J L Bos

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (256)2193.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Dishevelled, EGL-10 and pleckstrin (DEP) domain is a globular protein domain that is present in about ten human protein families with well-defined structural features. A picture is emerging that DEP domains mainly function in the spatial and temporal control of diverse signal transduction events by recruiting proteins to the plasma membrane. DEP domains can interact with various partners at the membrane, including phospholipids and membrane receptors, and their binding is subject to regulation.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 04/2014; · 37.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e98253. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial cell migration is crucial for the development and regeneration of epithelial tissues. Aberrant regulation of epithelial cell migration has a major role in pathological processes such as the development of cancer metastasis and tissue fibrosis. Here, we report that in response to factors that promote cell motility, the Rap guanine exchange factor RAPGEF2 is rapidly phosphorylated by I-kappa-B-kinase-β and casein kinase-1α and consequently degraded by the proteasome via the SCF(βTrCP) ubiquitin ligase. Failure to degrade RAPGEF2 in epithelial cells results in sustained activity of Rap1 and inhibition of cell migration induced by HGF, a potent metastatic factor. Furthermore, expression of a degradation-resistant RAPGEF2 mutant greatly suppresses dissemination and metastasis of human breast cancer cells. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism regulating migration and invasion of epithelial cells and establish a key direct link between IKKβ and cell motility controlled by Rap-integrin signaling.
    Developmental Cell 11/2013; · 12.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rap1 is a small GTPase regulating cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, and actin rearrangements, all processes dynamically coordinated during cell spreading and endothelial barrier function. Here, we identify the adaptor protein ras-interacting protein 1 (Rasip1) as a Rap1-effector involved in cell spreading and endothelial barrier function. Using Förster resonance energy transfer, we show that Rasip1 interacts with active Rap1 in a cellular context. Rasip1 mediates Rap1-induced cell spreading through its interaction partner Rho GTPase-activating protein 29 (ArhGAP29), a GTPase activating protein for Rho proteins. Accordingly, the Rap1-Rasip1 complex induces cell spreading by inhibiting Rho signaling. The Rasip1-ArhGAP29 pathway also functions in Rap1-mediated regulation of endothelial junctions, which controls endothelial barrier function. In this process, Rasip1 cooperates with its close relative ras-association and dilute domain-containing protein (Radil) to inhibit Rho-mediated stress fiber formation and induces junctional tightening. These results reveal an effector pathway for Rap1 in the modulation of Rho signaling and actin dynamics, through which Rap1 modulates endothelial barrier function.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Montreal
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    ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Rap1 is required for proper cell-cell junction formation and also plays a key role in mediating cAMP-induced tightening of adherens junctions and subsequent increased barrier function of endothelial cells. To further study how Rap1 controls barrier function, we performed quantitative global phosphoproteomics in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) prior to and after Rap1 activation by the Epac-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM (007-AM). Tryptic digests were labeled using stable isotope dimethyl labeling, enriched with phosphopeptides by strong cation exchange (SCX), followed by titanium(iv) immobilized metal affinity chromatography (Ti-IMAC) and analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. We identified 19 859 unique phosphopeptides containing 17 278 unique phosphosites on 4594 phosphoproteins, providing the largest HUVEC phosphoproteome to date. Of all identified phosphosites, 220 (∼1%) were more than 1.5-fold up- or downregulated upon Rap activation, in two independent experiments. Compatible with the function of Rap1, these alterations were found predominantly in proteins regulating the actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell junctions and cell adhesion.
    Molecular BioSystems 03/2013; 9(4):732-49. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: 0310083
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    ABSTRACT: Rap1 and Rap2 are closely related proteins of the Ras family of small G-proteins. Rap1 is well known to regulate cell-cell adhesion. Here, we have analysed the effect of Rap-mediated signalling on endothelial permeability using electrical impedance measurements of HUVEC monolayers and subsequent determination of the barrier resistance, which is a measure for the ease with which ions can pass cell junctions. In line with its well-established effect on cell-cell junctions, depletion of Rap1 decreases, whereas activation of Rap1 increases barrier resistance. Despite its high sequence homology with Rap1, depletion of Rap2 has an opposite, enhancing, effect on barrier resistance. This effect can be mimicked by depletion of the Rap2 specific activator RasGEF1C and the Rap2 effector MAP4K4, establishing Rap2 signalling as an independent pathway controlling barrier resistance. As simultaneous depletion or activation of both Rap1 and Rap2 results in a barrier resistance comparable to control cells, Rap1 and Rap2 control barrier resistance in a reciprocal manner. This Rap1-antagonizing effect of Rap2 is established independent of junctional actin formation. These data establish that endothelial barrier resistance is determined by the combined antagonistic actions of Rap1 and Rap2.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57903. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The small G-protein Rap1 plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial barrier function, a process controlled largely by cell-cell adhesions and their connection to the actin cytoskeleton. During the various stages of barrier dynamics, different guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) control Rap1 activity, indicating that Rap1 integrates multiple input signals. Once activated, Rap1 induces numerous signaling cascades, together responsible for the increased endothelial barrier function. Most notably, Rap1 activation results in the inhibition of Rho to decrease radial stress fibers and the activation of Cdc42 to increase junctional actin. This implies that Rap regulates endothelial barrier function by dual control of cytoskeletal tension. The molecular details of the signaling pathways are becoming to be elucidated.
    Cell adhesion & migration 01/2013; 8(2). · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epac proteins are activated by binding of the second messenger cAMP and then act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap proteins. The Epac proteins are involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and insulin secretion. Here we have determined the structure of Epac2 in complex with a cAMP analogue (Sp-cAMPS) and RAP1B by X-ray crystallography and single particle electron microscopy. The structure represents the cAMP activated state of the Epac2 protein with the RAP1B protein trapped in the course of the exchange reaction. Comparison with the inactive conformation reveals that cAMP binding causes conformational changes that allow the cyclic nucleotide binding domain to swing from a position blocking the Rap binding site towards a docking site at the Ras exchange motif domain.
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    ABSTRACT: The microvillus brush border at the apex of the highly polarized enterocyte allows the regulated uptake of nutrients from the intestinal lumen. Here, we identify the small G protein Rap2A as a molecular link that couples the formation of microvilli directly to the preceding cell polarization. Establishment of apicobasal polarity, which can be triggered by the kinase LKB1 in single, isolated colon cells, results in enrichment of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) at the apical membrane. The subsequent recruitment of phospholipase D1 allows polarized accumulation of phosphatidic acid, which provides a local cue for successive signalling by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF, the small G protein Rap2A, its effector TNIK, the kinase MST4 and, ultimately, the actin-binding protein Ezrin. Thus, epithelial cell polarization is translated directly into the acquisition of brush borders through a small G protein signalling module whose action is positioned by a cortical lipid cue.
    Nature Cell Biology 07/2012; 14(8):793-801. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epac1 is a cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. Upon cAMP binding, Epac1 undergoes a conformational change that results in its release from autoinhibition. In addition, cAMP induces the translocation of Epac1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. This relocalization of Epac1 is required for efficient activation of plasma membrane-located Rap and for cAMP-induced cell adhesion. This translocation requires the Dishevelled, Egl-10, Pleckstrin (DEP) domain, but the molecular entity that serves as the plasma membrane anchor and the possible mechanism of regulated binding remains elusive. Here we show that Epac1 binds directly to phosphatidic acid. Similar to the cAMP-induced Epac1 translocation, this binding is regulated by cAMP and requires the DEP domain. Furthermore, depletion of phosphatidic acid by inhibition of phospholipase D1 prevents cAMP-induced translocation of Epac1 as well as the subsequent activation of Rap at the plasma membrane. Finally, mutation of a single basic residue within a polybasic stretch of the DEP domain, which abolishes translocation, also prevents binding to phosphatidic acid. From these results we conclude that cAMP induces a conformational change in Epac1 that enables DEP domain-mediated binding to phosphatidic acid, resulting in the tethering of Epac1 at the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of Rap.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(10):3814-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    Johannes L Bos, Willem-Jan Pannekoek
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    ABSTRACT: Plexins are transmembrane receptors for semaphorins that serve as guidance cues for neurite outgrowth. The intracellular region of plexins contains a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein (GAP) domain for Ras. New evidence shows that the GAP activity is specific for Rap proteins, small GTPases involved in the regulation of processes that are potentially important for axon guidance, including cell adhesion and migration. Semaphorin-induced dimerization stimulates plexin GAP activity, thereby locally inhibiting Rap1 and enabling neurite retraction. This important finding connects semaphorin signaling to Rap-mediated signaling and is another intriguing example of how small GTPases are used for spatial and temporal control of cell behavior.
    Science Signaling 01/2012; 5(212):pe6. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed new image analysis tools to analyse quantitatively the extracellular-matrix-dependent cell spreading process imaged by live-cell epifluorescence microscopy. Using these tools, we investigated cell spreading induced by activation of the small GTPase, Rap1. After replating and initial adhesion, unstimulated cells exhibited extensive protrusion and retraction as their spread area increased, and displayed an angular shape that was remodelled over time. In contrast, activation of endogenous Rap1, via 007-mediated stimulation of Epac1, induced protrusion along the entire cell periphery, resulting in a rounder spread surface, an accelerated spreading rate and an increased spread area compared to control cells. Whereas basal, anisotropic, spreading was completely dependent on Src activity, Rap1-induced spreading was refractory to Src inhibition. Under Src inhibited conditions, the characteristic Src-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of FAK and paxillin did not occur, but Rap1 could induce the formation of actomyosin-connected adhesions, which contained vinculin at levels comparable to that found in unperturbed focal adhesions. From these results, we conclude that Rap1 can induce cell adhesion and stimulate an accelerated rate of cell spreading through mechanisms that bypass the canonical FAK-Src-Paxillin signalling cascade.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50072. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and provide a practical framework on which experimental evidence can be compared between species. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses on the components of the TOR pathway and determined their point of invention. We find that the two TOR complexes and a large part of the TOR pathway originated before the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor and form a core to which new inputs have been added during animal evolution. In addition, we provide insight into how duplications and sub-functionalization of the S6K, RSK, SGK and PKB kinases shaped the complexity of the TOR pathway. In yeast we identify novel AGC kinases that are orthologous to the S6 kinase. These results demonstrate how a vital signaling pathway can be both highly conserved and flexible in eukaryotes.
    Journal of Molecular Evolution 11/2011; 73(3-4):209-20. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epac1 and its effector Rap1 are important mediators of cAMP induced tightening of endothelial junctions and consequential increased barrier function. We have investigated the involvement of Rap1 signalling in basal, unstimulated, barrier function of a confluent monolayer of HUVEC using real time Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing. Depletion of Rap1, but not Epac1, results in a strong decrease in barrier function. This decrease is also observed when cells are depleted of the cAMP independent Rap exchange factors PDZ-GEF1 and 2, showing that PDZ-GEFs are responsible for Rap1 activity in control of basal barrier function. Monolayers of cells depleted of PDZ-GEF or Rap1 show an irregular, zipper-like organization of VE-cadherin and live imaging of VE-cadherin-GFP reveals enhanced junction motility upon depletion of PDZ-GEF or Rap1. Importantly, activation of Epac1 increases the formation of cortical actin bundles at the cell-cell junctions, inhibits junction motility and restores barrier function of PDZ-GEFs depleted, but not Rap1 depleted cells. We conclude that PDZ-GEF activates Rap1 under resting conditions to stabilize cell-cell junctions and maintain basal integrity. Activation of Rap1 by cAMP/Epac1 induces junctional actin to further tighten cell-cell contacts.
    Cellular signalling 08/2011; 23(12):2056-64. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    Martijn Gloerich, Johannes L Bos
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    ABSTRACT: Signaling by the small G-protein Rap is under tight regulation by its GEFs and GAPs. These are multi-domain proteins that are themselves controlled by distinct upstream pathways, and thus couple different extra- and intracellular cues to Rap. The individual RapGEFs and RapGAPs are, in addition, targeted to specific cellular locations by numerous anchoring mechanisms and, consequently, may control different pools of Rap. Here, we review the various activating signals and targeting mechanisms of these proteins and discuss their contribution to the spatiotemporal regulation and biological functions of the Rap proteins.
    Trends in cell biology 08/2011; 21(10):615-23. · 12.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger that relays a wide range of hormone responses. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nuclear pore component RanBP2 acts as a negative regulator of cAMP signaling through Epac1, a cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap. We show that Epac1 directly interacts with the zinc fingers (ZNFs) of RanBP2, tethering Epac1 to the nuclear pore complex (NPC). RanBP2 inhibits the catalytic activity of Epac1 in vitro by binding to its catalytic CDC25 homology domain. Accordingly, cellular depletion of RanBP2 releases Epac1 from the NPC and enhances cAMP-induced Rap activation and cell adhesion. Epac1 also is released upon phosphorylation of the ZNFs of RanBP2, demonstrating that the interaction can be regulated by posttranslational modification. These results reveal a novel mechanism of Epac1 regulation and elucidate an unexpected link between the NPC and cAMP signaling.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2011; 193(6):1009-20. · 10.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
2,193.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Department of Physiological Chemistry
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1991–2011
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • • Division of Theoretical Biology and Bioinformatics
      • • Bijvoet Institute for Biomolecular Research
      • • Department of Physiological Chemistry
      • • Division of Developmental Biology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1983–1997
    • Leiden University
      • Molecular Cell Biology Group
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1993
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1989–1991
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1989–1990
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Clinical Oncology
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1988–1990
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      • Division of Experimental Therapy
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1982
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom