[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of distinct factors acting at different stages of the adeno-associated virus vector (AAV)-mediated gene transfer process were found to influence murine hepatocyte transduction. Foremost among these was the viral capsid protein. Self-complementary (sc) AAV pseudotyped with capsid from serotype 8 or rh.10 mediated fourfold greater hepatocyte transduction for a given vector dose when compared with vector packaged with AAV7 capsid. An almost linear relationship between vector dose and transgene expression was noted for all serotypes with vector doses as low as 1 x 10(7) vg per mouse (4 x 10(8) vg kg(-1)) mediating therapeutic levels of human FIX (hFIX) expression. Gender significantly influenced scAAV-mediated transgene expression, with twofold higher levels of expression observed in male compared with female mice. Pretreatment of mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib increased scAAV-mediated hFIX expression from 4+/-0.6 to 9+/-2 microg ml(-1) in female mice, although the effect of this agent was less profound in males. Exposure of mice to adenovirus 10-20 weeks after gene transfer with AAV vectors augmented AAV transgene expression twofold by increasing the level of proviral mRNA. Hence, optimization of individual steps in the AAV gene transfer process can further enhance the potency of AAV-mediated transgene expression, thus increasing the probability of successful gene therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (alpha/beta) have significant antitumor activity although their short half-life and systemic side effects have limited their clinical utility. An alternative dosing schedule of continuous, low-level delivery, as is achieved by gene therapy, rather than intermittent, high concentration pulsed-dosing, might avoid the toxicity of interferon while maintaining its antitumor efficacy. We have tested a gene therapy approach in murine tumor models to treat malignancies that have shown responsiveness to interferon in clinical trials. The tumor cell lines used were moderately sensitive to the direct effects of human interferon-beta (hIFN-beta) in vitro. For in vivo testing, systemic delivery of hIFN-beta was generated following liver-targeted delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector carrying the hIFN-beta transgene. This prevented engraftment of subcutaneous human gliomas, and orthotopic, localized (intrarenal) and disseminated (primarily pulmonary) human renal cell carcinomas; and caused regression of established tumors at these sites. In a syngeneic, immunocompetent model of melanoma, AAV IFN-beta treatment limited subcutaneous tumor growth and prevented disseminated disease. A significant decrease in mean intratumoral vessel density was demonstrated in hIFN-beta-treated tumors, suggesting that in addition to a direct tumoricidal effect, the antitumor efficacy of AAV IFN-beta in this study was due to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis.
Cancer Gene Therapy 02/2006; 13(1):99-106. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of tumor-induced neovascularization appears to be an effective anticancer approach, although long-term angiogenesis inhibition may be required. An alternative to chronic drug administration is a gene therapy-mediated approach in which long-term in vivo protein expression is established. We have tested this approach by modifying murine bone marrow-derived cells with a gene encoding an angiogenesis inhibitor: a soluble, truncated form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1). Murine bone marrow cells were transduced with a retroviral vector encoding either truncated, soluble Flk-1 (tsFlk-1) together with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP alone. Tumor growth in mice challenged 3 months after transplantation with tsFlk-1-expressing bone marrow cells was significantly inhibited when compared with tumor growth in control-transplanted mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumors in each group demonstrated colocalization of GFP expression in cells staining with endothelial cell markers, suggesting that the endothelial cells of the tumor-induced neovasculature were derived, at least in part, from bone marrow precursors. These results suggest that long-term expression of a functional angiogenesis inhibitor can be generated through gene-modified, bone marrow-derived stem cells, and that this approach can have significant anticancer efficacy. Modifying these cells seems to have the added potential benefit of targeting transgene expression to the tumor neovasculature, because bone marrow-derived endothelial cell precursors seem to be recruited in the process of tumor-induced angiogenesis.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2001; 7(9):2870-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor