[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many candidate gene association studies have evaluated incomplete, unrepresentative sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), producing non-significant results that are difficult to interpret. Using a rapid, efficient strategy designed to investigate all common SNPs, we tested associations between schizophrenia and two positional candidate genes: ACSL6 (Acyl-Coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 6) and SIRT5 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 5). We initially evaluated the utility of DNA sequencing traces to estimate SNP allele frequencies in pooled DNA samples. The mean variances for the DNA sequencing estimates were acceptable and were comparable to other published methods (mean variance: 0.0008, range 0-0.0119). Using pooled DNA samples from cases with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders edition IV criteria) and controls (n=200, each group), we next sequenced all exons, introns and flanking upstream/downstream sequences for ACSL6 and SIRT5. Among 69 identified SNPs, case-control allele frequency comparisons revealed nine suggestive associations (P<0.2). Each of these SNPs was next genotyped in the individual samples composing the pools. A suggestive association with rs 11743803 at ACSL6 remained (allele-wise P=0.02), with diminished evidence in an extended sample (448 cases, 554 controls, P=0.062). In conclusion, we propose a multi-stage method for comprehensive, rapid, efficient and economical genetic association analysis that enables simultaneous SNP detection and allele frequency estimation in large samples. This strategy may be particularly useful for research groups lacking access to high throughput genotyping facilities. Our analyses did not yield convincing evidence for associations of schizophrenia with ACSL6 or SIRT5.
Genes Brain and Behavior 04/2007; 6(3):229-39. · 3.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurologic examination abnormalities (NEA) are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia as well as their unaffected relatives when compared with healthy controls, suggesting that NEA may be endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We estimated the heritability of NEA in moderately sized pedigrees. We also evaluated correlations between NEA and cognitive performance in order to examine their construct validity.
Members of eight extended families, each consisting of two first degree relatives with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders, as well as available first- to fifth-degree relatives were examined (n=96 participants). A modification of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) was employed, augmented with localizing signs. Where feasible, we used untransformed data such as error counts and completion time, rather than ordinal measures. Heritability was estimated using the variance component method, implemented in SOLAR.
Statistically significant heritability (h2) estimates were obtained for several measures (p<0.05, h2+/-standard error: rapid alternating movements, right-sided completion time, 0.99+/-0.19; alternating fist-palm test, completion time, 0.77+/-0.19 s, errors, 0.70+/-0.32; fist-ring test, right-sided completion time, 0.53+/-0.23 s, left-sided completion time, 0.70+/-0.21 s; go-no go task, correct responses, 0.93+/-0.33; audio-visual integration, correct responses, 0.79+/-0.54). For most items, heritability analysis was hampered by insufficient data variability (infrequent errors). Correlational analyses show some degree of divergence among types of NEA, repetitive motor tasks being associated with most domains of cognitive functioning other than executive functioning, and cognitive-perceptual tasks being associated with memory and executive functioning.
Significant familial influences on certain aspects of neurologic performance were detected. These heritable measures were also correlated with heritable neurocognitive measures.
Schizophrenia Research 09/2006; 86(1-3):172-80. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that circadian dysfunction could underlie, at least partially, the liability for bipolar 1 disorder (BD1). Our hypothesis motivated tests for the association between the polymorphisms of genes that mediate circadian function and liability for BD1. The US Caucasian patients with BD1 (DSM-IV criteria) and available parents were recruited from Pittsburgh and surrounding areas (n = 138 cases, 196 parents) and also selected from the NIMH Genetics Collaborative Initiative (n = 96 cases, 192 parents). We assayed 44 informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight circadian genes in the BD1 samples. A population-based sample, specifically cord blood samples from local live births, served as community-based controls (n = 180). It was used as a contrast for genotype and haplotype distributions with those of patients. US patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SZA, n = 331) and available parents from Pittsburgh (n = 344) were assayed for a smaller set of SNPs based on the results from the BD1 samples. Modest associations with SNPs at ARNTL (BmaL1) and TIMELESS genes were observed in the BD1 samples. The associations were detected using family-based and case-control analyses, albeit with different SNPs. Associations with TIMELESS and PERIOD3 were also detected in the Pittsburgh SZ/SZA group. Thus far, evidence for association between specific SNPs at the circadian gene loci and BD1 is tentative. Additional studies using larger samples are required to evaluate the associations reported here.
Genes Brain and Behavior 04/2006; 5(2):150-7. · 3.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated polymorphisms of the NOTCH 4 gene in two independent samples from India and USA, consisting of patients with schizophrenia and their parents (n = 182, and n = 148 'trios,' respectively). Five DNA markers, namely (GAAG)(n), (TAA)(n), SNP1, SNP2, and (CTG)(n) were evaluated. Transmission distortion, consistent with a modest association was detected among both samples. Additional association studies at this locus are warranted.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 01/2004; · 3.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic association studies were conducted among two independent cohorts of Chinese ethnicity. The samples consisted of cases and unrelated controls, ascertained from Guangzhou, China, and Singapore. The studies were prompted by our earlier report of an association between schizophrenia and HLA DQB1 alleles (HLA DQB1*0602 and HLA DQB1*0303) in the Singapore sample. Polymorphisms of HLA DQB1 and flanking markers on chromosome 6p21.3 were investigated in the first part of the study. A significant negative association with HLA DQB1*0402 was detected in the Guangzhou sample (Odds ratio, OR 0.26, 95% confidence intervals, CI 0.1, 0.6; p < 0.02, corrected for multiple comparisons). Additional analysis of the Guangzhou and Singapore samples revealed associations at three other anonymous markers flanking HLA DQB1. In the second part of the study, three polymorphisms at the Interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL-1, chromosome 2q13-q21) were investigated in both cohorts, since associations with schizophrenia have been reported in another sample. Persuasive evidence for an association at IL-1 was not detected in either sample. Our results suggest a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia in the HLA region among the Chinese, but further clarification is necessary.
Human Immunology 08/2001; 62(7):714-24. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations between schizophrenia and four candidate genes were tested among Indian patients with schizophrenia and their parents (DSM-IV criteria, n = 179 families). Polymorphisms within the genes encoding the serotonin 2A receptor (HT2A), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) were thus investigated. Two polymorphisms each were analyzed at HT2A and TPH, enabling haplotype-based analyses using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) for these genes. No significant associations were detected. Pooled analysis of samples like ours may be necessary to definitively exclude putative allelic associations at these loci.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors estimated the prevalence of psychoses among the Hutterites in Manitoba, Canada, who lived in 102 communal farms or colonies. The study stemmed from an earlier epidemiological survey of North American Hutterite colonies (1950-1953), in which a low prevalence of psychoses was documented.
Psychiatrically ill individuals identified during the previous survey were rediagnosed with DSM-IV criteria. A current provincial health insurance claims database was queried anonymously for the period June 1992-May 1997, and the prevalence rate of disease among Hutterites, identified by distinctive surnames and unique postal addresses, was compared with the rate in the entire population of the province of Manitoba and in a comparison group of persons with Hutterite surnames but with addresses outside the Hutterite colonies.
The annual prevalence of schizophrenia among the communal Hutterites, estimated from the database search by using ICD-9 criteria, was consistent with the prevalence found in the prior epidemiological survey (annual mean of 1.2/1,000 population, compared with 1.3/1,000 in the prior survey). The database search yielded a significantly lower prevalence for schizophrenia and other functional psychoses among communal Hutterites as well as among the comparison group, compared to the total Manitoba population. There was also lower prevalence for affective psychoses and adjustment reaction disorders among the communal Hutterites, compared to the total Manitoba population. Rates for neurotic disorders were elevated both among the communal Hutterites and the comparison group.
The prevalence of specific psychoses was reduced among the Hutterites, although neurotic disorders were more prevalent. These findings suggest some specificity, although possible artifacts such as ascertainment bias must be considered. Further research is needed to examine genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to reduced prevalence of specific psychoses among the Hutterites.
American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2000; 157(7):1065-70. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A putative association of schizophrenia with a Msc I restriction fragment length polymorphism at the dopamine D3 receptor gene locus (DRD3) was tested among Indian families, using haplotype relative risk analysis and the transmission disequilibrium test (n=66 families and 58 sets of transmissions, respectively). A significant association either with homozygosity or with allele 1 at the biallelic polymporphism could not be detected.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 09/1999; 88(4):298-300.