (97.0%) nondiabetic participants. MA was detected in 1,151 (32.2%) diabetic participants and 837 (14.7%) nondiabetic participants. Age, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, vascular disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were independent determinants of MA in all participants. In diabetic participants, the odds of MA increased 16% for every 10.4 years of diabetes duration, and increased 8% for every 0.9% increase in glycated hemoglobin (assuming a GHb assay with an upper limit of 6% in the nondiabetic range).
MA is independently associated with several risk factors for CV and renal disease in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals at high risk for CV disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of supplemental therapeutic oxygen for infants with prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) to reduce the probability of progression to threshold ROP and the need for peripheral retinal ablation. Methods. Premature infants with confirmed prethreshold ROP in at least 1 eye and median pulse oximetry <94% saturation were randomized to a conventional oxygen arm with pulse oximetry targeted at 89% to 94% saturation or a supplemental arm with pulse oximetry targeted at 96% to 99% saturation, for at least 2 weeks, and until both eyes were at study endpoints. Certified examiners masked to treatment assignment conducted weekly eye examinations until each study eye reached ophthalmic endpoint. An adverse ophthalmic endpoint for an infant was defined as reaching threshold criteria for laser or cryotherapy in at least 1 study eye. A favorable ophthalmic endpoint was regression of the ROP into zone III for at least 2 consecutive weekly examinations or full retinal vascularization. At 3 months after the due date of the infant, ophthalmic findings, pulmonary status, growth, and interim illnesses were again recorded. Results. Six hundred forty-nine infants (325 conventional and 324 supplemental) were enrolled from 30 centers over 5 years. Five hundred ninety-seven (92.0%) infants attained known ophthalmic endpoints, and 600 (92%) completed the ophthalmic 3-month assessment. The rate of progression to threshold in at least 1 eye was 48% in the conventional arm and 41% in the supplemental arm. After adjustment for baseline ROP severity stratum, plus disease, race, and gestational age, the odds ratio (supplemental vs conventional) for progression was .72 (95% confidence interval: .52, 1.01). Final structural status of all study eyes at 3 months of corrected age showed similar rates of severe sequelae in both treatment arms: retinal detachments or folds (4.4% conventional vs 4.1% supplemental), and macular ectopia (3.9% conventional vs 3.9% supplemental). Within the prespecified ROP severity strata, ROP progression rates were lower with supplemental oxygen than with conventional oxygen, but the differences were not statistically significant. A post hoc subgroup analysis of plus disease (dilated and tortuous vessels in at least 2 quadrants of the posterior pole) suggested that infants without plus disease may be more responsive to supplemental therapy (46% progression in the conventional arm vs 32% in the supplemental arm) than infants with plus disease (52% progression in conventional vs 57% in supplemental). Pneumonia and/or exacerbations of chronic lung disease occurred in more infants in the supplemental arm (8.5% conventional vs 13.2% supplemental). Also, at 50 weeks of postmenstrual age, fewer conventional than supplemental infants remained hospitalized (6.8% vs 12.7%), on oxygen (37.0% vs 46.8%), and on diuretics (24.4% vs 35.8%). Growth and developmental milestones did not differ between the 2 arms. Conclusions. Use of supplemental oxygen at pulse oximetry saturations of 96% to 99% did not cause additional progression of prethreshold ROP but also did not significantly reduce the number of infants requiring peripheral ablative surgery. A subgroup analysis suggested a benefit of supplemental oxygen among infants who have prethreshold ROP without plus disease, but this finding requires additional study. Supplemental oxygen increased the risk of adverse pulmonary events including pneumonia and/or exacerbations of chronic lung disease and the need for oxygen, diuretics, and hospitalization at 3 months of corrected age. Although the relative risk/benefit of supplemental oxygen for each infant must be individually considered, clinicians need no longer be concerned that supplemental oxygen, as used in this study, will exacerbate active prethreshold ROP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes mellitus is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. We investigated whether the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril can lower these risks in patients with diabetes. Methods 3577 people with diabetes included in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, aged 55 years or older, who had a previous cardiovascular event or at least one other cardiovascular risk factor, no clinical proteinuria, heart failure, or low ejection fraction, and who were not taking ACE inhibitors, were randomly assigned ramipril (10 mg/day) or placebo, and Vitamin E or placebo, according to a two-by-two factorial design. The combined primary outcome was myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. Overt nephropathy was a main outcome in a substudy. Findings The study was stopped 6 months early (after 4.5 years) by the independent data safety and monitoring board because of a consistent benefit of ramipril compared with placebo. Ramipril lowered the risk of the combined primary outcome by 25% (95% CI 12-36, p=0.0004), myocardial infarction by 22% (6-36), stroke by 33% (10-50), cardiovascular death by 37% (21-51), total mortality by 24% (8-37), revascularisation by 17% (2-30), and overt nephropathy by 24% (3-40, p=0.027). After adjustment for the changes in systolic (2.4 mm Hg) and diastolic (1.0 mm Hg) brood pressures, ramipril stilt lowered the risk of the combined primary outcome by 25% (12-36, p=0.0004). Interpretation Ramipril was beneficial for cardiovascular events and overt nephropathy in people with diabetes. The cardiovascular benefit was greater than that attributable to the decrease in blood pressure. This treatment represents a vasculoprotective and renoprotective effect for people with diabetes.
The Lancet 01/2000; 355(9200):253-259. · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of candesartan (an angiotensin II antagonist) alone, enalapril alone, and their combination on exercise tolerance, ventricular function, quality of life (QOL), neurohormone levels, and tolerability in congestive heart failure (CHF).
Seven hundred sixty-eight patients in New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA-FC) II to IV with ejection fraction (EF) <0.40 and a 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) <500 m received either candesartan (4, 8, or 16 mg), candesartan (4 or 8 mg) plus 20 mg of enalapril, or 20 mg of enalapril for 43 weeks. There were no differences among groups with regard to 6MWD, NYHA-FC, or QOL. EF increased (P=NS) more with candesartan-plus-enalapril therapy (0.025+/-0.004) than with candesartan alone (0.015+/-0.004) or enalapril alone(0.015+/-0.005). End-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes increased less with combination therapy (EDV 8+/-4 mL; ESV 1+/-4 mL; P<0.01) than with candesartan alone (EDV 27+/-4 mL; ESV 18+/-3 mL) or enalapril alone (EDV 23+/-7 mL; ESV 14+/-6 mL). Blood pressure decreased with combination therapy (6+/-1/4+/-1 mm Hg) compared with candesartan or enalapril alone (P<0.05). Aldosterone decreased (P<0.05) with combination therapy (23.2+/-5.3 pg/mL) at 17 but not 43 weeks compared with candesartan (0.7+/-7.8 pg/mL) or enalapril (-0.8+/-11. 3 pg/mL). Brain natriuretic peptide decreased with combination therapy (5.8+/-2.7 pmol/L; P<0.01) compared with candesartan (4. 4+/-3.8 pmol/L) and enalapril alone (4.0+/-5.0 pmol/L).
Candesartan alone was as effective, safe, and tolerable as enalapril. The combination of candesartan and enalapril was more beneficial for preventing left ventricular remodeling than either candesartan or enalapril alone.