J A Schulman

Louisiana State University in Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (29)46 Total impact

  • G A Peyman, J A Schulman, M.R. Neisman
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    ABSTRACT: Summary form only received as follows: The phagocytic uptake of several liposome compositions by human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture was examined. The endocytic uptake of different Iiposome preparations was quantitatively measured for RPE, RAW 264.7 and rabbit dermal fibroblasts. RAW 264.7 is a transformed macrophagic murine cell line used as a positive control while rabbit dermal fibrocytes are a cell line developed for in vivo animal models of PVR. Measurement of the internalization of a non-degradable radiolabeled cholesterol analog incorporated in the liposome bilayer was used to quantify the uptake of liposomes. Fluorescence microscopy was used to confirm the internalization of the vesicles. The composition of liposomes most avidly ingested by RPE most closely resembled shed rod outer segments (ROS). The most actively phagocytized liposomes like the ROS plasma membrane contained phosphatidylserine and lacked cholesterol. Additionally, a greater uptake of the large multiluminar vesicles ranging in size from 0.20 μm to 2 μm compared to smaller vesicles extruded through a 0.22 μm filter demonstrated liposomal size influenced the uptake process. The larger vesicles were closer in size to naturally occurring ROS. Uptake by RPE was significantly lower than observed with RAW 264.7 cells, but greater than exhibited by rabbit dermal fibroblasts. These findings appear to have important implications regarding the use of liposomes as drug carriers for the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and the study of phagocytosis by RPE
    Biomedical Engineering Conference, 1995., Proceedings of the 1995 Fourteenth Southern; 05/1995
  • G A Peyman, J A Schulman, B Sullivan
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorocarbon liquids have been used to facilitate surgery in a wide variety of conditions, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy, giant retinal tears, drainage of suprachoroidal hemorrhages, diabetic traction, retinal detachments with a rhegmatogenous component, dislocated crystalline or intraocular lenses, and retinal detachment associated with choroidal coloboma. The clarity of perfluorocarbon liquids, with a refractive index close to that of water, allows the use of a conventional contact lens for vitreous surgery while the low viscosity facilitates tissue manipulation, injection, and removal. All perfluorocarbon liquids when used as tamponading agents can compress and disorganize the retina. This "toxicity" is a physical effect rather than chemical toxicity and depends upon the amount of perfluorocarbon liquid injected. Perfluorocarbon liquids are not tolerated in the anterior chamber, causing corneal edema within 2-3 days at the site of contact.
    Survey of Ophthalmology 01/1995; 39(5):375-95. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Giant retinal tears in 10 eyes were repaired with the perfluorocarbon liquid Vitreon (perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene). The mean patient follow-up period was 9.2 months; retinas remained attached in all eyes at the last examination. Visual acuity improved in 9 eyes and could not be measured in one eye. One patient (mentally retarded) required a second operation for reattachment of the retina, which redetached from trauma after initial successful repair. Vitreon, unlike other perfluorocarbon liquids, may also be used as a short-term intraocular tamponade with the patient remaining in a supine position postoperatively. Vitreon was used as a short-term postoperative intraocular tamponade in 6 eyes. In 4 eyes, Vitreon was used as an intraoperative tool to reposition the retina and, when necessary, to unfold an inverted flap.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 02/1993; 37(1):70-7. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Joel A. Schulman, Gholam A. Peyman
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    ABSTRACT: The use of intravitreal corticosteroids in the management of endophthalmitis remains controversial. Several clinical and experimental reports are reviewed that suggest that intravitreal corticosteroid therapy, when used in conjunction with antibiotics with and without vitrectomy, reduces the intraocular inflammatory process and secondary complications associated with microbial endophthalmitis.
    Retina 02/1992; 12(4):336-40. · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • J A Schulman, G A Peyman, J Dietlein, R Fiscella
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated itraconazole, a new triazole antifungal agent that poorly penetrates ocular tissues after oral administration. We injected itraconazole in doses from 10 to 100 micrograms dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide into the eyes of New Zealand rabbits. Ocular toxicity studies performed five weeks after administration showed no substantial retinal or histopathologic changes in eyes injected with either 100% dimethyl sulfoxide or 10 micrograms of itraconazole. Higher doses caused focal areas of retinal necrosis. Our results indicated that intravitreal doses of 10 micrograms or less of itraconazole may be beneficial in the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis.
    International Ophthalmology 02/1991; 15(1):21-4.
  • Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 07/1990; 1(4):389-395. · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Joel A. Schulman, Gholam Peyman, Marion Coats
    Reviews of infectious diseases 03/1990; 12.
  • J A Schulman, G A Peyman
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    ABSTRACT: We present a rare case of gummatous syphilitic iridocyclitis. The differential diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and treatment of this ocular disease are discussed.
    Annals of ophthalmology 10/1989; 21(9):333-6. · 0.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Terconazole, a new triazole antifungal agent, was injected intravitreally in doses ranging from 10 to 100 micrograms dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 60% into the eyes of New Zealand rabbits. Three control eyes received only DMSO. The eyes were evaluated with biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, and histopathologic examination. From these data, it was determined that an intravitreal injection containing a concentration of 10 micrograms/0.1 mL of terconazole is not toxic to the rabbit eye.
    Annals of ophthalmology 10/1989; 21(9):345-7. · 0.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxiconazole, a new imidazole derivative, has a broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and in vivo. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were injected intravitreally with doses ranging from 10 to 100 micrograms of this drug. Eyes were evaluated with preoperative and postoperative biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, and light microscopy. From these data, it was determined that an intravitreal injection containing a concentration of up to 100 micrograms per 0.1 milliliter of oxiconazole was nontoxic to the rabbit eye.
    International Ophthalmology 06/1989; 13(3):201-3.
  • G A Peyman, J A Schulman
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of many ocular disorders is hampered because of poor penetration of systemically administered drugs into the eye. The tight junctional complexes (zonulae occludens) of the retinal pigment epithelium and retinal capillaries are the site of the blood-ocular barrier. This barrier inhibits penetration of substances, including antibiotics, into the vitreous. Over the last 18 years we have evaluated the nontoxic doses of various drugs. These include antibiotics and antifungals for treatment of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis, antivirals for treatment of viral retinitis (specifically, when medication with these drugs poses the threat of toxicity to other organs). Intravitreal antineoplastic drugs have been studied to prevent cell proliferation in the vitreous cavity after retinal attachment surgery, which can lead to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory action of dexamethasone and cyclosporine A to reduce intraocular inflammation after intraocular surgery or in uveitis. Because these studies had been performed in the presence of the vitreous, which can slow down the diffusion of the drugs toward the retina, it was necessary to reevaluate the concentration of drugs which could be administered intravitreally in the vitrectomized eye. The nontoxic dose of numerous drugs when added to vitrectomy infusion fluid has also been evaluated. Furthermore, the role of vitrectomy in the treatment of bacterial fungal endophthalmitis has been studied and the role of vitrectomy in this ocular disorder is defined.
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 02/1989; 33(4):392-404. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New Zealand albino rabbits were given intravitreal injections of liposome-encapsulated ganciclovir and trifluridine. Preoperatively and postoperatively, the eyes were evaluated by indirect ophthalmoscopy at different time intervals up to 14 days after injection. At intervals up to 14 days postinjection, the animals were sacrificed, the eyes enucleated, vitreous antiviral levels determined in one group of eyes, and histopathological examination conducted in the other group. The results of this study demonstrated prolonged intravitreal drug levels above the mean inhibitory dose for many strains of virus belonging to the herpes simplex virus family. No evidence of gross retinal toxicity was found by clinical or light microscopic examination of the treated eyes.
    Retina 02/1989; 9(3):232-6. · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • J A Schulman, G A Peyman
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and herpes zoster are responsible for the majority of cases of viral retinitis. Herpes zoster also has been strongly incriminated as a causal agent in acute retinal necrosis. Effective chemotherapy exists for retinitis caused by herpes simplex and herpes zoster, along with acute retinal necrosis. Conventional antiviral therapy and immunomodulators are ineffective in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency disorder. Ganciclovir, a new antiviral agent, has significantly reduced visual morbidity in these patients. Recurrence of the infection is not uncommon while patients are on the drug or when the agent is discontinued, because ganciclovir is virostatic and does not stop viral replication in the retina. The inability to control this viral retinitis using presently available chemotherapy indicates a need to examine other therapeutic modalities.
    Ophthalmic surgery 01/1989; 19(12):876-84.
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    ABSTRACT: A 33-year-old man was treated with systemic steroids for a retinal inflammatory lesion before the diagnosis of cryptococcal retinitis and meningitis was suspected. He died from central nervous system disease despite treatment with parenteral antifungals. Histopathological studies demonstrated ocular and disseminated systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. Direct cryptococcal involvement of the eye is rare and is usually associated with disseminated disease. Systemic steroids must be used with caution, and patients who take these drugs require frequent monitoring.
    British Journal of Ophthalmology 04/1988; 72(3):171-5. · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • S C She, Gholam A. Peyman, Joel A. Schulman
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    ABSTRACT: Foscarnet (sodium phosphonoformate) is an antiviral with a high degree of efficacy against members of the herpes simplex virus family. We studied the toxicity of single doses of intravitreally administered foscarnet in the albino rabbit. Eyes were evaluated clinically and by light microscopy. Data demonstrated that doses ranging from 20 to 1000 micrograms per 0.1 milliliter are nontoxic to the retina, suggesting that foscarnet may be useful in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
    International Ophthalmology 02/1988; 12(2):151-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Fluconazole is a new bis-triazole derivative proven highly effective against Candida in various animal models. To determine its potential use in exogenous fungal endophthalmitis, 13 New Zealand white rabbits were given intravitreal injections of up to 100 micrograms/0.1 mL of the antifungal. All eyes underwent biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and electroretinography before and after the procedure. No evidence of toxic intraocular effects was detected with these techniques or on light microscopy, performed 8 days after injection. The results suggest that fluconazole has potential application in the treatment of exogenous fungal endophthalmitis.
    Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 11/1987; 22(6):304-6. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • G A Peyman, J Schulman, M Raichand
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty-five patients underwent eye wall biopsy (11) or eye wall resection (44). Eye wall resection was performed for suspected melanoma in 42 cases and large von Hippel angiomas in an additional two patients. Two of the 35 individuals with choroidal melanoma died, representing a 5.7% mortality rate over a mean follow-up period of more than five years. Visual acuity, ocular morbidity, and tumor-associated deaths in this series are compared with results using other treatment modalities for choroidal melanoma.
    Ophthalmic surgery 05/1987; 18(4):310-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Five patients received a subconjunctival injection (25 mg) of acyclovir before undergoing scheduled enucleation. Seven hours after injection, the observed aqueous and vitreous levels of acyclovir were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations for many herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2. Systemic absorption measured at two and seven hours after injection was negligible.
    Ophthalmic surgery 03/1987; 18(2):111-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors determined the intravitreal clearance of liposome-encapsulated ganciclovir. Liposome-encapsulated ganciclovir (84.1 micrograms/0.1 ml) was injected into the vitreous cavity of New Zealand rabbits, which were killed at 24 hours and 7, 14, and 28 days after injection. Total ganciclovir concentrations in the vitreous, up to 28 days, were higher than ID50 (50% inhibitory dose) for different clinical and laboratory strains of viruses belonging to the herpes simplex family.
    Retina 02/1987; 7(4):227-9. · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • G A Peyman, M Raichand, J Schulman
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical techniques of iridocyclectomy, iridochoroidectomy, eye wall resection, eye wall biopsy, and ab interno retinochoridectomy are described. Surgical approaches to uveal neoplasms offer a new alternative for management of these disorders. Uveal and retinal biopsy expand our knowledge of pathological processes involved in tapetoretinal degeneration and uveitides. Additionally, both eye wall biopsy and resection provide tissue to confirm tumor diagnosis and malignancy.
    Ophthalmic surgery 01/1987; 17(12):822-9.

Publication Stats

334 Citations
46.00 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–1995
    • Louisiana State University in Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      • • Eye Center
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1987–1988
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 1985
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States