John L. Tonry

Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (344)1127.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Ophiuchus stream is the most recently discovered stellar tidal stream in the Milky Way (Bernard et al. 2014). We present high-quality spectroscopic data for 14 stream member stars obtained using the Keck and MMT telescopes. We confirm the stream as a fast moving ($v_{los}\sim290$ km s$^{-1}$), kinematically-cold group ($\sigma_{v_{los}}\lesssim1$ km s$^{-1}$) of $\alpha-$enhanced and metal-poor stars (${\rm [\alpha/Fe]\sim0.4}$ dex, ${\rm [Fe/H]\sim-2.0}$ dex). Using a probabilistic technique, we model the stream simultaneously in line-of-sight velocity, color-magnitude, coordinate, and proper motion space, and so determine its distribution in 6D phase-space. We find that that the stream extends in distance from 8 to 9.5 kpc from the Sun; it is 50 times longer than wide, merely appearing highly foreshortened in projection. The analysis of the stellar population contained in the stream suggests that it is $\sim13$ Gyr old, and that its initial stellar mass was $\sim2\times10^4$ $M_\sun$ (or at least $\ga4\times10^3$ $M_\sun$). Assuming a fiducial Milky Way potential, we fit an orbit to the stream which matches the observed phase-space distribution, except for some tension in the proper motions: the stream has an orbital period of $\sim360$ Myr, and is on a fairly eccentric orbit ($e\sim0.68$) with a pericenter of $\sim3.5$ kpc and an apocenter of $\sim17.5$ kpc. The phase-space structure and stellar population of the stream show that its progenitor must have been a globular cluster that was disrupted only $\sim250$ Myr ago. We do not detect any significant overdensity of stars along the stream that would indicate the presence of a progenitor, and conclude that the stream is all that is left of the progenitor.
    01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an analysis of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey multi-band (g,r,i,z,y) images of a sample of 698 low-redshift disk galaxies that span broad ranges in stellar mass, star-formation rate, and bulge/disk ratio. We use population synthesis SED fitting techniques to explore the radial distribution of the light, color, surface mass density, mass/light ratio, and age of the stellar populations. We characterize the structure and stellar content of the galaxy disks out to radii of about twice Petrosian r90, beyond which the halo light becomes significant. We measure normalized radial profiles for sub-samples of galaxies in three bins each of stellar mass and concentration. We also fit radial profiles to each galaxy. The majority of galaxies have down-bending radial surface brightness profiles in the bluer bands with a break radius at roughly r90. However, they typically show single unbroken exponentials in the reddest bands and in the stellar surface mass density. We find that the mass/light ratio and stellar age radial profiles have a characteristic "U-shape". There is a good correlation between the amplitude of the down-bend in the surface brightness profile and the rate of the increase in the M/L ratio in the outer disk. As we move from late- to early-type galaxies, the amplitude of the down-bend and the radial gradient in M/L both decrease. Our results imply a combination of stellar radial migration and suppression of recent star formation can account for the stellar populations of the outer disk.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the 3D distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14 degree diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the "Orion dust ring." The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current H-alpha features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet imaging of the host galaxies of 16 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), including 11 events from the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey. Taking advantage of the superb angular resolution of HST, we characterize the galaxies' morphological properties, sizes and star formation rate densities. We determine the SN locations within the host galaxies through precise astrometric matching, and measure physical and host-normalized offsets, as well as the SN positions within the cumulative distribution of UV light pixel brightness. We find that the host galaxies of H-poor SLSNe are irregular, compact dwarf galaxies, with a median half-light radius of just 0.9 kpc. The UV-derived star formation rate densities are high ( ~ 0.1 M_sun/yr/kpc^2), suggesting that SLSNe form in overdense environments. Their locations trace the UV light of their host galaxies, with a distribution intermediate between that of LGRBs (which are strongly clustered on the brightest regions of their hosts) and a uniform distribution (characteristic of normal core-collapse SNe). Taken together, this strengthens the picture that SLSN progenitors require different conditions than those of ordinary core-collapse SNe to form, and that they explode in broadly similar galaxies as do LGRBs. However, the locations of SLSNe are less clustered on the brightest regions than are LGRBs, suggesting a different and potentially lower-mass progenitor population for SLSNe than LGRBs.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze 760475 observations of 333026 main-belt objects obtained by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) survey telescope between 2012 May 20 and 2013 November 9, a period during which PS1 discovered two main-belt comets, P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) and P/2013 R3 (Catalina-PANSTARRS). PS1 comet detection procedures currently consist of the comparison of the point spread functions (PSFs) of moving objects to those of reference stars, and the flagging of objects that show anomalously large radial PSF widths. Based on the number of missed discovery opportunities among comets discovered by other observers, we estimate an upper limit comet discovery efficiency rate of ~70% for PS1. Additional analyses that could improve comet discovery yields in future surveys include linear PSF analysis, modeling of trailed stellar PSFs for comparison to trailed moving object PSFs, searches for azimuthally localized activity, comparison of point-source-optimized photometry to extended-source-optimized photometry, searches for photometric excesses in objects with known absolute magnitudes, and crowd-sourcing. Analysis of PS1 survey statistics indicates an expected fraction of 59 MBCs per 10^6 outer main-belt asteroids, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 96 MBCs per 10^6 outer main-belt asteroids. We note that more sensitive future surveys could detect many more MBCs than estimated here. We find an excess of high eccentricities (0.1 < e < 0.3) among all known MBCs relative to the background asteroid population. Theoretical calculations show that, given these eccentricities, the sublimation rate for a typical MBC is orders of magnitude larger at perihelion than at aphelion, providing a plausible physical explanation for the observed behavior of MBCs peaking in observed activity strength near perihelion.
    Icarus 10/2014; 248. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a search for eclipses of ~1700 white dwarfs in the Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep fields. Candidate eclipse events are selected by identifying low outliers in over 4.3 million light curve measurements. We find no short-duration eclipses consistent with being caused by a planetary size companion. This large dataset enables us to place strong constraints on the close-in planet occurrence rates around white dwarfs for planets as small as 2 R$_\oplus$. Our results indicate that gas giant planets orbiting just outside the Roche limit are rare, occurring around less than 0.5% of white dwarfs. Habitable-zone super-Earths and hot super-Earths are less abundant than similar classes of planets around main-sequence stars. These constraints give important insight into the ultimate fate of the large population of exoplanets orbiting main sequence stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 796(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have calculated 90% confidence limits on the steady-state rate of catastrophic disruptions of main belt asteroids in terms of the absolute magnitude at which one catastrophic disruption occurs per year (HCL) as a function of the post-disruption increase in brightness (delta m) and subsequent brightness decay rate (tau). The confidence limits were calculated using the brightest unknown main belt asteroid (V = 18.5) detected with the Pan-STARRS1 (Pan-STARRS1) telescope. We measured the Pan-STARRS1's catastrophic disruption detection efficiency over a 453-day interval using the Pan-STARRS moving object processing system (MOPS) and a simple model for the catastrophic disruption event's photometric behavior in a small aperture centered on the catastrophic disruption event. Our simplistic catastrophic disruption model suggests that delta m = 20 mag and 0.01 mag d-1 < tau < 0.1 mag d-1 which would imply that H0 = 28 -- strongly inconsistent with H0,B2005 = 23.26 +/- 0.02 predicted by Bottke et al. (2005) using purely collisional models. We postulate that the solution to the discrepancy is that > 99% of main belt catastrophic disruptions in the size range to which this study was sensitive (100 m) are not impact-generated, but are instead due to fainter rotational breakups, of which the recent discoveries of disrupted asteroids P/2013 P5 and P/2013 R3 are probable examples. We estimate that current and upcoming asteroid surveys may discover up to 10 catastrophic disruptions/year brighter than V = 18.5.
    Icarus 08/2014; 245. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Keck II/DEIMOS spectroscopy of the three distant dwarf galaxies of M31 Lacerta I, Cassiopeia III, and Perseus I, recently discovered within the Pan-STARRS1 3\pi imaging survey. The systemic velocities of the three systems (v_{r,helio} = -198.4 +/- 1.1 km/s, -371.6 +/- 0.7 km/s, and -326 +/- 3 km/s, respectively) confirm that they are satellites of M31. In the case of Lacerta I and Cassiopeia III, the high quality of the data obtained for 126 and 212 member stars, respectively, yields reliable constraints on their global velocity dispersions (\sigma_{vr} = 10.3 +/- 0.9 km/s and 8.4 +/- 0.6 km/s, respectively), leading to dynamical-mass estimates for both of ~4x10^7 Msun within their half-light radius. These translate to V-band mass-to-light ratios of 15^{+12}_{-9} and 8^{+9}_{-5} in solar units. We also use our spectroscopic data to determine the average metallicity of the 3 dwarf galaxies ([Fe/H] = -2.0 +/- 0.1, -1.7 +/- 0.1, and -2.0 +/- 0.2, respectively). All these properties are typical of dwarf galaxy satellites of Andromeda with their luminosity and size.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2014; 793(1). · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report results of a study of Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy cluster candidates using the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) imaging data. We first examine 150 Planck confirmed galaxy clusters with spectroscopic redshifts to test our algorithm for identifying optical counterparts and measuring their redshifts; our redshifts have a typical accuracy of $\sigma_{z/(1+z)} \sim 0.022$ for this sample. We then examine an additional 237 Planck galaxy cluster candidates that have no redshift in the source catalogue. Of these 237 unconfirmed cluster candidates we are able to confirm 60 galaxy clusters and measure their redshifts. A further 83 candidates are so heavily contaminated by stars due to their location near the Galactic plane that we do not attempt to identify counterparts. For the remaining 94 candidates we find no optical counterpart but use the depth of the Pan-STARRS1 data to estimate a redshift lower limit $z_{\text{lim}(10^{15})}$ beyond which we would not have expected to detect enough galaxies for confirmation. Scaling from the already published Planck sample, we expect that $\sim$12 of these unconfirmed candidates may be real clusters.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of 61 wide (>5 arcsecond) separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS\,1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 27 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 24 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K~dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogues (79170 stars, mostly M~dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of $\sim$10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 96%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.13 arcsecond, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 792(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a WISE-2MASS-Pan-STARRS1 galaxy catalog to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. We obtain photometric redshifts using our multicolor data set to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial density profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, $5^\circ$, and $15^\circ$. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al 2010, are consistent with a large $R_{\rm void}=(192 \pm 15)h^{-1} Mpc $ $(2\sigma)$ supervoid with $\delta \simeq -0.13 \pm 0.03$ centered at $z=0.22\pm0.01$. Such a supervoid, constituting a $\sim3.5 \sigma$ fluctuation in the $\Lambda CDM$ model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We measure quasar variability using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 Survey (Pan-STARRS1 or PS1) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and establish a method of selecting quasars via their variability in 10,000 square degree surveys. We use 100,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars that have been well measured in both PS1 and SDSS and take advantage of the decadal time scales that separate SDSS measurements and PS1 measurements. A power law model fits the data well over the entire time range tested, 0.01 to 10 years. Variability in the current PS1-SDSS dataset can efficiently distinguish between quasars and non-varying objects. It improves the purity of a griz quasar color cut from 4.1% to 48% while maintaining 67% completeness. Variability will be very effective at finding quasars in datasets with no u band and in redshift ranges where exclusively photometric selection is not efficient. We show that quasars' rest-frame ensemble variability, measured as a root mean squared in delta magnitudes, is consistent with V(z, L, t) = A0 (1+z)^0.37 (L/L0)^-0.16 (t/1yr)^0.246 , where L0 = 10^46 ergs^-1 and A0 = 0.190, 0.162, 0.147 or 0.141 in the gP1 , rP1 , iP1 or zP1 filter, respectively. We also fit across all four filters and obtain median variability as a function of z, L and lambda as V(z, L, lambda, t) = 0.079(1 + z)^0.15 (L/L0 )^-0.2 (lambda/1000 nm)^-0.44 (t/1yr)^0.246 .
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 784(2). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a panoptic view of the stellar structure in the Galactic disk's outer reaches commonly known as the Monoceros Ring, based on data from Pan-STARRS1. These observations clearly show the large extent of the stellar overdensities on both sides of the Galactic disk, extending between b = -25 and b = +35 degrees and covering over 130 degrees in Galactic longitude. The structure exhibits a complex morphology with both stream-like features and a sharp edge to the structure in both the north and the south. We compare this map to mock observations of two published simulations aimed at explaining such structures in the outer stellar disk, one postulating an origin as a tidal stream and the other demonstrating a scenario where the disk is strongly distorted by the accretion of a satellite. These morphological comparisons of simulations can link formation scenarios to observed structures, such as demonstrating that the distorted-disk model can produce thin density features resembling tidal streams. Although neither model produces perfect agreement with the observations--the tidal stream predicts material at larger distances which is not detected while in the distorted disk model the midplane is warped to an excessive degree--future tuning of the models to accommodate these latest data may yield better agreement.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 791(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard inflationary hot big bang cosmology predicts small fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with isotropic Gaussian statistics. All measurements support the standard theory, except for a few anomalies discovered in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe maps and confirmed recently by the Planck satellite. The Cold Spot is one of the most significant of such anomalies, and the leading explanation of it posits a large void that imprints this extremely cold area via the linear Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect due to the decay of gravitational potentials over cosmic time, or via the Rees-Sciama (RS) effect due to late-time non-linear evolution. Despite several observational campaigns targeting the Cold Spot region, to date no suitably large void was found at higher redshifts $z > 0.3$. Here we report the detection of an $R =(192 \pm 15) h^{-1}Mpc$ size supervoid of depth $\delta = -0.13 \pm 0.03$, and centred at redshift $z = 0.22$. This supervoid, possibly the largest ever found, is large enough to significantly affect the CMB via the non-linear RS effect, as shown in our Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi framework. This discovery presents the first plausible explanation for any of the physical CMB anomalies, and raises the possibility that local large-scale structure could be responsible for other anomalies as well.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the fiducial sequences of a sample of Galactic star clusters in the five bands of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) photometric system (g_P1, r_P1, i_P1, z_P1, y_P1). These empirical sequences -- which include the red giant and sub-giant branches, the main sequence, and the horizontal branch -- were defined from deep colour-magnitude diagrams reaching below the oldest main-sequence turn-offs of 13 globular and 3 old open clusters covering a wide range of metallicities (-2.4 < [Fe/H] < +0.4). We find excellent agreement for the nine clusters in common with previous studies in similar photometric systems when transformed to the PS1 system. Because the photometric and spectroscopic properties of these stellar populations are accurately known, the fiducials provide a solid basis for the interpretation of observations in the PS1 system, as well as valuable constraints to improve the empirical colour--$T_{eff}$ relations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 442(4). · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a thin stellar stream found in Pan-STARRS1 photometry near the Galactic bulge in the constellation of Ophiuchus. It appears as a coherent structure in the colour-selected stellar density maps produced to search for tidal debris around nearby globular clusters. The stream is exceptionally short and narrow; it is about 2.5{\deg} long and 6' wide in projection. The colour-magnitude diagram of this object, which harbours a blue horizontal-branch, is consistent with an old and relatively metal-poor population ([Fe/H]~-1.3) located 9.5 +/- 0.9 kpc away at (l,b) ~ (5{\deg},+32{\deg}), and 5.5 +/- 1.0 kpc from the Galactic centre. These properties argue for a globular cluster as progenitor. The finding of such a prominent, nearby stream suggests that many streams could await discovery in the more densely populated regions of our Galaxy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 05/2014; 443(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-redshift quasars are currently the only probes of the growth of supermassive black holes and potential tracers of structure evolution at early cosmic time. Here we present our candidate selection criteria from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 and follow-up strategy to discover quasars in the redshift range 5.7<z<6.2. With this strategy we discovered eight new 5.7<z<6.0 quasars, increasing the number of known quasars at z>5.7 by more than 10%. We additionally recovered 18 previously known quasars. The eight quasars presented here span a large range of luminosities (-27.3 < M_{1450} < -25.4; 19.6 < z_ps1 < 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show a weak or no Ly$\alpha$ emission line (25% with rest-frame equivalent width of the Ly$\alpha$ + Nv line lower than 15{\AA}). We find a larger fraction of weak-line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies. This may imply that the weak-line quasar population at the highest redshifts could be more abundant than previously thought. However, larger samples of quasars are needed to increase the statistical significance of this finding.
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(1). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, several rapidly-evolving transients have been discovered whose timescales and luminosities are not easily explained by traditional supernovae (SN) models. The sample size of these objects has remained small due, at least in part, to the challenge of detecting short timescale transients with traditional survey cadences. Here we present the results from a search within the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1-MDS) for rapidly-evolving and luminous transients. We identify 10 new transients with a time above half-maximum of less than 12 days and -16.5 > M > -20 mag. This increases the number of known events in this region of SN phase space by roughly a factor of three. The median redshift of the PS1-MDS sample is z=0.275 and they all exploded in star forming galaxies. In general, the transients possess faster rise than decline timescale and blue colors at maximum light (g - r < -0.2). Best fit blackbodies reveal photospheric temperatures/radii that expand/cool with time and explosion spectra taken near maximum light are dominated by a blue continuum, consistent with a hot, optically thick, ejecta. We find it difficult to reconcile the short timescale, high peak luminosity (L > 10^43 erg/s), and lack of UV line blanketing observed in many of these transients with an explosion powered mainly by the radioactive decay of Ni-56. Rather, we find that many are consistent with either (1) cooling envelope emission from the explosion of a star with a low-mass extended envelope which ejected very little (<0.03 M_sun) radioactive material, or (2) a shock breakout within a dense, optically thick, wind surrounding the progenitor star. After calculating the detection efficiency for objects with rapid timescales in the PS1-MDS we find a volumetric rate of 3000 - 5500 events/yr/Gpc^3 (1-6% of the core-collapse SN rate at z=0.2).
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a map of the dust reddening to 4.5 kpc derived from Pan-STARRS1 stellar photometry. The map covers almost the entire sky north of declination -30 degrees at a resolution of 7' to 14', and is based on the estimated distances and reddenings to more than 500 million stars. The technique is designed to map dust in the Galactic plane, where many other techniques are stymied by the presence of multiple dust clouds at different distances along each line of sight. This reddening-based dust map agrees closely with the Schlegel, Finkbeiner, and Davis (SFD; 1998) far-infrared emission-based dust map away from the Galactic plane, and the most prominent differences between the two maps stem from known limitations of SFD in the plane. We also compare the map with Planck, finding likewise good agreement in general at high latitudes. The use of optical data from Pan-STARRS1 yields reddening uncertainty as low as 25 mmag E(B-V).
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 789(1). · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use the WISE-2MASS infrared galaxy catalog matched with Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) galaxies to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. Our imaging catalog has median redshift $z\simeq 0.14$, and we obtain photometric redshifts from PS1 optical colours to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, $5^\circ$, and $15^\circ$. The counts in photometric redshift bins show significantly low densities at high significance, $\gtrsim 5 \sigma$ and $\gtrsim 6 \sigma$, respectively, for the two fiducial radii. The line-of-sight position of the deepest region of the void is $z\simeq 0.15-0.25$. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al. (2010), are consistent with a large $R_{void}=(192 \pm 15)h^{-1}Mpc~(2\sigma)$ supervoid with $\delta \simeq -0.13 \pm 0.03$ centered at $z=0.22\pm0.01$. Such a supervoid, constituting a $\simeq 3.5-5 \sigma$ fluctuation in a Gaussian distribution of the $\Lambda CDM$ model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.
    05/2014;

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,127.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      • Department of Physics
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1998–2014
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1997–2014
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • Stockholm University
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2012–2013
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2013
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1997–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • National Research Council Canada
      • Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987–2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Hawai'i System
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1999–2007
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2006
    • Rochester Institute of Technology
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States