J K Trivedi

King George's Medical University, Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Publications (130)144.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Whilst electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is routinely administered under anesthesia in developed nations, in many developing countries, ECT is still administered unmodified. This practice has attracted considerable scrutiny with calls to ban unmodified ECT. However, there are no affordable alternatives for many poor, acutely ill psychiatric patients. We evaluated whether administration of intravenous propofol 0.5mg/kg for sedation by the ECT psychiatrist just prior to otherwise unmodified treatment improved acceptance of and reduced anxiety surrounding the treatment. Method We conducted an open label trial at The King George’s Medical University in Lucknow, India. Forty-nine patients received propofol pre-treatment and 50 patients received unmodified treatment as usual. Results Socio-demographic profiles, diagnoses and clinical responses were comparable. Patients who received propofol experienced less anxiety monitored by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory just prior to ECT (p<0.001), and had a more favorable attitude towards treatment assessed by an established questionnaire (Freeman and Kendell, 1980). Propofol patients were less likely to experience post-ictal delirium monitored by the CAM-ICU (p=0.015) and had fewer cognitive side-effects on the MMSE (p=0.004). There were no adverse events associated with propofol administration. Conclusion Whilst unmodified ECT should never be used when modified ECT under anesthesia is available, we have found low dose propofol can be safely administered by the ECT psychiatrist to sedate patients pre-treatment who would otherwise receive completely unmodified treatment. The intervention was associated with reduced anxiety and a more positive attitude towards ECT, without compromising efficacy. A randomized double blind controlled study is necessary to confirm these benefits.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 06/2014; 53(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.004 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the use of high doses of antipsychotic medications (≥600 mg/day chlorpromazine equivalent) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates. Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged ≥50 years was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns study (2001-2009). Data on 2203 patients in six Asian countries and territories, including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, were analyzed. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded. The frequency for high-dose antipsychotic medications was 36.0% overall, with 38.4% in 2001, 33.3% in 2004 and 36.0% in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that compared to patients receiving low-medium antipsychotic doses, those on high doses had a longer illness duration (odds ratio (OR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.2-3.3, p = 0.008), were more likely in the 50-59-year group (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97, p < 0.001), more often had current positive (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8, p < 0.001) or negative symptoms (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03-1.6, p = 0.03), and more commonly received antipsychotic polypharmacy (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 4.1-6.7, p < 0.001). Extrapyramidal symptoms (p = 0.25) and tardive dyskinesia (p = 0.92) were not more frequent in the high-dose group. High doses of antipsychotic medications were used in more than one third of older Asian patients with schizophrenia. The reasons for the frequent use of high antipsychotic doses in older Asian patients warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1002/gps.4011 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human behaviour, emotions, and cognition are complex to understand and explain. It is even more difficult to understand the basis for abnormal behaviour, disturbed emotions, and impaired cognitions, something mental health professionals are trying for long. In these pursuits, psychiatry has traversed through eras of humours, witchcraft, spirits, psychoanalysis, and gradually deviated from other medical specialities. Now, with recent biological breakthroughs like advances in psychopharmacology, neuroimaging and genetics, increasingly more emphasis is being given to the biological model of psychiatric disorders. These new biological models have given a more scientific appearance to the speciality. It has also revolutionised the management strategies and outcome of many psychiatric disorders. However, this rapid development in biological understanding of psychiatry also leads to a new wave of reductionism. In an attempt to deduce everything in terms of neurons, neurochemicals, and genes, can we neglect psychosocial aspects of mental health? Patients’ personality, expectations, motives, family background, sociocultural backgrounds continue to affect mental health no matter how much ‘biological’ psychiatry gets. Biological and psychosocial approaches are not mutually exclusive but complementary. Integrating them harmoniously is the skill psychiatry demands for comprehensive understanding of mental and behavioural disorders.
    Mens Sana Monographs 02/2014; 12(1):79-91. DOI:10.4103/0973-1229.130315
  • Supriya Vaish · PK Dalal · Sachin Sharma · JK Trivedi
    01/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.153715
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was designed to encourage the development of cognitive enhancing agents for schizophrenia. For a medication to receive this indication, regulatory agencies require evidence of improvement in both cognition and functional outcome. Functional capacity measures typically used in clinical trials as intermediate measures of functional outcome must be adapted to fit different cultural contexts for use internationally. We examined the psychometric properties of the MATRICS Functional Assessment Battery (MFAB), comprised of 2 subtests from the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) and one from the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS) that were rated by experts in a previous study to be the most appropriate functional capacity assessments across different cultural contexts. Method: Four sites in India administered the MFAB, a brief version of the UPSA, the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery, measures of symptomatology, and a measure of global functional outcome to 141 individuals with schizophrenia at a baseline assessment and at 4 weeks later. Results: Test-retest reliability based on the intraclass correlation coefficient was significantly better for the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B). Pearson correlation coefficients over time were not significantly different for the 2 measures. Only the MFAB was significantly correlated with functional outcome as measured by the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale. Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the MFAB and UPSA-B were similar. The MATRICS scientific board chose to translate the MFAB into multiple languages for potential use in studies of novel medications seeking an indication for improving cognition in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 11/2013; 40(5). DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt148 · 8.45 Impact Factor
  • Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2013; 55(3):308-309. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.117161
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a devastating psychotic illness which is like the most mental disorders, shows complex inheritance; the transmission of the disorder most likely involves several genes and environmental factors. It is difficult to judge whether a particular person without schizophrenia has predisposing factors for the said disease. A few studies have shown the relative sensitivity and reliability of cognitive and psychophysiological markers of brain function as the susceptibility factors for schizophrenia which may aid us to find people with an increased risk of complex disorders like schizophrenia. The present work is an exploration on cognitive impairments in unaffected siblings of patients suffering from schizophrenia with a framework to explore why a mental disorder occurs in some families but not in others. This is a single point non-invasive study of non-affected full biological siblings of patients with schizophrenia, involving administration of a battery of neuropsychological tests to assess the cognitive function in the sibling group and a control group of volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness. The control group was matched for age, gender, and education. The siblings were also divided on the basis of the type of schizophrenia their siblings (index probands) were suffering from and their results compared with each other. The siblings performed significantly poorly as compared to the controls on Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), continuous performance test (CPT), and spatial working memory test (SWMT). The comparison between the sibling subgroups based on the type of schizophrenia in the index probands did not reveal any significant difference. These findings suggest that there is a global impairment in the cognition of the non-affected siblings of patients of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment might be one of the factors which will help us to hit upon people who are predisposed to develop schizophrenia in the future.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2013; 55(4):331-7. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.120543
  • A Tripathi · A Nischal · P K Dalal · V Agarwal · M Agarwal · J K Trivedi · B Gupta · A Arya
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    ABSTRACT: Homeless mentally ill (HMI) persons are a highly vulnerable and socially disadvantaged population, deprived of even the basic minimal human rights. Data on HMI in India is scarce. This retrospective chart review aimed to evaluate socio-demographic, socio-cultural and clinical profile of HMI patients, and to study reasons of homelessness and outcome related variables in these patients. One hundred and forty homeless persons were admitted to the department of psychiatry of a north Indian medical university from February 2005 to July 2011. Of these, one hundred and twenty-seven (90.7%) had psychiatric illness and six had only intellectual disabilities. The majority of HMI persons were illiterate/minimally literate, adult, male, and from low socioeconomic and rural backgrounds. Most of the patients (55.7%) had more than one psychiatric diagnosis. HMI had considerably high rates of co-morbid substance abuse (44.3%), intellectual disabilities (38.6%) and physical problems (75.4%). Most (84.3%) were mentally ill before leaving home and 54.3% left home themselves due to the illness. Most HMI responded to the treatment. After treatment of mental illness, it was possible to reintegrate about 70% of the patients into their families. Families were willing to accept and support them. Untreated/inadequately treated mental illness was the most common reason for homelessness. Easily accessible treatment and rehabilitation facilities at low cost can improve the plight of such patients. Further research in this area is required.
    10/2013; 6(5):404-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2013.05.002
  • Himanshu Sareen · Jitendra Kumar Trivedi
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    ABSTRACT: Despite having a large chunk of human population, Asian countries face shortage of mental health professionals. There is further shortage of doctors dealing with special groups of population like the children, the elderly, and the medically ill. However, in this era of super-specializations, are the basic principles of general psychopharmacology being forgotten? Dealing with child population is different and often more difficult than adult population but are management guidelines for the two populations vastly divergent? A close look at this paints a different picture. Psychotherapies applied in adults and those in children and adolescents are disparate owing to cognitive, social, emotional, and physical immaturation in children and adolescents. But the drugs for the treatment of pediatric psychiatric disorders are mostly similar to those prescribed for adults (case in point -bipolar disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia). Rather than focusing energy on propagating the differences in assorted subgroups of population, honing of skills regarding intricacies of psychopharmacology is required to be emphasized. Detailed history taking, careful evaluation of the patient, sound diagnostic formulation, and prescribing medications which are tailor made to the patient will all go a long way in ensuring a functional recovery of the patients irrespective of the group they belong to.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2013; 55(3):301-304. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.117158
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    ABSTRACT: Preventive psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that aims at health promotion, protection from specific mental illnesses, early diagnosis, effective treatment, disability limitation and rehabilitation. Prevention of neuropsychiatric illnesses as compared to other illnesses is particularly important as they run a chronic course and cause substantial disability. Preventive measures have been found to be effective in reducing incidence and disability in a wide range of mental illnesses such as depression, psychosis, anxiety and conduct disorders. The need of the hour is to translate advances in our understanding of mental illness into effective intervention programmes for the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of positive mental health.
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry 06/2013; 60(4). DOI:10.1177/0020764013488570 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date there has been no large-scale international study that examined the use of clozapine in older patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the use of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in older patients with schizophrenia in East Asia during the period between 2001 and 2009. Information on 1,157 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 50 or older in five East Asian countries and territories (China, Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan) was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) project. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and prescription of psychotropic medications were recorded. Clozapine was prescribed for 20.6% of the pooled sample; 19.0% in 2001, 19.4% in 2004 and 22.9% in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients taking clozapine had a longer duration of illness, more negative symptoms and were less likely to receive first generation antipsychotic and anticholinergic drugs, but more likely to report weight gain compared to those not receiving clozapine. Compared to those in other sites, older patients in China were more likely to receive clozapine. The prescription of clozapine for older Asian schizophrenia inpatients has remained at a stable level during the past decade. The appropriateness of use of clozapine in China needs to be further explored.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66154. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066154 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the prescription patterns of adjunctive antidepressants in Asian schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to examine trends in the use of antidepressants and their demographic and clinical correlates in the treatment of schizophrenia in Asia between 2001 and 2009. A total of 6,761 hospitalized schizophrenia patients in nine Asian countries and territories were examined: 2,399 in 2001, 2,136 in 2004 and 2,226 in 2009. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The proportion of antidepressant prescription was 6.8% in the whole sample; 5.3% in 2001, 6.5% in 2004 and 8.7% in 2009. There were wide inter-country variations at each survey ranging from 0.9% in Hong Kong to 15.3% in Singapore in 2001; from 1.9% in Korea to 15.4% in Singapore in 2004; and from 2.7% in Japan to 22.0% in Singapore in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients on antidepressants were younger, more likely to receive benzodiazepines and have significant extrapyramidal side-effects and less likely to have significant positive symptoms. Unlike findings in Western countries, adjunctive antidepressant prescription for schizophrenia was not common in Asia. The frequency of antidepressant prescription varied among countries and territories, suggesting that a host of clinical and socio-cultural factors played a role in determining antidepressant use in Asia.
    Asia-Pacific Psychiatry 06/2013; 5(2):E81-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00231.x · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mood stabilizers are drugs used to steady/balance the mood, and are also used to manage symptoms of aggression and impulsivity. There is disparity in prescription pattern across the globe. The aim of this study was to observe prescription pattern of mood stabilizers for the treatment of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms. A sample of 100 adult patients was selected to participate in the study. First 5 patients of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms from twenty out-patient departments of various consultant psychiatrists of Department of Psychiatry (C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow) were included in the sample. A written informed consent was obtained and survey method was adopted to conduct the study. Lithium was found to be the most frequently prescribed mood stabilizer, sodium valproate ranked second while carbamazepine was least frequently prescribed.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 04/2013; 55(2):131-4. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.111449
  • Ajai Kumar Singh · Rakesh Shukla · Jitendra Kumar Trivedi · Deepti Singh
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients of chronic daily headache (CDH) and compare the efficacy of treatment between various type of headache associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Prospective case control cohort study, 92 consecutive patients of CDH meeting eligibility criteria. The diagnosis of various subtypes of CDH was made according to the IHS criteria. Age, sex, educational, marital and socioeconomic status, matched controls were also selected. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) scale at the time of enrolment and at 3 months. CDH accounted for 28% of all headache patients. The mean age of presentation was 30.2 ± 10.3 years, male: Female ratio of 28:64 and mean duration of 4.56 ± 0.56 years. Chronic migraine (CM) accounted for 59 patients, chronic tension type headache (CTTH) 22 patients, new daily persistent headache (NDPH) 3 patients and miscellaneous 8 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in 53.3% patients with CDH, and was more common in CM (62.7%) as compared to CTTH (36.4%). Single psychiatric co-morbidity was seen in 26 patients, while 23 patients had multiple co-morbidity. Major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and dysthymia were significant psychiatric co-morbidities. Patients with CM were treated with topiramate or divalproex sodium ER and CTTH were treated with amitriptyline. 55 patients came for follow up at 3 months, improvement in headache was seen in 29 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in more than 50% patients with CDH and its presence along with a duration of ≥2 years was associated with a poor response to treatment.
    04/2013; 4(2):132-9. DOI:10.4103/0976-3147.112736
  • Sujit Kumar Kar · Shashwat Saxena · Jitendra Kumar Trivedi
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    ABSTRACT: Thromboembolic phenomenon is common in pregnancy and puerperium. Thrombosis of cerebral vasculature during postpartum period may present as postpartum psychosis where catatonia may be the presenting symptoms. It is known that catatonia responds to benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. In this case report, a young woman presented with postpartum psychosis where catatonia is the major clinical presentation. She had cortical venous thrombosis due to which focal neurological deficits were also present. Owing to poor response to benzodiazepines, the patient was treated with electroconvulsive therapy, to which she responded well, and even her neurological deficits improved.
    The journal of ECT 03/2013; 29(1):e8-9. DOI:10.1097/YCT.0b013e3182656b00 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study surveyed the use of anticholinergic medications (ACMs) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and examined its demographic and clinical correlates. A total of 1452 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 55 years or older in nine Asian countries and territories were surveyed between 2001 and 2009. The cross-sectional data of patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs and ACM were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The frequency of ACM prescription was 64.6% in the pooled sample, with 72.4%, 61.9%, and 59.5% in 2001, 2004, and 2009, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients on ACM had a higher dose of antipsychotic medications, and were more likely to have extrapyramidal side effects and receive first-generation antipsychotic medications. Anticholinergic medications were frequently used in older Asian patients with schizophrenia. Considering the potential side effects of ACM, the rationale for their widespread use in this patient population should be revisited. Copyright
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 03/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1002/gps.3827 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) has been an exhaustive and elaborate exercise involving the review of DSM-IV categories, identifying new evidence and ideas, field testing, and revising issues in order that it is based on the best available evidence. This report of the Task Force of the Indian Psychiatric Society examines the current draft of the DSM-5 and discusses the implications from an Indian perspective. It highlights the issues related to the use of universal categories applied across diverse cultures. It reiterates the evidence for mental disorders commonly seen in India. It emphasizes the need for caution when clinical categories useful to specialists are employed in the contexts of primary care and in community settings. While the DSM-5 is essentially for the membership of the American Psychiatric Association, its impact will be felt far beyond the boundaries of psychiatry and that of the United States of America. However, its atheoretical approach, despite its pretensions, pushes a purely biomedical agenda to the exclusion of other approaches to mental health and illness. Nevertheless, the DSM-5 should serve a gate-keeping function, which intends to set minimum standards. It is work in progress and will continue to evolve with the generation of new evidence. For the DSM-5 to be relevant and useful across the cultures and countries, it needs to be broad-based and consider social and cultural contexts, issues, and phenomena. The convergence and compatibility with International Classification of Diseases-11 is a worthy goal. While the phenomenal effort of the DSM-5 revision is commendable, psychiatry should continue to strive for a more holistic understanding of mental health, illness, and disease.
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 01/2013; 55(1):12-30. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.105500
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to survey the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and examine its demographic and clinical correlates. Methods: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 55 or older was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns study. Data on 1439 patients in 6 Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results: The frequency of APP prescription was 51.6% in the pooled sample with wide intercountry variations. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that patients on APP had higher antipsychotic doses and also were more likely to receive first-generation antipsychotics. Conclusions: Use of APP was common in older Asian patients with schizophrenia. Given the limited evidence supporting its efficacy, the potentially severe side effects and high costs, APP should be used with caution in this population. The reasons for and outcomes of the use of APP in this patient population merit further exploration.
    Journal of clinical psychopharmacology 11/2012; 32(6). DOI:10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182726623 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Jitendra Kumar Trivedi · A Q Jilani
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2012; 54(4):398-401. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.104852
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study examined the prescribing patterns of several first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGAs) medications administered to older Asian patients with schizophrenia during the period between 2001 and 2009. Method: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 65 or older was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001-2009). There were no older patients in Thailand, therefore data on 467 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan were analysed. Cross-sectional socio-demographic data, clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results: Of the 467 patients, 192 patients (41.1%) received FGAs only, 166 (35.5%) received SGAs only and 109 (23.3%) received a combination of FGAs and SGAs. Of the FGAs, haloperidol was the most commonly used (31.3%; mean 9.4 ± 6.7 mg/day), followed by chlorpromazine (15.4%; mean 126.4 ± 156.4 mg/day) and sulpiride (6.6%; mean 375.0 ± 287.0 mg/day). Of the SGAs, risperidone was the most commonly used (31.5%; mean 4.5 ± 2.7 mg/day), followed by olanzapine (13.1%; mean 13.6 ± 6.5 mg/day), quetiapine (7.3%; mean 325.0 ± 237.3 mg/day) and aripiprazole (1.9%; mean 17.6 ± 7.7 mg/day). Conclusions: FGAs and higher doses of certain SGAs (risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine) were still commonly dispensed to older Asian patients with schizophrenia. Considering older patients' reduced tolerability of potentially severe side effects associated with FGAs and higher doses of certain SGAs, continuing education and training addressing the rational use of antipsychotics in this population is clearly needed.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 07/2012; 46(12). DOI:10.1177/0004867412453625 · 3.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

583 Citations
144.48 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2014
    • King George's Medical University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2013
    • Gautam Buddh Technical University
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
    • University of Lucknow
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2011–2013
    • Uttar Pradesh Technical University
      Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2012
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2004–2007
    • KG Hospital
      Koyambattūr, Tamil Nadu, India