Jenifer H Voeks

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

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Publications (9)19.01 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the long-term effects of the Go Sun Smart (GSS) campaign, a large-scale health communication intervention designed to promote sun safety to employees at 26 ski areas in western North America. Employees were enrolled in a pair-matched group-randomized pretest–posttest controlled design with 2 follow-up surveys. Half of the ski areas were randomly assigned to implement GSS in the winter. This article reports analyses of a hierarchical linear design with responses from 1,463 employees who completed the second follow-up survey at the end of the following summer (69% of those who completed the first posttest). GSS continued to have positive effects on employees who worked at intervention ski areas into the summer. Employees exposed to GSS reported less sunburning, engaged in more sun safety behaviors, were more aware of the program, and had more discussions of sun safety at home than employees at matched control group resorts. The long-term effects of GSS support recommending that sun protection programs be implemented at workplaces, but such programs should be implemented with high fidelity to achieve maximum benefits. Despite limitations due to nonresponse, geography, measurement, and ethnicity, the hierarchical clustered design improved the internal validity and generalizability of the findings.
    Journal of Communication 08/2008; 58(3):447 - 471. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Go Sun Smart, a sun safety education program, directed to parents and children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools at high altitude resorts in western North America. Twenty-six ski resorts were paired and then randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. Three hundred fifty-seven parents were interviewed about their children's sun safety behavior and exposure to the Go Sun Smart program. More parents at the intervention resorts reported that their child was wearing sunscreen than at the control resorts (OR 2.37, 95% CI 0.93, 5.99) but this result was significant only at resorts in the Northwest region (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.24, 5.95). Parents at intervention resorts had significantly increased odds of having seen a Go Sun Smart poster than those at the control resorts (OR=8.53, 95% CI 2.17, 33.54). No significant differences were identified between the intervention and control groups for verbal messages from ski resort employees about sun protection. Outdoor wintertime recreation venues are a potentially effective site from which to implement sun safety education programs for children and parents.
    Pediatric Dermatology 01/2007; 24(3):222-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major threat to public health, associated with a number of serious diseases, and a leading cause of death. Previous research demonstrates that enactment of government policies mandating clean indoor air is effective in creating more smoke-free public places and decreasing the incidence of smoking. Both researchers and community activists have an interest in understanding the factors that predict support for the regulation of ETS. This study examined predictors of support for regulating ETS by surveying 684 city and county public officials in Colorado who were interviewed by phone and mail (response rate 61%). Thirty-five percent of public officials reported that it is a "serious" or "very serious" problem that nonsmokers breathe in other people's cigarette smoke, 21% were "neutral," and 42% said that it was "not serious" or "not serious at all." Results indicated that support for policies to control ETS and promote clean indoor air is significantly more prevalent among public officials who: (1) believe that tobacco use is a serious problem in their community, (2) believe that breathing environmental tobacco smoke is a serious problem for nonsmokers, (3) believe that city and county government should get involved with people's decisions about smoking, (4) support smoking-cessation programs for public employees, and (5) have smoked less than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. Both the harms of ETS and legislation to create smoke-free environments remain controversial among local officials. Smoke-free advocates should support officials who believe that ETS is a problem and persuade officials on the harms of ETS and the need for government intervention.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 05/2006; 30(4):292-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare adherence to screening mammography recommendations of American Indian and non-Hispanic White women in the Denver, Colorado, area. This study retrospectively examined adherence patterns in 229 American Indian and 60,197 non-Hispanic White women > or = 40 years and older, with at least one screening mammogram in the Colorado Mammography Project (CMAP), from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2003. The CMAP was a prospective study of women receiving mammograms at participating clinics around Denver. Using logistic mixed models, we defined two dependent variables as annual and biennial adherence from the intervals between screening mammograms for each woman. Biennial adherence was substantially higher than annual adherence for both American Indian and non-Hispanic White women in our analyses. American Indian women were less likely than non-Hispanic White women to adhere to biennial recommendations in multivariate models controlling for age, family history of breast cancer, and economic status (zip code): odds ratio (OR) .4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) .2-.6. The association between American Indian race/ethnicity and annual adherence was similar, although not as strong (OR .5, 95% CI .3-.8). American Indian women in the CMAP cohort were less likely than non-Hispanic White women to adhere to recommendations for screening mammography, both annually and biennially. Additional research is needed to explore the effect of biennial screening and other barriers among American Indian women.
    Ethnicity & disease 01/2006; 16(4):808-14. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in a pair-matched, group-randomized, pretest-posttest controlled design enrolling employees at 26 ski areas in Western North America. Employees at the intervention ski areas were more aware of GSS (odds ratio [OR] = 8.27, p < .05) and reported less sunburning (adjusted OR = 1.63, p < .05) at posttest than employees at the control areas. A dose response was evident (OR = 1.46, p < .05) with greater observed program implementation associated with fewer sunburns among employees. Program awareness per se was not predictive (p > .05) of reduced sunburning in a mediational analysis. Analyses of nonrespondents, including intent-to-treat analyses, further supported the success of GSS.
    Health Education &amp Behavior 09/2005; 32(4):514-35. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine diffusion of and predictors of helmet use among skiers and snowboarders in the Western United States and Canada. 6400 skiers and snowboarders at 29 ski resorts in the Western United States and Canada were interviewed on chair lifts and observed for helmet use during two consecutive ski seasons (winters 2001 and 2002). Skiers and snowboarders were observed and interviewed at 29 ski resorts in Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and British Columbia as part of a sun protection project. Participants completing the survey consisted of 3525 adult skiers and snowboarders in the 2002 season and 2978 adult skiers and snowboarders in the 2001 season. The outcome measure for all analyses was prevalence of helmet use by skiers and snowboarders. Helmet use by skiers and snowboarders is increasing and is most prevalent among snowboarders, experts, and more frequent skiers/snowboarders. No evidence was found for the hypothesis that helmet use is diffusing more rapidly among earlier adopters of helmets than later adopters. Although controversy remains, helmets are rapidly diffusing as a safety device at western North American ski resorts. Expert and more frequent skiers and snowboarders are more likely to wear helmets, which may indicate that helmets are recognized as a safety device.
    Injury Prevention 01/2005; 10(6):358-62. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore relationships between patterns of smoking uptake and social context and attitudinal variables. Cross sectional survey. Public schools in Tucson, Arizona and Albuquerque, New Mexico. 982 children in grades 6-9 (ages 11-15 years). Items measuring smoking history, nicotine dependence and quit attempts, susceptibility to smoking in the future, smoking norms, use of other tobacco products, attitudes toward smoking, and demographic characteristics. Overall, 43% of children had smoked a cigarette and 57% had never used them. Ever smokers lived in social contexts with more smoking and where smoking was normative. Among never users, 25% are susceptible to smoking; these children have positive attitudes toward smoking, do not feel social pressure to stay off cigarettes, and had more friends who smoked. Among ever users, 36% were currently smoking in the past 30 days. Current users also lived in social context with more smoking and had positive attitudes toward smoking. Most users had tried to stop smoking. Only 9% of current users smoked daily; 29% had not smoked a whole cigarette. Greater cigarette consumption was associated with more favourable attitudes toward smoking. Most of past users were in early uptake: 95% had smoked less than 100 cigarettes but 49% were susceptible to smoking again. There is promise in differentiating subgroups among the never, past and current use of cigarettes. Susceptibility within each of these groups was associated with similar patterns of attitudes and social context. These patterns in smoking uptake need to be confirmed prospectively.
    Tobacco control 01/2004; 12 Suppl 4:IV16-25. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Helmets may protect the heads of skiers and snowboarders. The prevalence of helmet use by these groups was estimated. Helmet use was observed in face-to-face surveys (N = 2,978) on sun protection at 28 ski areas in Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and British Columbia (0.7% refusal rate) from January to April 2001. Helmets were worn by 12.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0-13.3) of the sample. Use was highest among guests who skied or snowboarded more frequently (fourth quartile vs. first quartile, odds ratio [OR] = 11.998 [95% CI, 6.774-21.251]; third vs. first, OR = 5.556 [95% CI, 3.119-9.896]; second vs. first, OR = 2.186 [95% CI, 1.162-4.112]), were experts (OR = 3.326 [95% CI, 1.297-8.528]), used snowboards (OR = 2.301 [95% CI, 1.731-3.058]), and were more educated (college graduate, OR = 2.167 [95% CI, 1.271-3.695]; some college, OR = 1.969 [95% CI, 1.130-3.431]). Helmet use was generally low but may be high enough by experts, snowboarders, and in the central Rocky Mountains to produce a norm stimulating further adoption.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2003; 55(5):939-45. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preventing youth access to tobacco products is a crucial public health goal. This study examines support by elected city and county officials in Colorado for enacting youth tobacco control policies in the State of Colorado. Participating city and county officials (n = 684) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and opinions on tobacco-related issues and policy control efforts. The officials surveyed were generally supportive of efforts to restrict youth access to tobacco. A number of predictors of support for youth tobacco control policies were identified, including official's perceptions of community norms, their political party, the presence of citizen anti-tobacco events, educational background of the officials, and their attitudes about tobacco. Recommendations for theory and citizen action are provided.
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 13(6):621-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

126 Citations
19.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2008
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Birmingham, AL, United States