[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The products of the SOS-regulated umuDC operon are required for most UV and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. The UmuD protein shares homology with a family of proteins that includes LexA and several bacteriophage repressors. UmuD is posttranslationally activated for its role in mutagenesis by a RecA-mediated proteolytic cleavage that yields UmuD'. A set of missense mutants of umuD was isolated and shown to encode mutant UmuD proteins that are deficient in RecA-mediated cleavage in vivo. Most of these mutations are dominant to umuD+ with respect to UV mutagenesis yet do not interfere with SOS induction. Although both UmuD and UmuD' form homodimers, we provide evidence that they preferentially form heterodimers. The relationship of UmuD to LexA, lambda repressor, and other members of the family of proteins is discussed and possible roles of intact UmuD in modulating SOS mutagenesis are discussed.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1990; 87(18):7190-4. DOI:10.1073/pnas.87.18.7190 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Escherichia coli, most UV and chemical mutagenesis is not a passive process and requires the participation of the umuD and umuC gene products. However, the molecular mechanism of UV mutagenesis is not yet understood and the roles of the UmuD and UmuC proteins have not been elucidated. The umuDC operon is induced by UV irradiation and regulated as part of the SOS response. Genetic evidence now indicates that RecA-mediated cleavage activates UmuD for its role in mutagenesis. The COOH-terminal fragment of UmuD is both necessary and sufficient for this role. The RecA protein appears to have a third role in UV mutagenesis besides mediating the cleavage of LexA and UmuD at the time of SOS induction. In addition, we have obtained evidence which indicates that the GroEL and GroES proteins also play a role in UV mutagenesis. Similarities of the amino acid sequence of UmuD to the sequence of gene 45 protein of bacteriophage T4 and of the sequence of UmuC to those of the gene 44 and gene 62 proteins suggest possible roles for UmuD and UmuC in mutagenesis that are supported by preliminary evidence.
Basic life sciences 02/1990; 52:269-75. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-9561-8_22
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To isolate strains with new recA mutations that differentially affect RecA protein functions, we mutagenized in vitro the recA gene carried by plasmid mini-F and then introduced the mini-F-recA plasmid into a delta recA host that was lysogenic for prophage phi 80 and carried a lac duplication. By scoring prophage induction and recombination of the lac duplication, we isolated new recA mutations. A strain carrying mutation recA1734 (Arg-243 changed to Leu) was found to be deficient in phi 80 induction but proficient in recombination. The mutation rendered the host not mutable by UV, even in a lexA(Def) background. Yet, the recA1734 host became mutable upon introduction of a plasmid encoding UmuD*, the active carboxyl-terminal fragment of UmuD. Although the recA1734 mutation permits cleavage of lambda and LexA repressors, it renders the host deficient in the cleavage of phi 80 repressor and UmuD protein. Another strain carrying mutation recA1730 (Ser-117 changed to Phe) was found to be proficient in phi 80 induction but deficient in recombination. The recombination defect conferred by the mutation was partly alleviated in a cell devoid of LexA repressor, suggesting that, when amplified, RecA1730 protein is active in recombination. Since LexA protein was poorly cleaved in the recA1730 strain while phage lambda was induced, we conclude that RecA1730 protein cannot specifically mediate LexA protein cleavage. Our results show that the recA1734 and recA1730 mutations differentially affect cleavage of various substrates. The recA1730 mutation prevented UV mutagenesis, even upon introduction into the host of a plasmid encoding UmuD* and was dominant over recA+. With respect to other RecA functions, recA1730 was recessive to recA+. This demonstrates that RecA protein has an additional role in mutagenesis beside mediating the cleavage of LexA and UmuD proteins.
Journal of Bacteriology 06/1989; 171(5):2415-23. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The products of the umuD and umuC genes are required for most uv and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. The genes are organized in an operon that is repressed by LexA and regulated as part of the SOS response. The umuD protein shares homology with the carboxyl-terminal domain of LexA. Genetic evidence now indicates that RecA-mediated cleavage activates UmuD for its role in mutagenesis. The COOH-terminal fragment of UmuD is both necessary and sufficient for this role. Similarities of UmuD to gene 45 protein of bacteriophage T4 and of UmuC to gene 44 protein and gene 62 protein suggest possible roles for UmuD and UmuC in mutagenesis that are supported by preliminary evidence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The products of the SOS-regulated umuDC operon are required for most UV and chemical mutagenesis in Escherichia coli. It has been shown that the UmuD protein shares homology with LexA, the repressor of the SOS genes. In this paper we describe a series of genetic experiments that indicate that the purpose of RecA-mediated cleavage of UmuD at its bond between Cys-24 and Gly-25 is to activate UmuD for its role in mutagenesis and that the COOH-terminal fragment of UmuD is necessary and sufficient for the role of UmuD in UV mutagenesis. Other genetic experiments are presented that (i) support the hypothesis that the primary role of Ser-60 in UmuD function is to act as a nucleophile in the RecA-mediated cleavage reaction and (ii) raise the possibility that RecA has a third role in UV mutagenesis besides mediating the cleavage of LexA and UmuD.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1988; 85(6):1816-20. DOI:10.1073/pnas.85.6.1816 · 9.67 Impact Factor