[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an effort to develop a guiding and monitoring tool for transmyocardial gene transfer, we have evaluated the feasibility of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to guide percutaneous endomyocardial gene transfer (PEGT), and monitor complications, in a pig model. ICE (5.5-10 MHz), complemented by fluoroscopy, was utilized to guide a needle injection into the heart in 19 normal pigs. Using this system, we injected Evans blue dye into eight pigs (group I), a mixture of pCK-CAT plasmid and India ink into seven pigs (group II), and pCK-LacZ plasmid into four pigs (group III). In all pigs, ICE contributed to the injection procedure by guiding the catheter to anatomically distinct sites, and by assisting stabilization of the catheter-endocardial contact. ICE predicted the injection sites correctly in 56 of 64 sites (87.5%) in group I, and in 42 of 42 sites (100%) in group II. Leakage of injectate into the left ventricular cavity could be detected by the microbubbles generated. The sites of injections appeared as foci of bright myocardial echodensity, which persisted until the end of the procedure. The procedures were not associated with significant morbidity or mortality. The expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was identified in 40 sites from 42 injections (95.2%) in group II. In group III, histology showed positive beta-galactosidase staining of myocytes limited around the needle track with low transfection efficiency (<1%). These results suggest that real-time ICE monitoring proves safe and useful during PEGT for guiding needle injection, monitoring leakage, ensuring delivery of injectate into the myocardium, and instantly diagnosing cardiac complications, resulting in successful gene transfer.
Human Gene Therapy 05/2001; 12(8):893-903. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aging process affects responsiveness and other functions of endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells, predisposing the old vessels to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) gene polymorphisms were shown to affect the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that aging may affect the association between the ecNOS gene polymorphism and AMI.
We investigated the age-related distribution of the ecNOS gene a/b polymorphism in 121 male AMI patients and 206 age-matched healthy male controls.
The aa, ab and bb genotypes were found in 1, 49 and 156 cases among the control subjects and 5, 23 and 93 cases among the AMI patients, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the ecNOS polymorphism and AMI (p = 0.045). When the correlation was analyzed by age, the significance remained only in the group below the age of 51 (p = 0.009). The proportion of smokers was increased in the young patients when compared to the old patients (p = 0.033), indicating that smoking also has greater effect on the younger population. The incidences of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, however, were similar in both populations.
Our work provides the first evidence that links ecNOS polymorphism to the risk of AMI in relation to age. Young persons who smoke or have ecNOSaa genotype may have an increased risk of developing AMI. The functional as well as structural changes associated with aging in the vascular endothelium may mask the effect of the ecNOS polymorphism in the development of AMI in old persons.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2000; 15(1):65-70.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation and activation of immune cells have important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We analyzed the plasma levels of inflammatory markers and the degree of activation of peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes isolated from 12 unstable angina, 12 stable angina, and 12 normal subjects. In 20%-33% of patients, monocytes expressed high basal levels of IL-8, tissue factor, IL-1beta, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels of these cytokines showed strong correlation with each other (p < 0.01 in all combination) but not with tumor necrosis factor-alpha or transforming growth factor-beta1. Plasma level of C-reactive protein was highest in the unstable angina patients (1.63+/-0.70 mg/l) and lowest in the control subjects (0.22+/-0.08 mg/l) (P = 0.03). We also observed a high correlation between C-reactive protein level and the occurrence of minor and major coronary events during 6 months of follow-up. Activation status of T-cells, assessed by the percentage of HLA-DR positive cells, was highest in the unstable angina patients (26.8+/-1.4%) compared with that in the control (14.7+/-1.2%) (P = 0.0053). Our data represent the first case showing that the circulating monocytes in angina patients are activated to a state express numerous proatherogenic cytokines. These results may help to diagnose angina patients according to the inflammatory markers and evaluate the prognosis of the disease.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 09/1999; 31(3):159-64. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even when DNA sequencing of purified DNA template failed under the optimal condition, it can be generally contributed to high GC content. GC-rich region of template causes a secondary structure to produce shorter readable sequence. To solve this problem, the sequencing reaction was modified by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). It was found that 5% (v/v) of DMSO in the reaction mixture recovers sequencing signal intensity with reduced frequency of ambiguous bases. When DMSO was added to sequencing reaction of DNA template with normal GC content, it did not show any adverse effect. Sequencing accuracy and unambiguous base frequency were significantly improved at concentration of 2% to 5% (v/v) DMSO in GC-rich DNA template. DMSO has been empirically introduced to enhance the efficiency of PCR in GC-rich templates. However, the underlying mechanism of improved cycle sequencing by DMSO is unknown. Thus, cycle sequencing reaction was remodified with other additives such as N-methyl imidazole, N-methyl2-pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyridone and glycerol, possessing the similar chemical properties as DMSO. Most of methyl nitrogen ring-containing chemicals did not improve sequencing accuracy, whereas only glycerol mimicked the positive effect of DMSO by the same extent. In the present study, we suggest that the treatment of DMSO improve cycle sequencing by the alteration of structural conformation of GC-rich DNA template.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 04/1999; 31(1):20-4. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from the picornavirus family has frequently been used to express multiple genes from a polycistronic message in retroviral vectors. While examining factors affecting levels of gene expression in IRES-containing retroviral vectors, it was found that retroviral vectors expressing the two genes linked by IRES, the reporter gene and the selectable marker neo, produced significantly lower levels of protein than those containing a reporter gene alone. This observation has been made with various cDNA sequences. However, when the neo was replaced with a different cDNA, the level of gene expression was increased, often to the level achieved with a vector expressing a single gene, suggesting that the bacterial neo sequence has a negative effect on expression. Analysis of the steady-state RNA levels isolated from transfected packaging cells showed that the neo-containing retroviral vectors produced significantly lower levels of RNA than those lacking this bacterial sequence indicating that neo interferes with expression of the neighboring gene at the level of RNA. Furthermore, the order of genes in the IRES-neo-containing vectors appeared to be more important than in the vector lacking the neo sequence. Our results suggest that neo has to be used in the retroviral vector with care, especially when a high level gene expression is needed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain steps from the production to infection of the amphotropic retroviral vector, MFG- LacZ, were optimized and the factors that affect retroviral titers were analyzed. Retroviral vector titers were highest when the culture supernatant was harvested 3 days after the producer cells had reached confluence. About a 2-fold increase in vector production was achieved at 32 degrees C compared to that at 37 degrees C. Low serum concentrations had no significant effect on the titers of virus produced by the CRIP cell line. Retroviral vectors were stable at 4 degrees C but very unstable at 37 degrees C and were quite sensitive to freezing and thawing. About 30%-50% of viral infectivity was lost during the thawing step and the loss was not recovered by the addition of commonly used cryoprotectants. Increase in viral exposure time for infection to target NIH3T3 cells was linearly proportional to the retroviral titer for up to 15 h. In addition, using DEAE-dextran in place of polybrene as a polycation during infection enhanced infection efficiency about 3-fold. The retrovirus was robust to simple ultrafiltration and its titer could be easily concentrated 16-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that at least a 100-fold increase in titer can be achieved with simple optimization.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/1996; 45(4):477-83. · 3.69 Impact Factor