[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid blockade with local anesthetics induces respiratory depression. Although the addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine has become popular in subarachnoid blockade for Cesarean section, there is no information on the effect of intrathecal fentanyl on maternal spirometric respiratory function in parturients undergoing Cesarean section.
We tested the effect of the addition of intrathecal fentanyl to hyperbaric bupivacaine on maternal spirometric performance in 40 consenting parturients undergoing Cesarean section. The parturients were randomized into two groups: those receiving 2.0 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and 0.4 ml of saline intrathecally and those receiving 2.0 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.4 ml of fentanyl (20 microg) intrathecally. We performed spirometry on arriving at the operation room and 15 min after subarachnoid blockade.
Subarachnoid blockade with bupivacaine significantly decreased the peak expiratory flow rate, but did not induce significant changes in vital capacity and forced vital capacity. The addition of intrathecal fentanyl to bupivacaine improved the quality of subarachnoid blockade, but did not lead to a deterioration in respiratory function compared with intrathecal bupivacaine alone.
The addition of intrathecal fentanyl to hyperbaric bupivacaine did not lead to a deterioration in maternal spirometric respiratory function in parturients undergoing Cesarean section.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged and excessive inflation of pneumatic tourniquets leads to a hyperdynamic circulatory response. Sympathomimetic activity is an important factor in tourniquet-induced hypertension. Stellate ganglion block specifically blunts sympathetic efferent nerves and prevents hypertension induced by sympathomimetic stimulation. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of stellate ganglion block (SGB) on arterial pressure and heart rate during prolonged tourniquet use under general anesthesia.
Twenty patients scheduled for knee arthroscopy were either treated with 10 ml of 1% lidocaine for SGB (SGB group; n = 10), or intramuscular injection (IM group; n = 10) before tourniquet inflation. Comparisons of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were made before and after the induction of anesthesia, 10 min after the lidocaine treatment, every 5 min during the first 60 min after tourniquet inflation, and immediately before and 5 min following deflation. The maximum values of the circulatory variables were compared.
Tourniquet inflation caused increases in the circulatory variables in both groups. Systolic arterial pressure in the SGB group was significantly lower than that in the IM group after 55 min of tourniquet inflation. Diastolic arterial pressure also was significantly lower in the SGB group immediately before the deflation. The maximum values of the three hemodynamic variables were significantly lower in the SGB group. Arterial pressure significantly decreased after tourniquet deflation in the IM group.
Ipsilateral SGB attenuated the hyperdynamic response mediated by prolonged tourniquet inflation during knee arthroscopy.