[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) is recommended for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma having microscopic disease. Sometimes RT dose/volume is reduced or omitted in an attempt to avoid late effects, particularly in young children. We reviewed operative bed recurrences to determine if noncompliance with RT protocol guidelines influenced local-regional control.
All operative bed recurrences among 695 Group II rhabdomyosarcoma patients in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS) I through IV were reviewed for deviation from RT protocol. Major/minor dose deviation was defined as >10% or 6-10% of the prescribed dose (40-60 Gy), respectively. Major/minor volume deviation was defined as tumor excluded from the RT field or treatment volume not covered by the specified margin (preoperative tumor volume and 2- to 5-cm margin), respectively. No RT was a major deviation.
Forty-six of 83 (55%) patients with operative bed recurrences did not receive the intended RT (39 major and 7 minor deviations). RT omission was the most frequent RT protocol deviation (19/46, 41%), followed by dose (17/46, 37%), volume (9/46, 20%), and dose and volume deviation (1/46, 2%). Only 7 operative bed recurrences occurred in IRS IV (5% local-regional failure) with only 3 RT protocol deviations. Sixty-three (76%) patients with recurrence died of disease despite retrieval therapy, including 13 of 19 nonirradiated children.
Over half of the operative bed recurrences were associated with noncompliance; omission of RT was the most common protocol deviation. Three fourths of children die when local-regional disease is not controlled, emphasizing the importance of RT in Group II rhabdomyosarcoma.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2011; 80(2):333-8. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were to compare results of clinical/radiographic studies before second-look procedures (SLP) with SLP specimens from patients with gross residual sarcoma at diagnosis and to relate tumor viability to outcome.
Seventy-three patients underwent SLP before completing chemotherapy, with (n = 59) or without (n = 14) radiotherapy. Tumor sites were bladder/prostate (n = 27), head/orbit/parameningeal (n = 22), extremity/trunk (n = 14), and retroperitoneum/pelvis (n = 10).
Of 14 patients, 1 (7%) with clinical/radiographic complete response (CR) had viable tumor. Of 59 patients, 35 (59%) without CR had viable tumor. Five-year failure-free survival (FFS) rates were 81% in 37 patients without viable tumor and 53% in 36 patients with viable tumor (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .05). Five-year FFS rates were 67% in 15 patients with clear margins and 43% in 21 patients with tumor-involved margins (n = 18) or viable gross tumor (n = 3) (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .04). Five-year survival was 78% to 79% among 73 patients with and 333 patients without SLP during treatment.
Second-look procedures can show whether viable tumor is present and may be beneficial in selected patients with rhabdomyosarcoma. Disappearance of tumor (CR) usually correlated with no viable tumor at SLP. However, 41% of patients without CR had no viable tumor. Those without viable tumor had increased FFS but not survival compared to those with viable tumor.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 11/2010; 45(11):2160-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics and outcome of patients with renal sarcomas.
The IRSG database includes newly diagnosed patients <21 years old with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or undifferentiated sarcoma (UDS). We identified patients with renal sarcoma and reviewed their charts.
Ten of the 5,746 eligible IRSG patients enrolled from 1972 to 2005 had primary renal embryonal RMS (N = 6) or UDS (N = 4). Anaplasia was present in six (60%) of the tumors. Patients' ages ranged from 2.6 to 17.8 years. Tumor diameters ranged from 7 to 15 cm (median, 12 cm). At diagnosis, seven patients had localized disease: four underwent complete removal of tumor (Group I), two had microscopic residual (Group II), and one had gross residual tumor (Group III). Three patients had distant metastases (Group IV) in lungs and bone. Nine patients received vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (VAC). Two Group I patients received no radiation therapy (XRT); others received XRT to the primary tumor and to some metastatic sites. Nine patients achieved complete disappearance of tumor, six due to the initial operation. Tumors recurred in lung (N = 2) or brain (N = 1) in Group IV patients; each died within 16 months. The Group III patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia. The six Group I and II patients survive, continuously disease-free, at 2.7-17.3 years (median, 4.7 years).
Patients with renal sarcomas often present with large tumors, many of them containing anaplastic features. Removing all gross disease at diagnosis, if feasible, is a critical component of treatment to curing patients with renal sarcoma.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 09/2008; 51(3):339-43. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determine outcome of patients with cranial parameningeal sarcoma and concurrent metastases treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols II-IV.
We identified 91 patients in the database, which includes newly diagnosed subjects <21 years old with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and undifferentiated sarcoma, and reviewed their charts in detail.
The 54 males and 37 females were <1-19 years at diagnosis. Primary sites were nasopharynx-nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid and parapharyngeal area ("better" sites, 55%), paranasal sinus and infratemporal-pterygopalatine area ("worse" sites, 42%), and other (3%). Sixty-eight percent of informative patients had direct intracranial extension. Major metastatic sites at diagnosis were lung (63%), bone marrow (33%), and bone (27%). Treatment included vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the primary tumor and up to five metastatic sites/tissues.
The estimated 10-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22%, 42%). Sixty patients had progressive disease (N = 49) or death as a first event (N = 11); another developed myelodysplastic syndrome and died. Sites of first progression/relapse were distant (55%), local (12%), CNS extension (8%), mixed (6%), and uncertain (18%). Factors indicating likelihood of 10-year FFS included tumor arising in "better" versus "worse" sites (FFS 46% vs. 18%, P = 0.02) and embryonal versus other histology (FFS 37% vs. 19%, P = 0.06).
Cure was possible for some patients with metastatic cranial parameningeal sarcoma. Patients with the best outlook had embryonal RMS located in the nasopharynx/nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid, or parapharyngeal region. Distant metastases were the most frequent type of recurrence, indicating that more effective systemic agents are needed to eliminate residual disease.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2008; 51(1):17-22. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the outcome of 47 patients with superficial facial rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols-III, -IV-Pilot, and -IV.
We reviewed patients' records. Clinico-pathologic features, treatment, and outcome were examined to identify prognostic factors.
Thirty-two patients were males; 35 patients were 1-9 years old at diagnosis. Tumor sites were buccal/cheek (N = 21), external nasal/nasolabial (N = 12), lip/chin (N = 9), and masseter (N = 5). Patients (46/47) had localized disease: 18 biopsy only (Group III), 17 microscopic residual tumor (Group II), and 11 complete resection without residual tumor (Group I). Eight-year estimated event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS) rates were 61% and 65%. Patients <12 months old had inferior EFS, 21%, compared to approximately 68% in older patients (P = 0.077). Eight-year EFS rates were 80% for females and 50% for males (P = 0.096). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% in 33 patients without regional lymph-nodal tumor and 39% in 14 patients with regional nodal tumor (P = 0.07). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% for 22 patients with embryonal RMS and 53% for 23 patients with alveolar RMS (P = 0.28). Location of the primary tumor was not significantly related to outcome.
Patients with superficial facial RMS often have localized, grossly resectable lesions at the time of presentation. Favorable prognostic factors include age >12 months, female gender, embryonal histology, and no lymph-nodal tumor.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2008; 50(5):958-64. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the late sequelae in children and adolescents with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate treated in the United States, Canada and selected Western European countries, primarily France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, from 1979 to 1998.
We used a data collection form to record data from patient records available at the group statistical centers.
A total of 164 patient charts had sufficient data available to be included in the study. Median patient age at diagnosis was 2.4 years. Median length of followup was approximately 8 years (range 3 to 24). Of the patients with available data 78 did not undergo cystectomy, 49 underwent partial cystectomy and 34 underwent complete cystectomy. Urinary continence was assessed at age 6 years or older in 62 patients who did not undergo cystectomy. Of these patients 43 (69%) were continent, 16 had nocturnal incontinence and 9 had diurnal incontinence. Of 44 patients who underwent partial cystectomy and had pertinent followup data 32 (73%) were continent, and 12 had nocturnal and/or diurnal incontinence. Only 11 patients underwent urodynamic investigation. Other nephrourological complications consisted of 3 or more urinary tract infections in 29 of 53 patients, abnormal renal function in 19 of 48 (tubulopathy 14, increased creatinine/blood urea nitrogen 5), chronic hematuria in 13 of 51 and hydronephrosis in 8 of 54 with available data. Vesicoureteral reflux, urinary stones and bowel problems were infrequent.
Of the patients 48% had a relatively intact bladder after biopsy only. However, 31% of patients 6 years or older had some urinary incontinence, as did 27% of patients who had undergone partial cystectomy. In addition, 55% of all patients had 3 or more urinary tract infections, 40% had decreased renal function and 25% had chronic hematuria. Other complications were present in 15% or less of the patients with available data.
The Journal of Urology 12/2006; 176(5):2190-4; discussion 2194-5. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The outcome for localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or undifferentiated sarcoma (UDS) is affected by age, histology, primary anatomic site, extent of disease, and therapy.
We evaluated patient and disease characteristics for their ability to predict outcome for patients with nonmetastatic RMS or UDS treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) -III (1984 to 1991) or IRS-IV (1991 to 1997).
The estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 90% for patients with embryonal RMS (ERMS) stage 1, group I or IIa; stage 2, group I; or group III orbit. The estimated 5-year FFS rate was 87% for patients with ERMS stage 1, group IIb or IIc; stage 1, group III nonorbit; stage 2, group II; and stage 3, group I or II; and 73% for patients with ERMS stage 2 or 3, group III. The estimated 5-year FFS rate was poor for patients with stage 2 or 3, group III ERMS with invasive (T2) tumors who were age younger than 1 year or 10 years or older (56%) and patients with stage 2 or 3, group III extremity primary tumors (43%). Overall, outcomes for patients with alveolar RMS (ARMS) or UDS were worse than for patients with ERMS. However, the 5-year FFS rate was good for patients with ARMS/UDS at favorable sites with group I or II (80%) or group III (76%) disease. The FFS rate was poorer for patients with ARMS/UDS at unfavorable sites with group I or II (66%) or group III (45%) disease. The estimated 5-year FFS rate was 31% for patients with group III ARMS/UDS at unfavorable sites with regional lymph node disease, which is similar to metastatic RMS.
Patient and disease characteristics identify distinct subsets with different outcomes, allowing the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group to refine risk-adapted therapy assignment.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2006; 24(24):3844-51. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze patterns of failure and factors predictive of local treatment failure in children enrolled on the third Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study who had either biopsy only or subtotal resection of their primary tumor, had no distant metastases, and received radiation therapy for local control.
Treatment failure was categorized as local, regional nodal, or distant metastatic. The 5-year cumulative risk of failure was estimated for each category and factors predictive of local failure risk were determined using the Cox model and binary recursive partitioning.
The estimated 5-year cumulative incidence rates by failure category were: total local (with or without concurrent regional or distant failure), 19%; total regional nodal, 2%; total distant, 11%; and death from toxicity or unknown recurrence type, 4%. Lymph node involvement at diagnosis was the single factor most predictive of increased total local failure risk (5-year cumulative incidence 32%) compared with children with negative nodes or unknown node status (16%). No significant effect on local failure risk was observed by total radiotherapy dose over the prescribed range of 41.4 Gy to 50.4 Gy. For all patients (N = 405), the estimated 5-year failure-free survival and overall survival were, respectively, 70% and 78%.
Local failure after radiotherapy for group III rhabdomyosarcoma patients is the predominant type of relapse. Involved lymph nodes at diagnosis predict a higher risk of local and distant treatment failure compared with patients whose lymph nodes are negative.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2004; 22(10):1902-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from the Nebraska Cancer Registry for the years 1990 and 1991 are examined in this report. Because prostate cancer rarely occurs in young men, we considered only males aged 45 and older. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were counties whose rates differed substantially enough from the state average to warrant further investigation. During the early 1990s in Nebraska, deaths from prostate cancer had been increasing on an annual basis. This trend paralleled a national pattern of increase in those same years. The five-year prostate cancer incidence rate for 1989-1993 was 144.1 cases per 100,000 population in Nebraska. This exceeded the national rate for that time, 128.9 cases per 100,000 population. The Nebraska Year 2000 objective is to lower the incidence of death due to this disease to an age-adjusted rate of no more than 20 deaths per 100,000 men. At the time this study was undertaken, prostate cancer claimed 23.4 deaths per 100,000 men annually, based upon 1989- 1993 data). In sum, this is a health condition worthy of further examination so that appropriate steps can be taken to achieve or exceed the Nebraska Year 2000 objective. This study found that two counties appeared to have significantly higher prostate incidence rates than Nebraska as a whole, while several had lower than average rates. Further investigation is needed to explain why this is so. More recent data should be studied to see whether these trends continue. In addition, further inquiry, particularly into physician referral patterns to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, may be appropriate to attempt to explain these differences.