[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has shown remarkable biological properties of promoting NK- and T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as enhancing antitumor immunity of CD8(+) T cells in preclinical models. Here, we report the development of an E. coli cell line to express recombinant human Interleukin-15 (rhIL-15) for clinical manufacturing. Human IL-15 cDNA sequence was inserted into a pET28b plasmid and expressed in several E. coli BL21 strains. Through product quality comparisons among several E. coli strains, including E. coli BL21(DE3), BL21(DE3)pLysS, BLR(DE3)pLysS, and BL21-AI, E. coli BL21-AI was selected for clinical manufacturing. Expression optimization was carried out at shake flask and 20-L fermenter scales, and the product was expressed as inclusion bodies that were solubilized, refolded, and purified to yield active rhIL-15. Stop codons of the expression construct were further investigated after 15-20% of the purified rhIL-15 showed an extraneous peak corresponding to an extra tryptophan residue based on peptide mapping and mass spectrometry analysis. It was determined that the presence of an extra tryptophan was due to a stop codon wobble effect, which could be eliminated by replacing TGA (opal) stop codon with TAA (ochre). As a novel strategy, a simple method of demonstrating lack of tRNA suppressors in the production host cells was developed to validate the cells in this study. The E. coli BL21-AI cells containing the rhIL-15 coding sequence with a triplet stop codon TAATAATGA were banked for further clinical manufacturing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its start, the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) has sought to provide at least one full-protein-coding sequence cDNA clone for every human and mouse gene with a RefSeq transcript, and at least 6200 rat genes. The MGC cloning effort initially relied on random expressed sequence tag screening of cDNA libraries. Here, we summarize our recent progress using directed RT-PCR cloning and DNA synthesis. The MGC now contains clones with the entire protein-coding sequence for 92% of human and 89% of mouse genes with curated RefSeq (NM-accession) transcripts, and for 97% of human and 96% of mouse genes with curated RefSeq transcripts that have one or more PubMed publications, in addition to clones for more than 6300 rat genes. These high-quality MGC clones and their sequences are accessible without restriction to researchers worldwide.
Genome Research 09/2009; 19(12):2324-33. DOI:10.1101/gr.095976.109 · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nickel(II), capable of transforming cells and causing tumors in humans and animals, has been previously shown by us to mediate hydrolytic truncation of histone H2A's C-terminal tail by 8 amino acids in both cell-free and cell culture systems. Since H2A's C-tail is involved in maintaining chromatin structure, such truncation might alter this structure and affect gene expression. To test the latter possibility, we transfected cultured T-REx 293 human embryonic kidney cells with plasmids expressing either wild type (wt) or truncated (q) histone H2A proteins, which were either untagged or N-terminally tagged with fluorescent proteins. Each histone variant was found to be incorporated into chromatin at 24 and 48 hr post-transfection. Cells transfected with the untagged plasmids were tested for gene expression by microarray and real-time PCR. Evaluation of the results for over 21,000 genes using the multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering methods revealed significant differences in expression of numerous genes between the q-H2A and wt-H2A transfectants. Many of the differentially expressed genes, including BAZ2A, CLDN18, CYP51A1, GFR, GIPC2, HMGB1, IRF7, JAK3, PSIP1, and VEGF, are cancer-related genes. The results thus demonstrate the potential of q-H2A to contribute to the process of carcinogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 02/2009; 39(3):251-62. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes an improved pooled open reading frame (ORF) expression technology (POET) that uses recombinational cloning and solution-based tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to identify ORFs that yield high levels of soluble, purified protein when expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, three identical pools of 512 human ORFs were subcloned, purified, and transfected into three separate E. coli cultures. After bulk expression and purification, the proteins from the three separate pools were digested into tryptic peptides. Each of these samples was subsequently analyzed in triplicate using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled directly online with MS/MS. The abundance of each protein was determined by calculating the average exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) of each protein across the three protein pools. Human proteins that consistently gave high emPAI values were subjected to small-scale expression and purification. These clones showed high levels of expression of soluble protein. Conversely, proteins that were not observed by LC-MS/MS did not show any detectable soluble expression in small-scale validation studies. Using this improved POET method allows the expression characteristics of hundreds of proteins to be quickly determined in a single experiment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Digitoxin and structurally related cardiac glycoside drugs potently block activation of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. We have hypothesized that the mechanism might be discovered by searching systematically for selective inhibitory action through the entire pathway. We report that the common action of these drugs is to block the TNF-alpha-dependent binding of TNF receptor 1 to TNF receptor-associated death domain. This drug action can be observed with native cells, such as HeLa, and reconstituted systems prepared in HEK293 cells. All other antiinflammatory effects of digitoxin on NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways appear to follow from the blockade of this initial upstream signaling event.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2005; 102(27):9631-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0504097102 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preferential binding of ligands to Grb2 SH2 domains in beta-bend conformations has made peptide cyclization a logical means of effecting affinity enhancement. This is based on the concept that constraint of open-chain sequences to bend geometries may reduce entropy penalties of binding. The current study extends this approach by undertaking ring-closing metathesis (RCM) macrocyclization between i and i+3 residues through a process involving allylglycines and beta-vinyl-functionalized residues. Ring closure in this fashion results in minimal macrocyclic tetrapeptide mimetics. The predominant effects of such macrocyclization on Grb2 SH2 domain binding affinity were increases in rates of association (from 7- to 16-fold) relative to an open-chain congener, while decreases in dissociation rates were less pronounced (approximately 2-fold). The significant increases in association rates were consistent with pre-ordering of solution conformations to near those required for binding. Data from NMR experiments and molecular modeling simulations were used to interpret the binding results. An understanding of the conformational consequences of such i to i+3 ring closure may facilitate its application to other systems where bend geometries are desired.