[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether: (1) lysozyme supplementation would influence coat quality
in dog and (2) coat quality improvement would be related withh aematological parameters, fur composition and
faecal quality. Eight dogs were divided into two groups and fed a diet supplemented with 0.2% lysozyme. Blood
samples were analysed for haematological and haematochemical parameters. Coat quality was assessed using
near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) and through a three-point scoring system. Fur copper and zinc concentrations
were analysed. Faeces were scored using a five-point scale, and faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids was
analysed. Coat quality changed significantly with lysozyme treatment as assessed by NIRS analysis and was
improved according to a three-point visual scale. Plasma total protein, creatinine, blood urea and plasma chloride
were lower after a two-month lysozyme dietary supplementation period. Faecal valerate was higher after the
supplementation period. Lysozyme supplementation would lead to an improvement of coat quality, which could
be related to modification of gut microflora in dogs.
Journal of Applied Animal Research 05/2013; 41. · 0.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of supplementation with sodium salt of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG-Na) on apparent digestibility (AD) in broiler chickens fed low- and high-fat diets. Twenty-eight 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed one of the dietary treatments: a low-fat diet (LF) or a high-fat diet (HF) supplemented with or without 1,000 mg/kg of DMG-Na. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded at 14 and 35 d of age. Average daily growth, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The AD of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, total fat (TF), and α-tocopheryl-acetate were assessed by 2 digestibility trials (at 18-21 and 32-35 d, respectively). Serum protein and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were assessed at 35 d of age. Final BW, feed intake, carcass, breast, and spleen weight were higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P = 0.048, P = 0.002, P = 0.039, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively). Liver weight was increased in DMG-Na-unsupplemented groups (P = 0.011) for both fat levels. During the first digestibility trial (18-21 d), the AD of DM (P = 0.023), OM (P = 0.033), CP (P = 0.030), and α-tocopheryl-acetate (P = 0.036) was higher in the DMG-Na-supplemented group than control. Digestibility of total fat was increased by DMG-Na supplementation in the LF groups (P = 0.038). A trend for improvement of digestibility was observed during the second digestibility trial (32-35 d) for DM (P = 0.089), OM (P = 0.051), and CP (P = 0.063) in DMG-Na groups. Total serum proteins (and relative fractions) were positively influenced by DMG-Na supplementation both in LF and HF diets (P = 0.029). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration was higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P < 0.001).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.039, P = 0.003, and P = 0.012, respectively). Greater concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, and valerate were found in the feces of dogs fed HP compared with LP diets (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.012, respectively). The concentrations of ammonia, valerate, phenol, and indole in feces of large sensitive dogs were greater (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.019, respectively) compared with the other groups. The Enterococcus populations were greater in feces of dogs fed with PMHP rather than WGLP diets (P = 0.006). Urinary phenol and indole excretion was greater when dogs were fed PM than WG diets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively) and HP than LP diets (P = 0.001 and P = 0.087, respectively). Large sensitive dogs were prone to excrete a greater quantity of phenol in urine (P < 0.001). A diet formulated with highly digestible protein, such as WG, led to reduced concentrations of protein-based fermentation products in feces together with improved fecal quality in dogs, especially in large sensitive ones. Poor fecal quality in large sensitive dogs could be partly related to the pattern of protein fermentation in the hindgut.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2012; 90(8):2570-80. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When fed the same diet, large-breed dogs tend to produce feces of poorer quality compared with small-breed dogs. Moreover, German shepherds, although having a BW similar to Giant Schnauzers, are particularly prone to digestive intolerance, producing feces of poor consistency and increased moisture. Digestive tolerance reflects the reaction of the animal to the diet, and it can be assessed by determining fecal quality (consistency, moisture, volume, odor, and color). This study was conducted to assess the effect of protein source and content on fecal quality, and to determine whether greater digestibility and lesser fecal osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations are associated with improved fecal quality in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance. Twenty-seven healthy female dogs were divided into 4 groups according to BW and digestive tolerance: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five diets, varying in protein source (wheat gluten, poultry meal, and a 50:50 mixture of both sources) and concentration (22, 29, and 39% CP on a DM basis for low, medium, and high, respectively) were tested. The present study was divided in 2 phases: 2 diets were studied in a crossover design in phase I, and 3 diets were studied in a Latin square design in phase II. Diets were fed for 14 d, followed by a 12-d transition period. Fecal score (1 = dry and hard feces, to 5 = liquid diarrhea), moisture, electrolytes (Na and K), and osmolarity, and digestibility of DM, energy, fat, CP, and ash were determined. Fecal score and moisture (P < 0.001) were less and overall digestibility (P < 0.001 for DM, CP, fat, ash, and energy) was greater for wheat gluten than for poultry meal diets. Large dogs had the greatest fecal score and moisture (P < 0.001), together with the greatest overall digestibility (P < 0.001 for DM, P = 0.054 for CP, P = 0.005 for ash, and P = 0.003 for energy). Osmolarity was less for wheat gluten-based diets (P < 0.001), and was not affected by dog size. Fecal electrolyte concentration varied mainly with dog group (P = 0.005 for Na, and P < 0.001 for K), being greater in large sensitive dogs compared with small dogs. Wheat gluten was proved to be a suitable protein source for modulating fecal quality in dogs, particularly in sensitive breeds. Poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs can be related to greater digestibility and greater fecal electrolyte concentrations, but not to fecal osmolarity.
Journal of Animal Science 10/2009; 88(1):159-69. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fed the same dry diet, large dogs show poorer fecal quality than small ones. A high colonic permeability could explain a low water and electrolyte net balance leading to high fecal water content. This experiment was conducted to evaluate colonic permeability in dogs varying in body size and to determine whether colonic permeability is related to fecal sodium concentration and fecal quality. Four breeds of dogs were used: six Miniature Poodles (MP), six Standard Schnauzers (SS), six Giant Schnauzers (GS) and six Great Danes (GD). Colonic permeability was evaluated using the ratio of urinary lactulose to sucralose (L:S) after oral administration. Fecal sodium concentration was measured by flame photometry. The urinary L:S ratio was significantly lower in GD, indicating a higher colonic permeability, than in the three other breeds (0.35 ± 0.12 for GD and 0.51 ± 0.05 for MP). GD also presented the higher fecal sodium concentrations and the poorest fecal quality. The higher fecal sodium concentration observed in GD could be explained by the higher colonic permeability and both these variables could be important explanations for higher fecal moisture in large dogs.