[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified a novel type of FasL mutation in two patients causing a severe phenotype of ALPS.•A frameshift in the intracytoplasmic domain of FasL led to abrogation of protein expression and deficient FasL mediated reverse signaling.•Our data suggest a contribution of FasL reverse signaling to the clinical phenotype of ALPS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. BBGD typically causes (sub)acute episodes with encephalopathy and subsequent neurological deterioration. If untreated, the clinical course may be fatal. Our report on a 6-year-old child with BBGD highlights that the disease is a crucial differential diagnosis of Leigh syndrome. Therefore, biotin and thiamine treatment is recommended for any patient with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions and neurological symptoms until BBGD is excluded. In addition, we exemplify that deformation-field-based morphometry of brain magnetic resonance images constitutes a novel quantitative tool, which might be very useful to monitor disease course and therapeutic effects in neurometabolic disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic assessment of osteoarthritis in children and adolescents is difficult. Here, we report the sixth family with a COL2A1 mutation R275C. The index patient, her mother and her three brothers had severe coxarthrosis, in some cases requiring surgery. Only the mother was hard of hearing, and only her children had brachydactyly of the fourth digit. The index patient suffered a femoral neck fracture after minor trauma at a time when osteoarthritis was not yet radiologically detectable. Hip fracture or osteoarthritis of unclear origin in childhood should prompt genetic work-up for the purposes of correct classification and genetic counseling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At age 8 months, an infant girl displayed rapid developmental regression. Family history, birth, and initial development were unremarkable. After hospital admission, cerebral MRI showed bilateral cystic lesions in the centrum semiovale. Follow-up imaging after 3 months demonstrated a dramatic progression in these alterations with demyelination of the supratentorial white matter (figure). Biochemical and genetic analyses confirmed isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency due to an NDUFS1 mutation (encoding NADH-dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 1; see also reference (1), patient 1). Of note, leukoencephalopathy is uncommon in mitochondrial complex I mutations but may be a feature of NDUFS1 defects.(2.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the survival of children and adolescents with malignant germ-cell tumours has improved greatly in recent years, the outcome remains poor for those with refractory or recurrent malignant germ-cell tumours. We aimed to determine whether objective tumour response could be achieved in patients with refractory or recurrent malignant germ-cell tumours with PEI-regional deep hyperthermia as salvage treatment.
METHODS: Patients with refractory or recurrent non-testicular malignant germ-cell tumours after standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy were treated prospectively with PEI chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m2, delivered intravenously on days 1 and 4; etoposide 100 mg/m2, intravenously on days 1-4; and ifosfamide 1800 mg/m2, intravenously on days 1-4) plus simultaneous 1-h regional deep hyperthermia (41-43°C) on days 1 and 4. Patients received three to four treatment courses at 21-day intervals until residual tumour resection was possible; they subsequently received one or two additional courses of PEI-regional deep hyperthermia. Local radiotherapy was given for incompletely resected tumours. Chemotherapy and hyperthermia toxic effects were assessed using WHO grading. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who had an objective response as assessed with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0 guidelines. Secondary endpoints were the event-free survival and overall survival after 5 years. This ongoing PEI-regional deep hyperthermia study (Hyper-PEI protocol) is registered at the German Cancer Society, number 50-2732.
FINDINGS: 44 patients aged 7 months to 21 years (median 2 years 7 months) with refractory or recurrent malignant germ-cell tumours (nine patients with poor response, 23 patients with first relapse, 12 patients with multiple relapses) were included in this study. We identified 34 yolk sac tumours, eight embryonal carcinomas, one choriocarcinoma, and one dysgerminoma by histology analysis. Of the 35 patients who had sufficient clinical and radiographical data available for response assessment, 30 (86%) had an objective response to treatment (16 patients had complete remission and 14 had partial remission). 5-year event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 45-75), and 5-year overall survival was 72% (95% CI 55-83). The median follow-up of surviving patients was 82 months (range 9-195). WHO grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in all 181 chemotherapy cycles. Granulocytopenic fever, which required intercurrent hospital admission, was noted in 29 (66%) of 44 patients after 53 (29%) of 181 courses. Five patients experienced treatment-related grade-3 acute renal toxic effects.
INTERPRETATION: A multimodal strategy integrating PEI-regional deep hyperthermia and tumour resection with or without radiation can successfully treat children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent malignant non-testicular germ-cell tumours. The long-term prognosis of patients with poor response or after first relapse was almost similar to those receiving first-line treatment. This strategy merits further investigation.
FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe eV, Bonn, Elterninitiative Kinderkrebsklinik Düsseldorf eV, the Barbara and Hubertus-Trettnerstiftung, and the Marie Quendt Fund.
The Lancet Oncology 06/2013; · 24.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leigh syndrome is a devastating neurodegenerative disease, typically manifesting in infancy or early childhood. However, also late-onset cases have been reported. Since its first description by Denis Archibald Leigh in 1951, it has evolved from a postmortem diagnosis, strictly defined by histopathological observations, to a clinical entity with indicative laboratory and radiological findings. Hallmarks of the disease are symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia or brain stem on MRI, and a clinical course with rapid deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. Examinations of fresh muscle tissue or cultured fibroblasts are important tools to establish a biochemical and genetic diagnosis. Numerous causative mutations in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, encoding components of the oxidative phosphorylation system have been described in the past years. Moreover, dysfunctions in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex or coenzyme Q10 metabolism may be associated with Leigh syndrome. To date, there is no cure for affected patients, and treatment options are mostly unsatisfactory. Here, we review the most important clinical aspects of Leigh syndrome, and discuss diagnostic steps as well as treatment options.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To get insight into the nature of magnetic resonance (MR) white matter abnormalities of patients with classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) under diet control. METHODS: Ten patients with classic MSUD and one with a severe MSUD variant (mean age 21.5 ± 5.1 years) on diet and 11 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled. Apart from standard MR sequences, diffusion weighted images (DWI), diffusion tensor images (DTI), and magnetization transfer images (MT) were obtained and comparatively analyzed for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) and MT maps in 11 regions of interest (ROI) within the white matter. RESULTS: In MSUD patients DWI, DTI and FA showed distinct signal changes in the cerebral hemispheres, the dorsal limb of internal capsule, the brain stem and the central cerebellum. Signal intensity was increased in DWI with a reduced ADC and decreased values for FA. MT did not reveal differences between patients and control subjects. CONCLUSION: Signal abnormalities in the white matter of adolescents and young adults under diet control may be interpreted as consequence of structural alterations like dysmyelination. The reduced ADC and FA in the white matter with preserved MT indicate a reduction in fiber tracks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L’évaluation diagnostique de l’arthrose chez les enfants et les adolescents est difficile. Nous rapportons la sixième famille atteinte d’une mutation R275 C du gène COL2A1. L’enfant décrit ici, sa maman et ses trois frères avaient une coxarthrose sévère, ayant nécessité dans certains cas un remplacement prothétique. Seule la maman avait une hypoacousie, et seuls les enfants avaient une brachydactylie du quatrième orteil. Notre patiente avait souffert d’une fracture du col fémoral suite à un traumatisme minime alors que l’arthrose n’était pas encore détectable sur les radiographies. La fracture de hanche ou l’arthrose d’origine indéterminée chez l’enfant doivent motiver une étude génétique afin de classer la pathologie et guider le conseil génétique.