Jian Wang

Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Liaoning, China

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Publications (65)129.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory reactions are the most critical pathological processes occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Activated microglia/macrophages have either detrimental or beneficial effects on neural regeneration based on their functional polarized M1/M2 subsets. However, the mechanism of microglia/macrophage polarization to M1/M2 at the injured spinal cord environment remains unknown. In this study, wild-type (WT) or aldose reductase (AR)-knockout (KO) mice were subjected to SCI by a spinal crush injury model. The expression pattern of AR, behavior tests for locomotor activity, and lesion size were assessed at between 4 h and 28 days after SCI. We found that the expression of AR is upregulated in microglia/macrophages after SCI in WT mice. In AR KO mice, SCI led to smaller injury lesion areas compared to WT. AR deficiency-induced microglia/macrophages induce the M2 rather than the M1 response and promote locomotion recovery after SCI in mice. In the in vitro experiments, microglia cell lines (N9 or BV2) were treated with the AR inhibitor (ARI) fidarestat. AR inhibition caused 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) accumulation, which induced the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to promote Arg1 expression. KG501, the specific inhibitor of phosphorylated CREB, could cancel the upregulation of Arg1 by ARI or HNE stimulation. Our results suggest that AR works as a switch which can regulate microglia by polarizing cells to either the M1 or the M2 phenotype under M1 stimulation based on its states of activity. We suggest that inhibiting AR may be a promising therapeutic method for SCI in the future.
    Molecular Neurobiology 12/2014; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extrarenal nephroblastomatosis is a rare entity which occurs in retroperitoneum and inguinal region predominantly. Here we report two cases of primary extrarenal nephroblastomatosis of Han Chinese in Asian in unusual locations, one is located in testis and paratestis, and the other is paraspinal cord.
    BMC Pediatrics 10/2014; 14(1):255. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural progenitor cell (NPC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). It requires a controlled directional migration and integration of NPCs, for example dopaminergic (DA) progenitor cells, into the damaged host brain tissue. There is, however, only limited understanding of how to regulate the directed migration of NPCs to the diseased or damaged brain tissues for the repair and regeneration. The aims of this study are to explore the possibility of using a physiological level of electrical stimulation to regulate the directed migration of ventral midbrain NPCs (NPC(vm)), and to investigate its potential regulation via GSK3β and associated downstream effectors. We tested the effects of direct-current (DC) electric fields (EFs) on the migration behaviors of the NPC(vm). A DC EF induced directional cell migration towards the cathode, namely electrotaxis. Reversal of the EF polarity triggered a sharp reversal of NPC(vm) electrotaxis. The electrotactic response was both time and EF voltage dependent. Pharmacologically inhibiting the canonical Wnt / GSK3β pathway significantly reduced the electrotactic response of NPC(vm), which is associated with the down-regulation of GSK3β phosphorylation, β-catenin activation and CLASP2 expression. This was further proved by RNA interference of GSK3β, which also showed a significantly reduced electrotactic response in association with reduced β-catenin activation and CLASP2 expression. In comparison, RNA interference of β-catenin slightly reduced electrotactic response and CLASP2 expression. Both pharmacological inhibition of Wnt / GSK3β and RNA interference of GSK3β / β-catenin clearly reduced the asymmetric redistribution of CLASP2 and its co-localization with α-tubulin. These results suggest that Wnt / GSK3β signaling contributes to the electrotactic response of NPC(vm) through the coordination of GSK3β phosphorylation, β-catenin activation, CLASP2 expression and asymmetric redistribution to the leading edge of the migrating cells.
    Experimental neurology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) plays a central role in the development of endoderm-derived organs. It has been reported that FOXA2 acts as a suppressor in many kinds of tumor. However, little is known about the role of FOXA2 in gastric cancer.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 08/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a virus-induced infectious disease that usually affects infants and children, has an increased incidence in China in recent years. This study attempted to investigate the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HFMD.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2014; 14(1):337. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of novel oncogenic kinase (NOK), a member of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) family, has been observed in several human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the clinic relevance of NOK expression in NSCLC remains unclear.
    BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):402. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) involves the activation of resident microglia and the infiltration of macrophages. Macrophages and microglia can be polarized into the classically activated proinflammatory M1 phenotype or the alternatively activated anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a critical immune inhibitory receptor involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. However, whether PD-1 is involved in the modulation of macrophage/microglial polarization is unknown. In this study, the mRNA levels of pd1 gradually increased after SCI, and PD-1 protein was found in macrophages/microglia in injured spinal cord sections. PD-1 knockout (KO) mice showed poor locomotor recovery after spinal cord crushing compared with wild-type mice. M1-type macrophages/microglia accumulated in greater numbers in the injured spinal cord of PD-1-KO mice. Under polarized stimulation, induced expression of PD-1 occurred in cultured macrophages and microglia. PD-1 suppressed M1 polarization by reducing the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and promoted M2 polarization by increasing STAT6 phosphorylation. In PD-1-KO mice, the M1 response was enhanced via the activation of STAT1 and nuclear factor-kappa B. Furthermore, PD-1 played various roles in phagocytosis in macrophages and microglia. Therefore, our results suggest that PD-1 signaling plays an important role in the regulation of macrophage/microglial polarization. Thus, deregulated PD-1 signaling may induce the polarization of macrophages/microglia toward the M1 phenotype. Overall, our results provide new insights into the modulatory mechanisms of macrophage/microglial polarization, thereby possibly facilitating the development of new therapies for SCI via the regulation of macrophage/microglial polarization through PD-1 signaling.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 05/2014; · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.
    Neural Regeneration Research 04/2014; 9(8):789-94. · 0.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are highly invasive and have poor prognoses. We investigated the role of PTPLAD2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A domain (PTPLAD) family member, in ESCC carcinogenesis. Survival analysis was performed using patient data. ESCC tissue samples lost PTPLAD2 heterozygosity and had decreased PTPLAD2 expression. Low PTPLAD2 expression and high p-STAT3 correlated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of PTPLAD2 in ESCC cells reduced STAT3 phosphorylation, decreased FoxM1, inhibited proliferation and decreased in mouse xenograft tumor formation. Therefore, PTPLAD2 is a potential tumor suppressor and prognostic indicator that reduces STAT3 phosphorylation. PTPLAD2 is a possible clinical target for ESCC treatment.
    FEBS letters 02/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intussusception is rare in infants less than 4 months of age and the use of air enema for reduction of intussusception has been limited. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the predictors of successful reduction of intussusception using air enema in infants less than 4 months of age. This is a retrospective chart review of 97 intussusception patients of less than 4 months of age between January 2008 and December 2012. Demographic data, clinical presentation and outcomes of air enemas were collected and analyzed. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses for significant predictors of successful reduction of intussusception using air enemas. Of the 97 infants less than 4 months of age (median age, 97.6 days; age range, 41 - 119 days), 63 (65%) were boys and 34 (35%) were girls. The duration of symptoms ranged from 5 to 53 hours, with a median of 16.3 hours. The clinical features included paroxysmal crying (75%), vomiting (68%), bloody stools (61%), and palpable abdominal masses (32%). The duration of symptoms, bloody stools and the shape of the intussusceptum were found to be significantly predictive of the outcome of air enema reduction of intussusception. The rate of successful reduction of intussusception using air enemas in infants younger than 4 months is low. Such factors as the duration of symptoms, bloody stools and the shape of the intussusceptum are predictive of the outcome of air enema reduction of intussusception.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 02/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether climate factors correlate with variations in the rate of pediatric intussusception cases presenting to the Children's Hospital in Suzhou, China. The hospital records of 5,994 pediatric cases of intussusception who had presented between Aug 2006 and Dec 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data and air enema reduction data were collected for each case. The monthly rate of new intussusception cases fluctuated throughout the year generally rising from April to September with a peak from May to July. This annual cycling of intussusception incidence was highly significant over the 5 year observation period. Poisson regression analysis showed that the monthly number of intussusception cases was associated with an increase in mean temperature per month (P = 0.0001), sum of sunshine per month (P<0.0001), precipitation per month (P<0.0001), and was marginally associated with increased mean wind speed per month (P = 0.0709). The incidence of intussusception in Suzhou was seasonally variable with a peak in cases presenting during hotter, sunnier, and wetter months demonstrating a positive association with certain climatic factors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90521. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, aNogoA-N and aNogo-66 mAb, which were raised against recombinant N-terminal fragments of rat NogoA and Nogo-66, respectively. When compared with the commercial rabbit anti-rat NogoA polyclonal antibody (pAb), which can specifically recognise NogoA, the two mAbs were also specific for the NogoA antigen in immunofluorescence histochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot (WB) analysis. Serial truncations of NogoA covering the N-terminal region of NogoA (aa 570-691) and Nogo-66 (aa 1026-1091) were expressed in E. coli. The epitopes recognised by aNogoA-N and aNogo-66 are located in the aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 regions of NogoA, respectively. Both mAbs remarkably enhanced the axon growth and branching of cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the antibodies that bind to aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 of NogoA may have stimulatory effects on axon growth and branching. Additionally, the two mAbs that we generated are specific for NogoA and significantly block NogoA function. In conclusion, two sites in NogoA located within aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 are recognised by our two antibodies and are novel and potentially promising targets for repair after central nervous system (CNS) injury.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88554. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical value of MRI examination in congenital anorectal malformation (CARM). Forty-four cases with operatively proved anorectal malformation from May 2008 to May 2012 in the authors' hospital were reviewed. Of the 44 cases, 25 were males and 19 females, their age ranged from 1 day to 2 years. MRI was performed in all patients. Of all 44 cases, 15 cases had high imperforate anus (34%), rectum blind end were above PC line, the distance of rectum blind end and anus nest was (29.12 ± 2.35) mm; 8 cases had median imperforate anus (18%), rectum blind ends were near PC line, the distance of rectum blind end and anus nest was (18.98 ± 2.21) mm; 21 cases had low imperforate anus (48%), rectum blind ends were below PC line, the distance of rectum blind end and anus nest was (7.54 ± 1.08) mm. Twenty-five cases with fistula in 44 cases were confirmed by rectal angiography and surgery, accounting for 57%. In 13 cases with fistula, the lesion could be clearly demonstrated on MRI, in the remaining 12 cases with fistula, the lesion could not be visualized clearly or no image development occurred on MRI. Of all 44 cases, 1 case had tethered cord with filum terminale lipoma, 1 case had tethered cord, 2 cases had syringomyelia, 1 case had right kidney agenesis, 1 case had hydrocele. In 44 cases of multi-planar MRI imaging could clearly show the perianal muscles developmental situation, 36 cases had perianal muscles dysplasia, amd showed levator ani muscle, puborectalis and anal sphincter asymmetry, muscle belly slim. MRI examination has a high clinical value in CARM diagnosis, can help accurately judge the anal atresia type, display the presence and running of most of the fistula, and diagnose perianal muscle development and other systems malformations, finally provide a reliable diagnostic basis for surgical program and prognostic assessment.
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics 01/2014; 52(1):41-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during pediatric cardiac surgery often elicits a systemic inflammatory response followed by a compromised immune response, which has been attributed to the morbidity of postoperative infection; however, the underlying mechanism(s) has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that CPB inhibits the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction pathways, thereby causing an immunosuppressive state after pediatric cardiac surgery. We examined 20 children with congenital heart disease undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass differentially affected lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-stimulated ex vivo production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, with significantly diminished tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8, but substantially enhanced IL-10 production. Consistent with the reduced inflammatory response, CPB strongly inhibited LPS- or BLP-activated TLR signal transduction pathways in monocytes with down-regulated expression of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 and with suppressed phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB p65, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. These results indicate that CPB during pediatric cardiac surgery causes substantially reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial component LPS or BLP stimulation, which is associated with CPB-induced suppression of TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This reduced inflammatory response after CPB in children with congenital heart disease may predispose them to an increased risk of postoperative infection.
    Journal of critical care 10/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral pathogen in infants and children. It is important to analyze RSV epidemic patterns and related relevant factors in order to prevent further infections and related complications. To explore the relationship between RSV infection rate in hospitalized children from Suzhou area and climatic factors. 42,664 nasopharyngeal specimens from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections were screened for RSV antigens using direct immunofluorescence. 472 RSV positive samples were randomly selected and performed real-time PCR to identify RSV subtype. Monthly meteorological data in Suzhou area was collected (average temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, total sunshine, and average wind speed) from 2001 to 2011. The relation between RSV infections and climatic factors was evaluated using correlation and stepwise regression analyses. The annual RSV infection rate in hospitalized children in Suzhou from 2001 to 2011 varied between 11.85% and 27.30%. The highest monthly infection rates occurred from November to April. The time interval from November to April was considered the infection season. Seasonal RSV infection rates from 2001 to 2010 were 40.75%, 22.72%, 39.93%, 27.37%, 42.71%, 21.28%, 38.57%, 19.86%, and 29.73%. The infection rate of any season was statistically different from the next season. There was no significant difference in RSV infection rates in the 2010-2011 and 2009-2010 epidemic seasons. Among the 472 randomly selected RSV positive samples, 412 were found to be RSV subtype A (RSV-A), while 60 subtype B (RSV-B). The monthly RSV infection rate was negatively correlated with monthly average temperature (r=-0.84), total sunshine (r=-0.47), precipitation (r=-0.31), relative humidity (r=-0.20), and average wind speed (r=-0.20), (P<0.05). Stepwise regression analysis showed monthly average temperature fit into a linear model (R(2)=0.64, P<0.01) with a regression coefficient of -1.52 (t=15.21, P<0.01). RSV infection in Suzhou occurred most frequently between November and April. The number of infections peaked every other year. Abnormally high infection rate in non-epidemic season only caused by RSV-A. Ambient temperature played an important role in the development of RSV infection.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical intervention-related trauma contributes largely to the development of postoperative immunosuppression, with reduced resistance to secondary bacterial infection. This study compared the impact of laparotomy versus laparoscopy on macrophage-associated bactericidal ability and examined whether laparotomy renders the host more susceptible to microbial infection. BALB/c mice were randomized into control, laparotomy, and laparoscopy groups. Laparotomy, but not laparoscopy, significantly downregulated CR3 expression on macrophages, diminished macrophage-induced uptake and phagocytosis of E. coli and S. aureus, and impaired macrophage-mediated intracellular bacterial killing. Consistent with this, mice that underwent laparotomy displayed substantially higher bacterial counts in the blood and visceral organs as well as a significantly enhanced mortality rate following bacterial infection, whereas mice subjected to laparoscopy did not show any defects in their bacterial clearance. Laparotomy has an adverse effect on host innate immunity against microbial infection by impairing macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and killing of the invaded bacteria. By contrast, laparoscopy appears to preserve macrophage-associated bactericidal ability, thus alleviating the development of postoperative immunosuppression.
    BMC Immunology 06/2013; 14(1):27. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our past researches suggested that L. barbarum exhibits direct neuroprotective and immune regulatory effects on the central nervous system, which are highly related to the events involved in the spinal cord injury, but not yet been investigated. Immune responses play an important role in the development of the pathology after secondary injury, particularly the M1 and M2 types of macrophage, on which special emphasis was laid in this study. METHODS: In our previous studies L. barbarum was administrated orally from 7 days before the injury to ensure a stabilized concentration in the blood. For clinical application, L. barbarum can only be administered after the injury. Therefore, both pre-injury and post-injury administration protocols were compared. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted and analyzed immunohistochemically, including Western blotting. RESULTS: The lesion size in the pre-treated group was much larger than that in the post-treated group. To explain this difference, we first studied the effect of L. barbarum on astrocytes, which forms the glial scar encircling the lesion. L. barbarum did not significantly affect the astrocytes. Then we studied the effect of L. barbarum on microglia/macrophages, particularly the M1 and M2 polarization. After spinal cord injury, the deleterious M1 cells dominant the early period, whereas the beneficial M2 cells dominate later. We found that in the pre-treated group L. barbarum significantly enhanced the expression of M1 cells and suppressed that of M2 cells, while in the post-treated group LBP markedly promoted the activity of M2 cells. This explained the difference between the pre- and post-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lycium barbarum has been wildly accepted to have beneficial effects in various central nervous system diseases. Our finding of deleterious effect of LBP administered at early period of spinal cord injury, so that its application should be avoided, and the substantial beneficial effect of LBP when administered at later stage has an important impact for clinical application.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 13(1):67. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonates and infants, due to the immaturity in their adaptive immunity, are thought to depend largely on the innate immune system for protection against bacterial infection. However, the innate immunity-mediated antimicrobial response in neonates and infants is incompletely characterized. Here, we report that infant mice were more susceptible to microbial sepsis than adult mice, with significantly reduced bacterial clearance from the circulation and visceral organs. Infant PMNs exhibited less constitutive expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, and bacterial infection caused further reduction of PMN CXCR2 in infant mice compared with adult mice. This correlates with diminished in vitro chemotaxis of infant PMNs toward the chemoattractant CXCL2 and impaired in vivo recruitment of infant PMNs into the infectious site. Furthermore, consistent with the reduced antimicrobial response in vivo, infant macrophages displayed an impaired bactericidal activity with a defect in phagosome maturation after ingestion of either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Thus, infant mice exhibit an increased vulnerability to microbial infection with delayed bacterial clearance, which is associated with the inefficiency in their innate phagocyte-associated antimicrobial functions characterized by defects in PMN recruitment and macrophage phagosome maturation during microbial sepsis.
    European Journal of Immunology 02/2013; · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Liver Cirrhosis is the final stage of chronic liver damage from various etiologies. It is controversial on the reversibility of cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether cirrhosis was reversible after treatment by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), a key transcriptional regulator of hepatocyte differentiation and function. METHODS: Early and advanced stages of liver cirrhosis were induced by thioacetamide administration. The adenovirus carrying HNF4α gene was injected into cirrhotic rats via tail vein. The effect of HNF4α on cirrhosis was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examination. RESULTS: HNF4α could remarkably resolve early stage cirrhosis to a nearly normal extent and partially ameliorate advanced cirrhosis in vivo. Enforced expression of HNF4α remarkably downregulated profibrogenic factors including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), collagen I and III. In vivo and in vitro study revealed that HNF4α administration could inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway through downregulation of phosphor-ERK and phosphor-JunD. In addition, HNF4α could readjust the balance between extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and degradation through upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases and downregulation of its inhibitors. Moreover, HNF4α treatment inhibited angiogenesis as determined by CD31 and CD34 immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings broaden the knowledge on the reversibility of different stages of cirrhosis and HNF4α could present as a promising alternative for liver cirrhosis treatment.
    Journal of Digestive Diseases 02/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histone modification enzymes regulate gene expression by altering the accessibility of promoters to transcription factors. We sought to determine whether the genes encoding histone modification enzymes are dysregulated in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A real-time PCR array was designed, tested and used to profile the expression of 85 genes encoding histone modification enzymes in bone marrow mononuclear cells from 30 pediatric ALL patients and 20 normal controls. The expression profile of histone-modifying genes was significantly different between normal karyotype B cell pediatric ALL and normal controls. Eleven genes were upregulated in pediatric ALL, including the histone deacetylases HDAC2 and PAK1, and seven genes were downregulated, including PRMT2 and the putative tumor suppressor EP300. Future studies will seek to determine whether these genes serve as biomarkers of pediatric ALL. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that Gene Expression and Organ Morphology was the highest rated network, with 13 focus molecules (significance score = 35). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also indicated that curcumin and miR-34 are upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes; future studies will seek to validate these results and examine the role of curcumin and miR-34 in leukemia. This study provides new clues into the molecular mechanisms of pediatric ALL.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(2):3376-94. · 2.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

188 Citations
129.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Fourth Military Medical University
      • • Department of Thoracic Surgery
      • • Institute of Neurosciences
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Xi’an, Liaoning, China
    • Harbin Institute of Technology
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2013
    • Suzhou University
      Suchow, Anhui Sheng, China
    • Soochow University (PRC)
      • Institute of Pediatric Surgery
      Suzhou, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2011
    • University of Baghdad
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Baghdad, Muhafazat Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2009–2010
    • Guilin University of Technology
      Ling-ch’uan, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, China