J Lellouch

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (13)136.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There are few cross-national comparisons of the rates of suicide ideation and attempts across diverse countries. Nine independently conducted epidemiological surveys using similar diagnostic assessment and criteria provided an opportunity to obtain that data. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule in over 40000 subjects drawn from the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, France, West Germany, Lebanon, Taiwan, Korea and New Zealand. The lifetime prevalence rates/100 for suicide ideation ranged from 2.09 (Beirut) to 18.51 (Christchurch, New Zealand). Lifetime prevalence rates/100 for suicide attempts ranged from 0.72 (Beirut) to 5.93 (Puerto Rico). Females as compared to males had only marginally higher rates of suicidal ideation in most countries, reaching a two-fold increase in Taiwan. Females as compared to males had more consistently higher rates for suicide attempts, reaching a two- to three-fold increase in most countries. Suicide ideation and attempts in most countries were associated with being currently divorced/separated as compared to currently married. While the rates of suicide ideation varied widely by country, the rates of suicide attempts were more consistent across most countries. The variations were only partly explained by variation in rates of psychiatric disorders, divorce or separation among countries and are probably due to cultural features that we do not, as yet, understand.
    Psychological Medicine 02/1999; 29(1):9-17. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. There are few cross-national comparisons of the rates of suicide ideation and attempts across diverse countries. Nine independently conducted epidemiological surveys using similar diagnostic assessment and criteria provided an opportunity to obtain that data.
    Psychological Medicine 12/1998; 29(01):9 - 17. DOI:10.1017/S0033291798007867 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data on panic disorder from community studies from 10 countries around the world are presented to determine the consistency of findings across diverse cultures. Data from independently conducted community surveys from 10 countries (the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, France, West Germany, Italy, Lebanon, Taiwan, Korea, and New Zealand), using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and DSM-III criteria and including over 40,000 subjects, were analyzed with appropriate standardization for age and sex differences among subjects from different countries. The lifetime prevalence rates for panic disorder ranged from 1.4 per 100 in Edmonton, Alberta, to 2.9 per 100 in Florence, Italy, with the exception of that in Taiwan, 0.4 per 100, where rates for most psychiatric disorders are low. Mean age at first onset was usually in early to middle adulthood. The rates were higher in female than male subjects in all countries. Panic disorder was associated with an increased risk of agoraphobia and major depression in all countries. Panic disorder is relatively consistent, with a few exceptions, in rates and patterns across different countries. It is unclear why the rates of panic and other psychiatric disorders are lower in Taiwan.
    Archives of General Psychiatry 05/1997; 54(4):305-9. · 13.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent issue of the Harvard Review of Psychiatry, results from the Stirling County Study showed that the prevalence and incidence rates of depression were similar in men and women when "gender-fair" criteria were used and help-seeking was not required. We attempted to replicate these findings by applying the criteria for depression from the Stirling County Study to two national and six international epidemiologic surveys conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. Depression was defined as dysphoric mood and disturbances of sleep, appetite, and energy, with at least a mild degree of impairment. The rates of depression were computed using this algorithm with data from the US Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, conducted in the 1980s, the US National Comorbidity Survey, conducted in the 1990s, and independent community surveys from Canada, Puerto Rico, France, Taiwan, Korea, and New Zealand. For the US studies, these rates were recalculated after persons seeking treatment were removed from the analyses, where such data were available. Using Stirling County Study criteria, the lifetime prevalence rate of depression remains approximately twice as high in women as in men cross-nationally, except in Puerto Rico. Excluding help-seeking as a criterion and controlling for birth cohort do not change the findings. The Stirling County findings on absence of a sex difference in rates of depression using "gender-fair" criteria may be due to methodological variance in the collection of data, sample size, or the social and/or genetic uniqueness of the Atlantic Canadian community.
    Harvard Review of Psychiatry 01/1997; 5(1):1-6. DOI:10.3109/10673229709034719 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the rates and patterns of major depression and bipolar disorder based on cross-national epidemiologic surveys. Population-based epidemiologic studies using similar methods from 10 countries: the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, France, West Germany, Italy, Lebanon, Taiwan, Korea, and New Zealand. Approximately 38000 community subjects. Rates, demographics, and age at onset of major depression and bipolar disorder. Symptom profiles, comorbidity, and marital status with major depression. The lifetime rates for major depression vary widely across countries, ranging from 1.5 cases per 100 adults in the sample in Taiwan to 19.0 cases per 100 adults in Beirut. The annual rates ranged from 0.8 cases per 100 adults in Taiwan to 5.8 cases per 100 adults in New Zealand. The mean age at onset shows less variation (range, 24.8-34.8 years). In every country, the rates of major depression were higher for women than men. By contrast, the lifetime rates of bipolar disorder are more consistent across countries (0.3/100 in Taiwan to 1.5/100 in New Zealand); the sex ratios are nearly equal; and the age at first onset is earlier (average, 6 years) than the onset of major depression. Insomnia and loss of energy occurred in most persons with major depression at each site. Persons with major depression were also at increased risk for comorbidity with substance abuse and anxiety disorders at all sites. Persons who were separated or divorced had significantly higher rates of major depression than married persons in most of the countries, and the risk was somewhat greater for divorced or separated men than women in most countries. There are striking similarities across countries in patterns of major depression and of bipolar disorder. The differences in rates for major depression across countries suggest that cultural differences or different risk factors affect the expression of the disorder.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1996; 276(4):293-9. · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. —To estimate the rates and patterns of major depression and bipolar disorder based on cross-national epidemiologic surveys.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1996; 276(4):293-299. DOI:10.1001/jama.1996.03540040037030 · 30.39 Impact Factor
  • J P Lépine, Joseph Lellouch
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    ABSTRACT: The individualization of social phobia among other phobic disorders is very recent, although previous clinical descriptions can be found in the literature. The new classifications (DSM-III, DSM-IV and ICD-10) have provided operationalized criteria for this disorder, which have allowed researchers to conduct epidemiological studies. However, some diagnostic issues are not completely solved, namely, those with other boundary disorders. Cross-cultural prevalence and risk factors of social phobia are reviewed. Results of a French community study have found a lifetime prevalence rate of 2.1% in males and 5.4% in females. Comorbidity of social phobia with other anxiety disorders and major depression was high. Suicidal tendencies, family history and health services utilization were analyzed according to the lifetime comorbidity pattern of social phobia and depression.
    European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 02/1995; 244(6):290-6. DOI:10.1007/BF02190406 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Jean-Pierre Lépine, Joseph Lellouch
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    ABSTRACT: The subdivisions of phobias are based on empiric findings, mostly those of Marks, who delineated four subtypes of phobias: agoraphobia, social phobia, animal phobia, and specific phobias. Most of the research has been devoted to agoraphobia and, to a much lesser extent, social phobia. The revisions of the international classifications of mental disorders have provided operationalized diagnostic criteria for these disorders, allowing a more precise definition of cases that preclude all epidemiologic studies. Despite these definitions, some diagnostic problems still remain regarding more precise delineation of fears and phobias and assessment of the level of impairment in nonclinical samples. To date, results are available from recent epidemiologic studies that have been conducted in the general population in different countries. These studies have found that phobic disorders are the most common mental disorders in the community. Most of them have reported the highest rate for simple phobia and then agoraphobia, even when a wide variation in prevalence rates has been observed. Regarding risk factors, a clear preponderance of females has been found for simple phobia and agoraphobia, and a less pronounced preponderance for social phobia. Simple phobia begins early in life, whereas agoraphobia occurs in young adulthood. The age of onset of social phobia, according to the Epidemiologic Catchment Area data, has a bimodal distribution. Epidemiologic and clinical studies have consistently found a high comorbidity rate within phobic disorders and with other anxiety disorders. Other comorbidity patterns of phobic disorders with depressive disorders and substance use and abuse have been reported in many studies. Comorbid diagnoses appear to have a major influence in the explanation of risk factors such as impairment and quality of life. An epidemiologic study of agoraphobia and social phobia has been conducted in a French general population. Prevalence rates, age at onset, and comorbidity are reported. Suicidality, family history, and health services use in women are analyzed with and without adjustment for depression.
    Clinical Neuropharmacology 01/1995; 18:S15-S26. DOI:10.1097/00002826-199518002-00004 · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • P Pariente, J P Lépine, J Lellouch
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    ABSTRACT: Drug use was examined in a French general population adult sample from a household survey conducted in 1987-8 in a newly built town near Paris. Psychotropic drug use was measured by the percentage of subjects reporting their use during the past week. It was prominently represented by benzodiazepines (90% of psychotropic users), differed strongly between genders (4.6% in men, 10.2% in women) and age groups (higher after 40 years). A lifetime history of major depressive episode (MDE) or of anxiety disorders was associated with a higher proportion of psychotropic drug use. Psychotropic drug use also went with a current well-being questionnaire score. Using a logistic analysis, the following set of variables held for women: well-being score, history of both MDE and anxiety disorder, age, and marital status. Making allowance for the cross-sectional nature of this retrospective survey, these finding confirmed the relatively high level of benzodiazepine drug use in an urban French community sample and emphasized its association with mental health status.
    Psychological Medicine 03/1992; 22(1):181-90. DOI:10.1017/S0033291700032839 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. —To estimate temporal trends in the rates of major depression cross-nationally.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/1992; 268(21):3098-3105. DOI:10.1001/jama.1992.03490210080039 · 30.39 Impact Factor
  • P D Pariente, J P Lepine, J Lellouch
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/1991; 52(2):88-9. · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a general psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 1271) gathered through a cross-national French survey, anxiety and somatoform syndromes were assessed according to DSM-III and DMS-III-revised criteria. Lifetime and one-month prevalence rates in this population are provided and the high level of comorbidity between the anxiety syndromes is noted. The patient symptom profiles for panic syndrome, simple attacks, agoraphobia and generalized anxiety are displayed. The conspicuous consequences of the modifications brought in by the Revision-anticipatory anxiety in panic syndrome, and restricted period criteria for generalized anxiety- are discussed, with the conclusion that more field study assessment is required before further revision.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 12/1989; 24(6):301-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
136.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999
    • New York State Psychiatric Institute
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1997
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1995
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France