J Carmichael

Institute of Cancer Research, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (163)1074.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This Phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of olaparib, a potent oral PARP inhibitor, in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC). Eligible patients who had received <=1 prior cytotoxic regimen for mTNBC were treated with olaparib 200 mg bid continuously plus weekly paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 for 3 weeks per 4-week cycle. Dose modifications in a large proportion of patients due to neutropenia resulted in enrollment of a second cohort of patients who, if they experienced grade >=2 neutropenia in cycle 1, received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, which was continued prophylactically in subsequent cycles. All patients had measurable disease; tumor responses were evaluated according to RECIST (version 1.0). 19 patients (cohort 1, n = 9; cohort 2, n = 10) received treatment; 15 had received prior taxane chemotherapy. The most frequent adverse events were diarrhea (n = 12, 63%), nausea (n = 11, 58%) and neutropenia (n = 11, 58%). Seven neutropenia events were reported in cohort 1 (four grade >=3) and four in cohort 2 (two grade >=3, including one event of febrile neutropenia). The median (range) dose intensity of paclitaxel was 57% (26--100%) in cohort 1 and 73% (29--100%) in cohort 2. Seven patients (37%) had a confirmed partial response; one patient remains on olaparib monotherapy without progression. The combination of olaparib and weekly paclitaxel was complicated by a significant clinical interaction, with higher-than-expected rates of neutropenia despite secondary prophylaxis. Given the encouraging response rate, alternative scheduling and dosing strategies should be considered (funded by AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00707707).
    Breast cancer research: BCR 09/2013; 15(5):R88. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281) is an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor with antitumour activity in cancer patients with BRCA1/2 germline mutations and in patients with homologous recombination deficiency. In this dose-finding study, patients were randomized to olaparib 10, 30, 100, 200 or 400 mg (capsule formulation) twice daily for the 4-5 days preceding breast cancer surgery. The primary objective was to identify an effective biological dose of olaparib for future trials. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of PARP-1 inhibition dose/exposure-response, and safety. Olaparib plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) and the pharmacodynamics (PD) in tumour and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated. Population PK/PD modelling was performed on pooled data from this study and a previously reported study. Sixty patients were randomized (n = 12, each dose). Dose-dependent increases in exposure to olaparib were observed, but at ~50 % lower plasma exposure levels than seen in advanced disease studies. The mean maximal extent of PARP inhibition in PBMCs and tumour tissue was 50.6 % and 70.0 %, respectively, and was similar to inhibitory levels reported previously. No PARP inhibition-dose relationship was observed. Due to the unexpectedly low olaparib exposure, we were unable to determine an effective biological dose. Common adverse events included procedural pain (n = 31 patients), nausea, asthenia, malaise and increased blood creatinine (n = 6, each); these were of mild-to-moderate intensity, and all were manageable. Despite low olaparib exposure, PARP inhibition was consistent with previous reports. Reasons for the inter-study differences in exposure are unclear. The tolerability profile of olaparib was consistent with previous studies.
    Investigational New Drugs 01/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281) is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that has shown antitumor activity in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer with or without BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study to evaluate maintenance treatment with olaparib in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer who had received two or more platinum-based regimens and had had a partial or complete response to their most recent platinum-based regimen. Patients were randomly assigned to receive olaparib, at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, or placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines. Of 265 patients who underwent randomization, 136 were assigned to the olaparib group and 129 to the placebo group. Progression-free survival was significantly longer with olaparib than with placebo (median, 8.4 months vs. 4.8 months from randomization on completion of chemotherapy; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.49; P<0.001). Subgroup analyses of progression-free survival showed that, regardless of subgroup, patients in the olaparib group had a lower risk of progression. Adverse events more commonly reported in the olaparib group than in the placebo group (by more than 10% of patients) were nausea (68% vs. 35%), fatigue (49% vs. 38%), vomiting (32% vs. 14%), and anemia (17% vs. 5%); the majority of adverse events were grade 1 or 2. An interim analysis of overall survival (38% maturity, meaning that 38% of the patients had died) showed no significant difference between groups (hazard ratio with olaparib, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.39; P=0.75). Olaparib as maintenance treatment significantly improved progression-free survival among patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Interim analysis showed no overall survival benefit. The toxicity profile of olaparib in this population was consistent with that in previous studies. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00753545.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 03/2012; 366(15):1382-92. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281) is a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor with anti-tumour activity and acceptable toxicity as monotherapy in patients with BRCA-deficient cancers. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor bevacizumab has been incorporated into standard of care with chemotherapy in various tumours. This phase I study established the safety, tolerability and clinical pharmacokinetics of olaparib alone and in combination with bevacizumab. Patients with advanced solid tumours received increasing doses of continuous oral olaparib (100, 200 and 400 mg b.i.d. capsule formulation) in combination with bevacizumab (10 mg kg(-1) intravenous q2w). In all, 12 patients enrolled and received treatment. The most common adverse events (AEs) related to olaparib were grade 1/2 nausea and fatigue. No haematological parameters were reported as AEs. No serious AEs related to olaparib or dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported. Three patients discontinued due to AEs, two patients discontinued both olaparib and bevacizumab and one patient discontinued olaparib. Five patients received combination treatment for over 6 months. There was no evidence that bevacizumab affected olaparib. The combination of olaparib 400 mg b.i.d. with bevacizumab 10 mg kg(-1) q2w was generally well tolerated with no DLTs. This combination could be considered for future clinical investigation.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2012; 106(3):468-74. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281), an orally active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells, has shown promising clinical efficacy in nonrandomized phase II trials in patients with ovarian cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency. We assessed the comparative efficacy and safety of olaparib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in this patient population. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II study, patients with ovarian cancer that recurred within 12 months of prior platinum therapy and with confirmed germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were enrolled. Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to olaparib 200 mg twice per day or 400 mg twice per day continuously or PLD 50 mg/m(2) intravenously every 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) -assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Ninety-seven patients were randomly assigned. Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 10.1 months), 8.8 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 9.2 months), and 7.1 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.7 months) for the olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.56; P = .66) for combined olaparib doses versus PLD. RECIST-assessed ORRs were 25%, 31%, and 18% for olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD, respectively; differences were not statistically significant. Tolerability of both treatments was as expected based on previous trials. The efficacy of olaparib was consistent with previous studies. However, the efficacy of PLD was greater than expected. Olaparib 400 mg twice per day is a suitable dose to explore in further studies in this patient population.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2011; 30(4):372-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281) is a small-molecule, potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of this drug in patients without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with advanced triple-negative breast cancer or high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian cancer. In this phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study, women with advanced high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled and received olaparib 400 mg twice a day. Patients were stratified according to whether they had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or not. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). All patients who received treatment were included in the analysis of toxic effects, and patients who had measurable lesions at baseline were included in the primary efficacy analysis. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00679783. 91 patients were enrolled (65 with ovarian cancer and 26 breast cancer) and 90 were treated between July 8, 2008, and Sept 24, 2009. In the ovarian cancer cohorts, 64 patients received treatment. 63 patients had target lesions and therefore were evaluable for objective response as per RECIST. In these patients, confirmed objective responses were seen in seven (41%; 95% CI 22-64) of 17 patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and 11 (24%; 14-38) of 46 without mutations. No confirmed objective responses were reported in patients with breast cancer. The most common adverse events were fatigue (45 [70%] of patients with ovarian cancer, 13 [50%] of patients with breast cancer), nausea (42 [66%] and 16 [62%]), vomiting (25 [39%] and nine [35%]), and decreased appetite (23 [36%] and seven [27%]). Our study suggests that olaparib is a promising treatment for women with ovarian cancer and further assessment of the drug in clinical trials is needed. AstraZeneca.
    The Lancet Oncology 08/2011; 12(9):852-61. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this phase I study was to determine the safety and tolerability and to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of orally administered olaparib (AZD2281) in combination with topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histologically or cytologically diagnosed advanced solid tumors for whom no suitable effective therapy exists were included. Patients in four cohorts received topotecan (0.5 mg/m(2)/day × 3 days or 1.0 mg/m(2)/day × 3 days) intravenously in combination with oral olaparib 50, 100 or 200 mg bid for six cycles. The primary objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability and to establish the MTD of olaparib in combination with topotecan. Twenty-one patients were enrolled and 19 received treatment. Dose-limiting toxicities were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The MTD was established as topotecan 1.0 mg/m(2)/day × 3 days plus olaparib 100 mg bid. The most common adverse events (AEs) included fatigue and gastrointestinal events. There was an olaparib and topotecan dose-related increase in neutropenia which was dose limiting. Further development of olaparib and topotecan in combination was not explored due to dose-limiting hematological AEs and the resulting sub-therapeutic MTD.
    Investigational New Drugs 05/2011; 30(4):1493-500. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of gefitinib were altered in patients with hepatic impairment due to cirrhosis or hepatic metastases in two open, parallel-group, multicenter studies. In Study 1, subjects with normal hepatic function or mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh criteria) due to cirrhosis received single-dose gefitinib 250 mg (n = 10 per group). In Study 2, patients with solid malignant tumors with normal liver biochemistry (n = 18), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 7) hepatic impairment (liver biochemistry tests) due to metastases received gefitinib 250 mg daily for 28 days. In Study 1, the geometric mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for gefitinib was significantly higher in patients with hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects; hepatic impairment was associated with reduced gefitinib plasma clearance, longer half-life, and reduced plasma metabolite levels. In Study 2, the geometric mean gefitinib steady-state AUC during the 24-h dosing interval was slightly, but not significantly, higher in patients with moderate hepatic impairment; there were, however, no significant differences between groups in gefitinib and metabolite pharmacokinetic parameters. In both studies, gefitinib was well tolerated across all cohorts. We conclude that the effect of hepatic impairment on gefitinib pharmacokinetics depends on the underlying etiology of that impairment and its classification.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2011; 68(6):1485-95. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is essential in cellular processing of DNA damage via the base excision repair pathway (BER). The PARP inhibition can be directly cytotoxic to tumour cells and augments the anti-tumour effects of DNA-damaging agents. This study evaluated the optimally tolerated dose of olaparib (4-(3--4-fluorophenyl) methyl-1(2H)-one; AZD2281, KU0059436), a potent PARP inhibitor, with dacarbazine and assessed safety, toxicity, clinical pharmacokinetics and efficacy of combination treatment. Patients with advanced cancer received olaparib (20-200 mg PO) on days 1-7 with dacarbazine (600-800 mg m(-2) IV) on day 1 (cycle 2, day 2) of a 21-day cycle. An expansion cohort of chemonaive melanoma patients was treated at an optimally tolerated dose. The BER enzyme, methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and its substrate 7-methylguanine were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The optimal combination to proceed to phase II was defined as 100 mg bd olaparib with 600 mg m(-2) dacarbazine. Dose-limiting toxicities were neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia. There were two partial responses, both in patients with melanoma. This study defined a tolerable dose of olaparib in combination with dacarbazine, but there were no responses in chemonaive melanoma patients, demonstrating no clinical advantage over single-agent dacarbazine at these doses.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2011; 104(5):750-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib, a novel, orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, induced synthetic lethality in BRCA-deficient cells. A maximum tolerated dose and initial signal of efficacy in BRCA-deficient ovarian cancers have been reported. We therefore assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of olaparib alone in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and advanced breast cancer. Women (aged >or=18 years) with confirmed BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent, advanced breast cancer were assigned to two sequential cohorts in a phase 2 study undertaken in 16 centres in Australia, Germany, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. The first cohort (n=27) was given continuous oral olaparib at the maximum tolerated dose (400 mg twice daily), and the second (n=27) was given a lower dose (100 mg twice daily). The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00494234. Patients had been given a median of three previous chemotherapy regimens (range 1-5 in cohort 1, and 2-4 in cohort 2). ORR was 11 (41%) of 27 patients (95% CI 25-59) in the cohort assigned to 400 mg twice daily, and six (22%) of 27 (11-41) in the cohort assigned to 100 mg twice daily. Toxicities were mainly at low grades. The most frequent causally related adverse events in the cohort given 400 mg twice daily were fatigue (grade 1 or 2, 11 [41%]; grade 3 or 4, four [15%]), nausea (grade 1 or 2, 11 [41%]; grade 3 or 4, four [15%]), vomiting (grade 1 or 2, three [11%]; grade 3 or 4, three [11%]), and anaemia (grade 1 or 2, one [4%]; grade 3 or 4, three [11%]). The most frequent causally related adverse events in the cohort given 100 mg twice daily were nausea (grade 1 or 2, 11 [41%]; none grade 3 or 4) and fatigue (grade 1 or 2, seven [26%]; grade 3 or 4, one [4%]). The results of this study provide positive proof of concept for PARP inhibition in BRCA-deficient breast cancers and shows a favourable therapeutic index for a novel targeted treatment strategy in patients with tumours that have genetic loss of function of BRCA1-associated or BRCA2-associated DNA repair. Toxicity in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations was similar to that reported previously in those without such mutations. AstraZeneca.
    The Lancet 07/2010; 376(9737):235-44. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olaparib is a novel, orally active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in homozygous BRCA-deficient cells. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of olaparib for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. In this international, multicentre, phase 2 study, we enrolled two sequential cohorts of women (aged >or=18 years) with confirmed genetic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, and recurrent, measurable disease. The study was undertaken in 12 centres in Australia, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the USA. The first cohort (n=33) was given continuous oral olaparib at the maximum tolerated dose of 400 mg twice daily, and the second cohort (n=24) was given continuous oral olaparib at 100 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00494442. Patients had been given a median of three (range 1-16) previous chemotherapy regimens. ORR was 11 (33%) of 33 patients (95% CI 20-51) in the cohort assigned to olaparib 400 mg twice daily, and three (13%) of 24 (4-31) in the cohort assigned to 100 mg twice daily. In patients given olaparib 400 mg twice daily, the most frequent causally related adverse events were nausea (grade 1 or 2, 14 [42%]; grade 3 or 4, two [6%]), fatigue (grade 1 or 2, ten [30%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]), and anaemia (grade 1 or two, five [15%]; grade 3 or 4, one [3%]). The most frequent causally related adverse events in the cohort given 100 mg twice daily were nausea (grade 1 or 2, seven [29%]; grade 3 or 4, two [8%]) and fatigue (grade 1 or 2, nine [38%]; none grade 3 or 4). Findings from this phase 2 study provide positive proof of concept of the efficacy and tolerability of genetically targeted treatment with olaparib in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer. AstraZeneca.
    The Lancet 07/2010; 376(9737):245-51. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective tumor cell cytotoxicity can be achieved through a synthetic lethal strategy using poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor therapy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in whom tumor cells have defective homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Platinum-based chemotherapy responses correlate with HR DNA repair capacity. Olaparib is a potent, oral PARP inhibitor that is well tolerated, with antitumor activity in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Patients with BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancer were treated with olaparib within a dose-escalation and single-stage expansion of a phase I trial. Antitumor activity was subsequently correlated with platinum sensitivity. Fifty patients were treated: 48 had germline BRCA1/2 mutations; one had a BRCA2 germline sequence change of unknown significance, and another had a strong family history of BRCA1/2-associated cancers who declined mutation testing. Of the 50 patients, 13 had platinum-sensitive disease, 24 had platinum-resistant disease, and 13 had platinum-refractory disease (according to platinum-free interval). Twenty (40%; 95% CI, 26% to 55%) achieved Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) complete or partial responses and/or tumor marker (CA125) responses, and three (6.0%) maintained RECIST disease stabilization for more than 4 months, giving an overall clinical benefit rate of 46% (95% CI, 32% to 61%). Median response duration was 28 weeks. There was a significant association between the clinical benefit rate and platinum-free interval across the platinum-sensitive, resistant, and refractory subgroups (69%, 45%, and 23%, respectively). Post hoc analyses indicated associations between platinum sensitivity and extent of olaparib response (radiologic change, P = .001; CA125 change, P = .002). Olaparib has antitumor activity in BRCA1/2 mutation ovarian cancer, which is associated with platinum sensitivity.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2010; 28(15):2512-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the frequency of visceral relapse of BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian cancer to that of nonhereditary controls. All patients diagnosed in Scotland with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation were identified. Those with previous malignancy were excluded. Each remaining patient who experienced relapse was matched with two nonhereditary controls. Seventy-nine patients with EOC/PPC and germline BRCA1/2 mutations were identified. Fifteen had inadequate clinical data, two had carcinosarcoma, 27 had previous breast cancer, and 16 were in remission. Of the remaining 19 patients who were BRCA1/2 deficient, 14 patients (74%) developed visceral metastases compared with six (16%) of 38 patients in the control group. The percentages of liver, lung, and splenic metastases were 53%, 32%, and 32%, respectively, in the patients compared with 5%, 3%, and 5%, respectively, in the controls. When events occurring outside the matched follow-up period were omitted, the percentages of visceral, liver, lung, and splenic metastases were 58%, 42%, 16%, and 32% in the patients compared with 5%, 0%, 0%, and 3% in controls (P < .001, P < .001, P = .066, and P = .011, respectively). In an independent validation set, the corresponding percentages of visceral, liver, lung, and splenic metastases were 63%, 46%, 13%, and 17% in the patients compared with 11%, 4%, 2%, and 2% in controls (P < .001, P < .001, P = .153, and P = .052, respectively). Although sporadic EOC commonly remains confined to the peritoneum, BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian cancer frequently metastasizes to viscera. These data extend the ovarian BRCAness phenotype, imply BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian cancer is biologically distinct, and suggest that patients with visceral metastases should be considered for BRCA1/2 sequencing.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2010; 28(15):2505-11. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(7):128-129.
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We conducted a clinical evaluation in humans of olaparib (AZD2281), a novel, potent, orally active PARP inhibitor. This was a phase 1 trial that included the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of olaparib. Selection was aimed at having a study population enriched in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We enrolled and treated 60 patients; 22 were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and 1 had a strong family history of BRCA-associated cancer but declined to undergo mutational testing. The olaparib dose and schedule were increased from 10 mg daily for 2 of every 3 weeks to 600 mg twice daily continuously. Reversible dose-limiting toxicity was seen in one of eight patients receiving 400 mg twice daily (grade 3 mood alteration and fatigue) and two of five patients receiving 600 mg twice daily (grade 4 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 somnolence). This led us to enroll another cohort, consisting only of carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, to receive olaparib at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. Other adverse effects included mild gastrointestinal symptoms. There was no obvious increase in adverse effects seen in the mutation carriers. Pharmacokinetic data indicated rapid absorption and elimination; pharmacodynamic studies confirmed PARP inhibition in surrogate samples (of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and plucked eyebrow-hair follicles) and tumor tissue. Objective antitumor activity was reported only in mutation carriers, all of whom had ovarian, breast, or prostate cancer and had received multiple treatment regimens. Olaparib has few of the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy, inhibits PARP, and has antitumor activity in cancer associated with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00516373.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2009; 361(2):123-34. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the recommended phase II dose of combination ixabepilone plus carboplatin based on the maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, optimum schedule, and safety. Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of carboplatin plus ixabepilone administered on day 1 (schedule A) or days 1 and 8 (schedule B) of a 21-day cycle. Blood was sampled during cycle 1 for pharmacokinetic analysis of ixabepilone (both schedules) and carboplatin (schedule B). Fifty-two patients were treated with ixabepilone doses ranging from 30 to 50 mg/m2 per 21-day cycle plus carboplatin area under curve (AUC) 5 or 6 (Calvert formula). On schedule A (ixabepilone 40 mg/m2 over 1 hour plus carboplatin AUC 6), 2 of 2 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). On schedule B (ixabepilone 25 mg/m2 over 1 hour on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC 6), 3 of 3 patients experienced DLT. DLT was myelosuppression; however, cumulative sensory neuropathy limited extended dosing on schedule A. Ixabepilone and carboplatin pharmacokinetics were similar to those using either drug as monotherapy, indicating an absence of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Based on DLTs and tolerability with repeated dosing, the recommended doses were 30 mg/m2 ixabepilone (1-hour infusion) d1 q3w plus carboplatin AUC 6 (schedule A) and 20 mg/m2 ixabepilone (1 hour infusion) d1, d8 q3w plus carboplatin AUC 6 (schedule B). Data from the present study show the feasibility and tolerability of combination ixabepilone plus carboplatin, with ixabepilone administered on day 1 or on days 1 and 8 on a 21-day cycle.
    Clinical Cancer Research 01/2009; 14(24):8288-94. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overall survival (OS) can be observed only after prolonged follow-up, and any potential effect of first-line therapies on OS may be confounded by the effects of subsequent therapy. We investigated whether tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), or time to progression (TTP) could be considered a valid surrogate for OS to assess the benefits of first-line therapies for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Individual patient data were collected on 3,953 patients in 11 randomized trials that compared an anthracycline (alone or in combination) with a taxane (alone or in combination with an anthracycline). Surrogacy was assessed through the correlation between the end points as well as through the correlation between the treatment effects on the end points. Tumor response (survival odds ratio [OR], 6.2; 95% CI, 5.3 to 7.0) and disease control (survival OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 4.8 to 6.3) were strongly associated with OS. PFS (rank correlation coefficient, 0.688; 95% CI, 0.686 to 0.690) and TTP (rank correlation coefficient, 0.682; 95% CI, 0.680 to 0.684) were moderately associated with OS. Response log ORs were strongly correlated with PFS log hazard ratios (linear coefficient [rho], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.19). Response and disease control log ORs and PFS and TTP log hazard ratios were poorly correlated with log hazard ratios for OS, but the confidence limits of rho were too wide to be informative. No end point could be demonstrated as a good surrogate for OS in these trials. Tumor response may be an acceptable surrogate for PFS.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2008; 26(12):1987-92. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taxanes (paclitaxel or docetaxel) have been sequenced or combined with anthracyclines (doxorubicin or epirubicin) for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. This meta-analysis uses data from all relevant trials to detect any advantages of taxanes in terms of tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), and survival. Individual patient data were collected on eight randomized combination trials comparing anthracyclines + taxanes (+ cyclophosphamide in one trial) with anthracyclines + cyclophosphamide (+ fluorouracil in four trials), and on three single-agent trials comparing taxanes with anthracyclines. Combination trials included 3,034 patients; single-agent trials included 919 patients. Median follow-up of living patients was 43 months, median survival was 19.3 months, and median PFS was 7.1 months. In single-agent trials, response rates were similar in the taxanes (38%) and in the anthracyclines (33%) arms (P = .08). The hazard ratios for taxanes compared with anthracyclines were 1.19 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36; P = .011) for PFS and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16; P = .90) for survival. In combination trials, response rates were 57% (10% complete) in taxane-based combinations and 46% (6% complete) in control arms (P < .001). The hazard ratios for taxane-based combinations compared with control arms were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.99; P = .031) for PFS and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.03; P = .24) for survival. Taxanes were significantly worse than single-agent anthracyclines in terms of PFS, but not in terms of response rates or survival. Taxane-based combinations were significantly better than anthracycline-based combinations in terms of response rates and PFS, but not in terms of survival.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2008; 26(12):1980-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The monoclonal antibody 3H1 mimics the external structure of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). It therefore has the potential, via the anti-idiotypic network, to stimulate immune responses to CEA that may benefit colorectal cancer patients. A total of 630 patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer were randomised in a 2:1 fashion to receive bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) plus either 3H1 (n = 422) or placebo (n = 208). The addition of 3H1 to 5-FU and LV did not result in increased toxicity. Survival for the full intent-to-treat population was 14.7 months for the 3H1 arm and 15.2 months for the placebo arm (P = 0.80). Anti-CEA antibody responses were observed in 70% of patients treated with 3H1. Patients with a negative CEA response had a median survival of 8.3 months (95% CI 7.5-11.0) compared with patients with a strong response: median survival not reached (P <0.001). 3H1 is safe and effectively induces immune responses to CEA. Addition of 3H1 to 5-FU and LV was not shown to improve overall patient outcomes. However, improved survival in patients developing anti-CEA responses to 3H1 are provocative and should be studied in further clinical trials.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2006; 17(3):437-42. · 7.38 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2006; 4(2):178-178.

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,074.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2004
    • University of Nottingham
      • Division of Pre-Clinical Oncology
      Nottingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–1998
    • Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993–1994
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988–1992
    • The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990
    • Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia
      Bharu, Johor, United Kingdom
  • 1983
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1982
    • Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1980
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom