Jianzhong Liu

Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (12)17.54 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite efforts at public health awareness and stringent industrial standards for hearing protection, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains a formidable public health concern. Although many antioxidants have proven to be beneficial in the laboratory for prevention of permanent NIHL, low-dose combinations of compounds with different biochemical mechanisms of action may allow long-term administration with fewer side effects and equal efficacy. The mixture of D-methionine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine administered at levels less than 10% of standard dosing has not been previously reported. Twenty-six female adult Chinchilla laniger were placed in 4 study groups, consisting of (1) a group receiving combination 12.5 mg/kg each D-methionine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (DMET/NAC group), (2) a group receiving 12.5 mg/kg D-methionine (DMET-only group), (3) a group receiving 12.5 mg/kg N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC-only group), and (4) saline controls. Laboratory. All groups received twice-daily intraperitoneal injections 2 days prior to noise exposure, 1 hour before and after exposure on day 3, and for 2 days subsequently, totaling 10 doses of 125 mg/kg for each antioxidant over 5 days. Although NAC-only animals paralleled saline control recovery during 3 weeks, the DMET-only group revealed gradual improvement with statistically significant recovery in the middle frequencies. The DMET/NAC group showed significant improvement at most frequencies compared with controls (P < .001 and P < .05). Significant recovery of hearing was observed following continuous noise exposure with either DMET only or a combination of low-dose DMET/NAC, demonstrating a considerably lower dose of antioxidants required than previously reported for hearing recovery following acoustic trauma.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 07/2011; 145(6):999-1006. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (1) To measure the peak-to-peak displacement of the round window membrane (RWM) prior to blunting procedure. (2) To evaluate the impact of blunting the anterior tympanomeatal angle (ATA) on middle ear sound transfer function. Basic science study. Setting. Cadaveric temporal bone research laboratory. Six fresh human temporal bones were prepared using a mastoidectomy and facial recess approach. Baseline RWM peak-to-peak displacements were obtained by single-point laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) at 90-dB sound pressure level over a spectrum of 250 to 8000 Hz. Temporalis muscle was harvested and then fashioned into a graft for each temporal bone, mimicking ATA blunting. RWM displacement responses with the blunted ATA were measured using the LDV to judge the impact on middle ear transfer function. For each of the 6 temporal bones, the average displacement decreased across all sound frequencies with the ATA blunting when compared with baseline (no blunting). Baseline velocity measurements for all sound signals averaged 4.5 × 10(-3) ± 1.892 × 10(-3) (mean ± SEM) mm/s, while measurements averaged 2.2 ± 6.62 × 10(-4) mm/s with blunting of the ATA (P < .001). This amounted to a 52% decrease in velocity of the RWM following blunting of the ATA. Blunting of the ATA decreases the sound transfer function of the tympanic membrane and middle ear. Prevention of blunting at the ATA during tympanoplasty should be emphasized.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 06/2011; 144(6):940-4. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of three different doses of sodium salicylate (SAL) in combination with one dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to prevent noise-induced hearing loss was studied in chinchillas. After obtaining baseline-hearing thresholds, the chinchillas were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: three sets were injected intraperitoneally with 325 mg/kg NAC combined with 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg SAL, and a separate control group was injected with an equal volume of saline. Animals were injected twice daily for 2 days prior to and 1 hour before the noise exposure (6 hours to a 105-dB Standard Pressure Level octave band noise centered at 4 kHz). Immediate post-noise hearing thresholds were obtained followed by post-noise treatments at 1 hour then twice-daily for 2 days. Hearing tests continued at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-noise, and immediately after the last hearing test, animals' cochleae were stained for hair cell counts. All the groups showed hearing improvement until week 2. However, at week 3, saline treated animals demonstrated a 17-33 dB SPL permanent threshold shift (PTS) across the test frequencies. Hearing loss was lowest in the 50 SAL/325 NAC mg/kg group (all frequencies, P < 0.001), and although PTS was reduced in the 25 and 75 mg/kg SAL dosage groups compared to the saline group, only the 75 mg/kg SAL group was significantly different at all but 2 kHz frequency. Coupled with the hearing loss, outer hair cell (OHC) loss was maximal in the 4-8 kHz cochlear region of saline treated animals. However, there was a substantial reduction in the mean OHC loss of the NAC plus 50 or 75 mg/kg (but not the 25 mg/kg) SAL groups. These findings suggest that SAL in combination with NAC is effective in reducing noise damage to the cochlea, but SAL has a relatively narrow therapeutic dosing window.
    Noise and Health 01/2010; 12(48):159-65. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the distribution of polylactic/glycolic acid-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) in chinchilla cochleae after application on the round window membrane (RWM). Six chinchillas (12 ears) were equally divided into controls (no treatments) and experimentals (PLGA-NP with or without magnetic exposure). After 40 minutes of PLGA-NP placement on the RWM, perilymph was withdrawn from the scala tympani. The RWM and cochleae were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Nanoparticles were found in cochleae with or without exposure to magnet forces appearing in the RWM, perilymph, endolymph, and multiple locations in the organ of Corti. Electron energy loss spectroscopy confirmed iron elements in nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were distributed throughout the inner ear after application on the chinchilla RWM, with and without magnetic forces. PLGA-NP applied to the RWM may have potential for sustained therapy to the inner ear.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 11/2007; 137(4):619-23. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: These studies extend previous work on N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and noise, showing protection with NAC against a high-kurtosis noise, showing protection with NAC at low doses, as well as protection by oral gavage. The studies further reveal the potential for the use of NAC in a clinical population exposed to noise. To extend previous work on NAC protection from noise, the current study examined the effectiveness of NAC against a high-kurtosis noise that combined continuous and impact noise, tested the effectiveness of NAC at varying doses, and tested NAC when administered by gavage. Chinchillas were tested for auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) at five frequencies before and at three time points after one of three noise exposures: high-kurtosis (2 h, 108 dB L(eq)), impulse (75 pairs of 155 dB pSPL impulses), or continuous (4 kHz octave band, 105 dB SPL for 6 h). Animals were treated with NAC or saline vehicle before and after noise. The NAC was protective against the high-kurtosis noise both at low doses and when given orally by gavage.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 10/2007; 127(9):914-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an important etiology of deafness worldwide. Hearing conservation programs are in place and have reduced the prevalence of NIHL, but this disorder is still far too common. Occupational and recreational pursuits expose people to loud noise and ten million persons in the US have some degree of noise-induced hearing impairment. It is estimated that 50 million in the US and 600 million people worldwide are exposed to noise hazards occupationally. Noise deafness is still an important and frequent cause of battlefield injury in the US military. A mainstay of hearing conservation programs is personal mechanical hearing protection devices which are helpful but have inherent limitations. Research has shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in noise-induced cochlear injury resulting in the discovery that a number of antioxidant and cell death inhibiting compounds can ameliorate deafness associated with acoustic trauma. This article reviews one such compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in terms of its efficacy in reducing hearing loss in a variety of animal models of acute acoustic trauma and hypothesizes what its therapeutic mechanisms of action might be based on the known actions of NAC. Early clinical trials with NAC are mentioned.
    Hearing Research 05/2007; 226(1-2):114-25. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SNP) composed of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) were studied preliminarily as vehicles for therapeutic molecule delivery to the inner ear and as a middle ear implant capable of producing biomechanically relevant forces for auditory function. Magnetite SNP were synthesized, then encapsulated in either silica or poly (D,L,-Lactide-co-glycolide) or obtained commercially with coatings of oleic acid or dextran. Permanent magnetic fields generated forces sufficient to pull them across tissue in several round window membrane models (in vitrocell culture, in vivo rat and guinea pig, and human temporal bone) or to embed them in middle ear epithelia. Biocompatibility was investigated by light and electron microscopy, cell culture kinetics, and hair cell survival in organotypic cell culture and no measurable toxicity was found. A sinusoidal magnetic field applied to guinea pigs with SNP implanted in the middle ear resulted in displacements of the middle ear comparable to 90 dB SPL.
    Audiology and Neurotology 02/2006; 11(2):123-33. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Article: 09:50 AM
    Ronald Jackson, Jianzhong Liu
    Otolaryngology-head and Neck Surgery - OTOLARYNGOL HEAD NECK SURG. 01/2006; 135(2).
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    ABSTRACT: These findings indicate a strong protective effect of ALCAR and NAC on impulse noise-induced cochlear damage, and suggest the feasibility of using clinically available antioxidant compounds to protect the ear from acute acoustic injury. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. In the current study, the protective effects of two antioxidants, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and N-L-acetylcysteine (NAC), were investigated in a chinchilla model of hearing loss resulting from impulse noise. It was hypothesized that pre- and post-treatment with these antioxidants would ameliorate the effects of impulse noise compared to saline-treated controls. Eighteen animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups and exposed to impulse noise at a level of 155 dB peak SPL for 150 repetitions. ALCAR or NAC were administered twice daily (b.i.d.) for 2 days and 1 h prior to and 1 h following noise exposure, and then b.i.d. for the following 2 days. For the control group, saline was injected at the same time points. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded. Cochlear surface preparations were made to obtain cytocochleograms. Three weeks after exposure, permanent threshold shifts for the experimental groups were significantly reduced to approximately = 10-30 dB less than that for the control group (p < 0.01). Less hair cell loss was also observed in the ALCAR and NAC groups than in the control group.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 04/2005; 125(3):235-43. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both the antioxidant, n-l-acetyl cysteine (L-NAC) and the Src inhibitor, KX1-004, have been used to protect the cochlea from hazardous noise. To date, KX1-004 has only been used locally on the round window. In the current study, the two drugs were administered systemically. LNAC was delivered intraperitoneally at a dose of 325 mg/kg while KX1-004 was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The noise exposure consisted of a 4 kHz octave band of noise at 100 dB SPL for 6 hours/day for 4 days. The drugs were administered once each day, 30 minutes prior to the onset of the noise exposure. The animals' hearing was estimated using the evoked response records from surgically-implanted chronic electrodes in the inferior colliculi. Animals treated with LNAC and KX1-004 had from 10 to 20 dB less temporary threshold shift at day 1 and an average 10 dB less permanent threshold shift by day 21 when compared to control saline treated animals. There were no significant side effects (i.e.: appetite loss, weight loss, lethargy, etc.) related to either of the drug treatments. KX1-004 produced at least as much protection as L-NAC, but at a significantly lower concentration.
    Noise and Health 01/2005; 7(29):24-30. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inner ear is difficult to treat with therapeutic substances because of blood supply limitations and the transducing and supporting cells being bathed in inaccessible perilymphatic and endolymphatic fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using external magnetic fields to pull superparamagnetic nanoparticles with an associated gene across the Round Window Membrane (RWM) and into the perilymph. Silica-encapsulated magnetite nanoparticles (Si-MNP; 30 nm diameter) were synthesized, characterized and tested for biocompatibility in a non-dividing cell model and in organotypic (three day mouse pup) Organ of Corti (OC) cultures. Particles were internalized without magnetic attraction and cells were indistinguishable from control cells. The MATH-1 gene [1] was inserted into a plasmid with promoters to facilitate intracochlear transfection and this plasmid was tested for viability in a non-dividing cell line. Studies are ongoing to combine the plasmid with Si-MNP in a carrier nanoparticle for RWM transport and release of plasmid in the perilymph.
    01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a substantial role in the genesis of noise-induced cochlear injury that causes permanent hearing loss. We present the results of three different approaches to enhance intrinsic cochlear defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This article explores, through the following set of hypotheses, some of the postulated causes of noise-induced cochlear oxidative stress (NICOS) and how noise-induced cochlear damage may be reduced pharmacologically. 1) NICOS is in part related to defects in mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis. Therefore, NICOS can be reduced by acetyl-L carnitine (ALCAR), an endogenous mitochondrial membrane compound that helps maintain mitochondrial bioenergetics and biogenesis in the face of oxidative stress. 2) A contributing factor in NICOS injury is glutamate excitotoxicity, which can be reduced by antagonizing the action of cochlear -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors using carbamathione, which acts as a glutamate antagonist. 3) Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) may be characterized as a cochlear-reduced glutathione (GSH) deficiency state; therefore, strategies to enhance cochlear GSH levels may reduce noise-induced cochlear injury. The objective of this study was to document the reduction in noise-induced hearing and hair cell loss, following application of ALCAR, carbamathione, and a GSH repletion drug D-methionine (MET), to a model of noise-induced hearing loss. This was a prospective, blinded observer study using the above-listed agents as modulators of the noise-induced cochlear injury response in the species chinchilla langier. Adult chinchilla langier had baseline-hearing thresholds determined by auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording. The animals then received injections of saline or saline plus active experimental compound starting before and continuing after a 6-hour 105 dB SPL continuous 4-kHz octave band noise exposure. ABRs were obtained immediately after noise exposure and weekly for 3 weeks. After euthanization, cochlear hair cell counts were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS ALCAR administration reduced noise-induced threshold shifts. Three weeks after noise exposure, no threshold shift at 2 to 4 kHz and <10 dB threshold shifts were seen at 6 to 8 kHz in ALCAR-treated animals compared with 30 to 35 dB in control animals. ALCAR treatment reduced both inner and outer hair cell loss. OHC loss averaged <10% for the 4- to 10-kHz region in ALCAR-treated animals and 60% in saline-injected-noise-exposed control animals. Noise-induced threshold shifts were also reduced in carbamathione-treated animals. At 3 weeks, threshold shifts averaged 15 dB or less at all frequencies in treated animals and 30 to 35 dB in control animals. Averaged OHC losses were 30% to 40% in carbamathione-treated animals and 60% in control animals. IHC losses were 5% in the 4- to 10-kHz region in treated animals and 10% to 20% in control animals. MET administration reduced noise-induced threshold shifts. ANOVA revealed a significant difference (P <.001). Mean OHC and IHC losses were also significantly reduced (P <.001). These data lend further support to the growing body of evidence that oxidative stress, generated in part by glutamate excitotoxicity, impaired mitochondrial function and GSH depletion causes cochlear injury induced by noise. Enhancing the cellular oxidative stress defense pathways in the cochlea eliminates noise-induced cochlear injury. The data also suggest strategies for therapeutic intervention to reduce NIHL clinically.
    The Laryngoscope 10/2002; 112(9):1515-32. · 1.98 Impact Factor