[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered expression and methylation pattern of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes, in particular involved in mismatch repair (MMR) pathway, frequently occur in primary colorectal (CRC) tumors. However, little is known about (epi)genetic changes of these genes in precancerous and early stages of CRC. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze expression profile and promoter methylation status of important tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes in the early stages of experimentally induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Rats were treated with azoxymethane (AOM), dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or with their combination, and sacrificed 1 or 4 months post-treatment period. The down-regulation of Apc expression in left colon, detectable in animals treated with DSS-AOM and sacrificed 1 month after the end of treatment, represents most early marker of the experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Significantly reduced gene expressions were also found in 5 out of 7 studied MMR genes (Mlh1, Mlh3, Msh3 Pms1, Pms2), regarding the sequential administration of DSS-AOM at 4 months since the treatment. Strong down-regulation was also discovered for Apc, Apex1, Mgmt and TP53. Tumors developed in rectum-sigmoid region displayed significantly lower Apc and Pms2 expressions. The decreased expression of studied genes was not in any case associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region. Present data suggest that down-regulation of Apc and MMR genes are prerequisite for the development of CRC. In this study we addressed for the first time early functional alterations of tumor suppressor genes with underlying epigenetic mechanisms in experimentally induced CRC in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunocompatibility of gelatin-based hydrogels to be applied as implant coatings for local regenerative treatment has been studied. First, the bio- and immunoacceptability of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin hydrogels per se was screened. The results indicated that the hydrogels support cell growth. Metabolic activity of normal cells and permanent cell lines representing various cell types (endothelial, epithelial, fibroblast, monocyte/macrophage) cultivated on the gelatin hydrogels was moderately lower compared to cells cultivated on tissue culture plastic. The cells cultivated on the hydrogels produced identical cytokines as the control cells although at lower levels. Importantly, no inflammatory activity, measured by nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1α, IL-6, TNFα) production, was observed in peritoneal cells and monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line cultivated on the hydrogels. Finally, polyimide (PI) implantable membranes were surface-modified with gelatin hydrogels and screened for their in vivo immunocompatibility. Their histological examination performed after subcutaneous implantation in mice produced a sound proof of immunoacceptability. Normal tissue repair, mild cellular infiltration and oedema mainly induced by the surgery were observed after 2 and 6 days. No adverse tissue responses were induced by the implants. Analysis performed after 4 and 9 weeks indicated areas of foreign body granuloma without formation of a fibrous capsule.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 07/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Microbial sensing by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and its negative regulation have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of negative regulation of Toll-like receptors signaling and gut microbiota in the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model. METHODS:: Colitis-associated cancer was induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate in wild-type and in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M)-deficient mice with or without antibiotic (ATB) treatment. Local cytokine production was analyzed by multiplex cytokine assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Changes in microbiota composition during tumorigenesis were analyzed by pyrosequencing, and β-glucuronidase activity was measured in intestinal content by fluorescence assay. RESULTS:: ATB treatment of wild-type mice reduced the incidence and severity of tumors. Compared with nontreated mice, ATB-treated mice had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T cells in colon, altered gut microbiota composition, and decreased β-glucuronidase activity. However, the β-glucuronidase activity was not as low as in germ-free mice. IRAK-M-deficient mice not only developed invasive tumors, but ATB-induced decrease in β-glucuronidase activity did not rescue them from severe carcinogenesis phenotype. Furthermore, IRAK-M-deficient mice had significantly increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the tumor tissue. CONCLUSIONS:: We conclude that gut microbiota promotes tumorigenesis by increasing the exposure of gut epithelium to carcinogens and that IRAK-M-negative regulation is essential for colon cancer resistance even in conditions of altered microbiota. Therefore, gut microbiota and its metabolic activity could be potential targets for colitis-associated cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Human colostrum and milk provide a newborn with immunomodulatory components, ensuring protection and proper development of the immune system. Secretory IgA antibodies in colostrum represent the first line of defence against harmful substances, but their potential spectra of reactivity with autoantigens remains unclear. Here, we characterised the repertoire of natural sectretory IgA autoantibodies in colostrum of healthy mothers. METHODS: The human colostrum samples from 39 healthy mothers were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence, dot blots, immunoblots and ELISA. RESULTS: We found that there is high diversity in reactivities of colostral IgA antibodies to autoantigens among individual samples. Using tissue sections and biochips commonly used for autoimmunity testing, we found that most samples reacted with monkey ovary (79.3 %), monkey pancreatic tissue (78.6 %), human HEp-2 cells (69 %) and monkey adrenal gland (69.0 %), fewer samples reacted with monkey liver tissue (47.2 %), rat stomach (42.9 %), monkey testicular tissue (41.4 %), monkey salivary gland (39.3 %), rat kidney (32.1 %) and monkey cerebellar tissue (17.9 %). At the protein level, we detected reactivity of IgA with 21 out of 25 (auto) antigens. The majority of the samples reacted with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, E3 ubiquitin ligase, cytosolic liver antigen, promyelocytic leukemia protein and nuclear pore glycoprotein-210. Using ELISA, we found reactivity of colostral IgA antibodies against examined extractable nuclear antigens, double stranded DNA, phospholipids and neutrophil cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: The broad spectrum of polyreactive natural autoantibodies present in human colostrum may contribute to proper development of mucosal immune system of the breastfed infant.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 07/2012; · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subretinal implants aim to replace the photoreceptor function in patients suffering from degenerative retinal disease by topically applying electrical stimuli in the subretinal space. Critical obstacles in the design of high-resolution subretinal implants include the proximity of stimulating electrodes to the target cells and enabling nutrient flow between the retina and the choroid. The present work evaluates the adhesion, migration and survival of retinal cells on an ultrathin (5 μm), highly porous (Ø 1 μm spaced 3 μm), gelatin-coated polyimide (PI) membrane. The biocompatibility was examined in mice indicating a good tolerance upon subcutaneous implantation with only a mild inflammatory response. In addition, organotypic cultures of rat retina evidenced that the porous membrane allowed the necessary nutrient flow for the retinal cell survival and maintenance. A transscleral implantation technique was applied to position the membrane into the subretinal space of rats. The effect on the obtained retinal integration was investigated in vivo using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). In 12 out of 18 rat eyes, the implant was successfully placed subretinally. SLO and OCT demonstrated complete retinal attachment and fluorescein angiography showed no retinal vascular abnormalities over and around the implant, immediately after and up to four weeks after the implantation. Histological examination of the eyes showed a close attachment of a thin fibrocyte layer to the implant, the occlusion of the pores by living cells and the survival of some photoreceptors at the implantation site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria). The effects of the germ-free state or the effects of colonization on disease initiation and maintenance can be observed in these models. Using this approach we demonstrated direct involvement of components of the microbiota in chronic intestinal inflammation and development of colonic neoplasia (i.e., using models of human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma). In contrast, a protective effect of microbiota colonization was demonstrated for the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Interestingly, the development of atherosclerosis in germ-free apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice fed by a standard low-cholesterol diet is accelerated compared with conventionally reared animals. Mucosal induction of tolerance to allergen Bet v1 was not influenced by the presence or absence of microbiota. Identification of components of the microbiota and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of their action in inducing pathological changes or exerting beneficial, disease-protective activities could aid in our ability to influence the composition of the microbiota and to find bacterial strains and components (e.g., probiotics and prebiotics) whose administration may aid in disease prevention and treatment.Keywords: allergy; hygiene hypothesis; intestinal permeability; leaky gut; probiotics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral thiopurines are effective and widely used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans, although their use is limited due the development of adverse events. Here, we examine the efficacy and toxicity of oral treatment with 6-tioguanine (6-TG) and azathioprine (AZA) in a murine model of IBD.
We induced acute or chronic colitis in BALB/c mice by one or four cycles of 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS), respectively. Mice were treated by daily gavages of various dosages of 6-tioguanine, azathioprine, or by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) starting the first day of DSS or after two cycles of DSS, respectively. We monitored the efficacy and toxicity by measuring the weight change and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and by disease severity and histology, at the end of the experiment. Moreover, we measured cytokine production after colon fragment cultivation by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and numbers of apoptotic cells in the spleen by flow cytometry.
6-TG is effective in the treatment of acute DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner and 40 μg of 6-TG is significantly more effective in the treatment of acute colitis than both AZA and PBS. This effect is accompanied by decrease of IL-6 and IFN-γ production in colon. We did not observe histological abnormalities in liver samples from control (PBS) or 6-TG treated mice. However, liver samples from most mice treated with AZA showed mild, yet distinct signs of hepatotoxicity. In chronic colitis, all thiopurine derivatives improved colitis, 20 μg of 6-TG per dose was superior. High doses of 6-TG led to significant weight loss at the end of the therapy, but none of the thiopurine derivatives increased levels of serum ALT. Both thiopurine derivatives reduced the proportion of apoptotic T helper cells, but a high production of both IL-6 and TGF-β was observed only in colon of AZA-treated mice.
Use of 6-TG in the treatment of experimental colitis in mice appears superior to AZA administration and placebo. In contrast to 6-TG, the use of AZA resulted in histological liver abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metagenomic approaches are currently being used to decipher the genome of the microbiota (microbiome), and, in parallel, functional studies are being performed to analyze the effects of the microbiota on the host. Gnotobiological methods are an indispensable tool for studying the consequences of bacterial colonization. Animals used as models of human diseases can be maintained in sterile conditions (isolators used for germ-free rearing) and specifically colonized with defined microbes (including non-cultivable commensal bacteria). The effects of the germ-free state or the effects of colonization on disease initiation and maintenance can be observed in these models. Using this approach we demonstrated direct involvement of components of the microbiota in chronic intestinal inflammation and development of colonic neoplasia (i.e., using models of human inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma). In contrast, a protective effect of microbiota colonization was demonstrated for the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Interestingly, the development of atherosclerosis in germ-free apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice fed by a standard low-cholesterol diet is accelerated compared with conventionally reared animals. Mucosal induction of tolerance to allergen Bet v1 was not influenced by the presence or absence of microbiota. Identification of components of the microbiota and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of their action in inducing pathological changes or exerting beneficial, disease-protective activities could aid in our ability to influence the composition of the microbiota and to find bacterial strains and components (e.g., probiotics and prebiotics) whose administration may aid in disease prevention and treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotic bacteria can be used for the prevention and treatment of human inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the nature of active components and exact mechanisms of this beneficial effects have not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate if lysate of probiotic bacterium L. casei DN-114 001 (Lc) could decrease the severity of intestinal inflammation in a murine model of IBD.
The preventive effect of oral administration of Lc significantly reduces the severity of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in BALB/c but not in SCID mice. In order to analyze how this beneficial effect interferes with well-known phases of intestinal inflammation pathogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we evaluated intestinal permeability using the FITC-labeled dextran method and analysed tight junction proteins expression by immunofluorescence and PCR. We also measured CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells proportion by FACS analysis, microbiota composition by pyrosequencing, and local cytokine production by ELISA. Lc leads to a significant protection against increased intestinal permeability and barrier dysfunction shown by preserved ZO-1 expression. We found that the Lc treatment increases the numbers of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in Peyer's patches and large intestine, and changes the gut microbiota composition. Moreover, Lc treatment prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α expression in RAW 264.7 cell line by down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Our study provided evidence that even non-living probiotic bacteria can prevent the development of severe forms of intestinal inflammation by strengthening the integrity of intestinal barrier and modulation of gut microenvironment.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27961. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commensal bacteria have been shown to modulate the host mucosal immune system. Here, we report that oral treatment of BALB/c mice with components from the commensal, Parabacteroides distasonis, significantly reduces the severity of intestinal inflammation in murine models of acute and chronic colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). The membranous fraction of P. distasonis (mPd) prevented DSS-induced increases in several proinflammatory cytokines, increased mPd-specific serum antibodies and stabilized the intestinal microbial ecology. The anti-colitic effect of oral mPd was not observed in severe combined immunodeficient mice and probably involved induction of specific antibody responses and stabilization of the intestinal microbiota. Our results suggest that specific bacterial components derived from the commensal bacterium, P. distasonis, may be useful in the development of new therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work, two strategies were elaborated to surface-functionalize implantable polyimide sheets. In the first methodology, cross-linkable vinyl groups were introduced on the polyimide surface using aminopropylmethacrylamide. In the second approach, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced on the surface of PI. Using the former approach, the aim is to apply a vinyl functionalized biopolymer coating. In the latter approach, any amine containing biopolymer can be immobilized. The foils developed were characterized in depth using a variety of characterization techniques including atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that both modification strategies were successful. The subcutaneous implantation in mice indicated that both modification strategies resulted in biocompatible materials, inducing only limited cellular infiltration to the surrounding tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal environment is considered to play an important role both in colorectal tumor development and in the evolution and modulation of mucosal immunity. Studies in animals reared in germ-free (GF, without any intestinal microflora) versus conventional (CV, with regular microflora in bowel) conditions can aid in clarifying the influence of bacteria on carcinogenesis and anti-cancer immune responses in situ. The lower incidence of colon cancers and better immunological parameters in GF animals versus CV ones after chemically-induced carcinogenesis raises questions about specific characteristics of the immunological networks in each respective condition. Different levels of tolerance/regulatory mechanisms in the GF versus CV animals may influence the development of immune responses not only at the level of mucosal, but also at the systemic, immunity. We hypothesize that GF animals can better recognize and respond to evolving neoplasias in the bowel as a consequence of their less-tolerogenic immunity (i.e., due to their more limited exposure to antigens to become tolerated against at the intestinal level). In this paper, we review the role of bacteria in modulating gut environment and mucosal immunity, their importance in cancer development, and aspects of immune regulation (both at local and systemic level) that can be modified by bacterial microflora. Lastly, the use of GF animals in comparison with conventionally-raised animals is proposed as a suitable and potent model for understanding the inflammatory network and its effect on cancer immunity especially during colorectal cancer development.
Journal of Immunotoxicology 12/2009; 6(4):217-26. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo efficacy and safety of HPMA-based copolymers armed with doxorubicin via a spacer containing pH-sensitive linkage that can be prepared within a broad range of attached drug contents (1) was tested in murine tumor models.
Mice bearing T cell lymphoma EL4 or B cell lymphoma 38C13 were treated with a single dose of the conjugate (15, 25, and 75 mg Dox eq./kg i.v.) in a therapeutic regime. Anti-tumor resistance of the cured animals was proved by a second challenge with a lethal dose of tumor cells without additional treatment.
The content of drug bound to the polymer is an important parameter in relation to the conjugate therapeutic efficacy. The best anti-tumor effects were produced by conjugates with 10 - 13 wt% of bound doxorubicin. Free doxorubicin up to 4.6% relative to total drug content had no impact on the treatment efficacy and acute toxicity. The conjugates induced a complete cure of mice and regular treatment-dependent development of specific anti-tumor resistance. No myelosuppression or organ damage was observed.
A well-defined HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugate with pH-sensitive drug release is a good candidate for clinical trials as it has remarkable anti-tumor efficacy and a favorable safety profile.
Pharmaceutical Research 11/2009; 27(1):200-8. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal microbiota are considered to play an important role both in colorectal tumor development and in the modulation of mucosal immunity. Studies on animals reared in germ-free (GF, without intestinal microbiota) versus conventional (CV, with regular microbiota colonization of the bowel) conditions can aid in clarifying the influence of bacteria on carcinogenesis and the anticancer immune response. The capability of the intestinal environment to modulate anticancer immunity not only at the mucosal but also at the systemic level is still an open question. In our study we found that, following the same protocol of colorectal cancer induction, GF rats developed less and smaller tumors than CV rats. The GF rats that did not develop cancer also presented a better anticancer immune response with an increase in NK, NKT, CTL, B cells and cytotoxicity in peripheral blood. We hypothesize that the lower antigenic challenge and the absence of the 'physiological inflammation', caused by the commensal microbiota in the gut of CV rats, may enhance the capability of the GF rats to develop more efficacious anticancer immune responses. The different levels of tolerance/regulatory mechanisms in GF versus the CV animals may modulate the anticancer response not only at the mucosal but also at the systemic immunity level.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2008; 32(3):609-17. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of innate and adaptive intestinal immune responses to bacterial microbiota is supposed to be involved in pathogenetic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and their transmembrane coreceptor CD14 in biopsy samples from patients with IBD and in non-inflamed gut mucosa from controls. Small intestine and colon samples were obtained by colonoscopy from patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and controls. Immunohistochemical analysis of cryostat sections using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 showed a significant increase in TLR2 expression in the terminal ileum of patients with inactive and active UC against controls. Significant upregulation of TLR4 expression relative to controls was found in the terminal ileum and rectum of UC patients in remission and in the terminal ileum of CD patients with active disease. CD14 expression was upregulated in the terminal ileum of CD patients in remission and with active disease, in the cecum of UC patients in remission and with active disease, and in rectum of UC patients with active disease. Hence, dysregulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 expression in different parts of the intestinal mucosa may be crucial in IBD pathogenesis.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 04/2008; 56(3):267-74. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linkage of doxorubicin (Dox) to a water-soluble synthetic N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer (PHPMA) eliminates most of the systemic toxicity of the free drug. In EL-4 lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice, a complete regression of pre-established tumours has been achieved upon treatment with Dox-PHPMA-HuIg conjugate. The treatment was effective using a range of regimens and dosages, ranging from 62.5 to 100% cured mice treated with a single dose of 10-20 mg of Dox eq./kg, respectively. Fractionated dosages producing lower levels of the conjugate for a prolonged time period had substantial curative capacity as well. The cured mice developed anti-tumour protection as they rejected subsequently re-transplanted original tumour. The proportion of tumour-protected mice inversely reflected the effectiveness of the primary treatment. The treatment protocol leading to 50% of cured mice produced only protected mice, while no mice treated with early treatment regimen (i.e. starting on day 1 after tumour transplantation) rejected the re-transplanted tumour. Exposure of the host to the cancer cells was a prerequisite for developing protection. The anti-tumour memory was long lasting and specific against the original tumour, as the cured mice did not reject another syngeneic tumour, melanoma B16-F10. The immunity was transferable to naïve recipients in in vivo neutralization assay by spleen cells or CD8(+) lymphocytes derived from cured animals. We propose an effective treatment strategy which eradicates tumours without harming the protective immune anti-cancer responses.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 02/2007; 56(1):35-47. · 3.64 Impact Factor