J.-C. Cuillandre

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

Are you J.-C. Cuillandre?

Claim your profile

Publications (110)178.86 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe our cluster detection algorithm Red-GOLD, based on the search of red-sequence galaxy overdensities. In this work, the algorithm is optimized to search for clusters up to z̃1 using optical data. We applied this algorithm to semi-analytic simulations and we found that for haloes more massive than M≥ 10^{14} M_{☉} the completeness is 80% and the purity is ̃81%, up to redshift z=1.
    11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \le i \lesssim 23 mag or zphot \lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 \lesssim zphot \lesssim 0.8 range (-0.05 < \Delta z < -0.02, \sigma_{outl.rej} ~ 0.06, 10-15% outliers, and zphot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(\theta) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.
    10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Astrometry and photometry from the DANCe project is used to derive statistical models of the distribution of sources in the Pleiades region of the sky, in the space of proper motions, colours and magnitudes. These models are subsequently used to estimate membership probabilities to the Pleaides cluster. This catalog contains the original data from the DANCe project and the infered membership probabilities obtained in various setups.(1 data file).
    02/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context. With the advent of deep wide surveys, large photometric and astrometric catalogues of literally all nearby clusters and associations have been produced. The unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity of these data sets and their broad spatial, temporal and wavelength coverage make obsolete the classical membership selection methods that were based on a handful of colours and luminosities. We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of such a survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. Methods: We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. Results: We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with ≈1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. Conclusions: Multidimensional data sets require statistically sound multivariate analysis techniques to fully exploit their scientific information content. Proper motions in particular are, as expected, critical for the correct separation of contaminants. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices, and variability.Membership probability catalogs for the DANCe Pleiades data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A45
    02/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of the DANCe survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with $\approx$ 1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices and variability.
    01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas-poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 - 29 mag.arcsec-2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The kinematic properties of the different classes of objects in a given association hold important clues about its member's history, and offer a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the various models of stellar formation and evolution. DANCe (standing for Dynamical Analysis of Nearby ClustErs) is a survey program aimed at deriving a comprehensive and homogeneous census of the stellar and substellar content of a number of nearby (<1kpc) young (<500Myr) associations. Whenever possible, members will be identified based on their kinematics properties, ensuring little contamination from background and foreground sources. Otherwise, the dynamics of previously confirmed members will be studied using the proper motion measurements. We present here the method used to derive precise proper motion measurements, using the Pleiades cluster as a test bench. Combining deep wide field multi-epoch panchromatic images obtained at various obervatories over up to 14 years, we derive accurate proper motions for the sources present in the field of the survey. The datasets cover ~80 square degrees, centered around the Seven Sisters. Using new tools, we have computed a catalog of 6116907 unique sources, including proper motion measurements for 3577478 of them. The catalogue covers the magnitude range between i=12~24mag, achieving a proper motion accuracy <1mas/yr for sources as faint as i=22.5mag. We estimate that our final accuracy reaches 0.3mas/yr in the best cases, depending on magnitude, observing history, and the presence of reference extragalactic sources for the anchoring onto the ICRS.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As part of the SPLASH survey of the Andromeda (M31) system, we have obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the compact elliptical (cE) satellite M32. This is the first resolved-star kinematical study of any cE galaxy. In contrast to most previous kinematical studies that extended out to r 30'' ~ 1 r effI ~ 100 pc, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile out to r ~ 250'' and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments out to r ~ 70''. We achieve this by combining integrated-light spectroscopy at small radii (where crowding/blending are severe) with resolved stellar spectroscopy at larger radii, using spatial and kinematical information to account statistically for M31 contamination. The rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend well beyond the radius (r ~ 150'') where the isophotes are distorted. Unlike NGC 205, another close dwarf companion of M31, M32's kinematics appear regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the region of isophotal elongation and twists. We interpret M31's kinematics using three-integral axisymmetric dynamical equilibrium models constructed using Schwarzschild's orbit superposition technique. Models with a constant mass-to-light ratio can fit the data remarkably well. However, since such a model requires an increasing tangential anisotropy with radius, invoking the presence of an extended dark halo may be more plausible. Such an extended dark halo is definitely required to bind a half-dozen fast-moving stars observed at the largest radii, but these stars may not be an equilibrium component of M32.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 765(1):65. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a combined photometric calibration of the SNLS and the SDSS supernova survey, which results from a joint effort of the SDSS and the SNLS collaborations. We deliver fluxes calibrated to the HST spectrophotometric star network for large sets of tertiary stars that cover the science fields of both surveys in all photometric bands. We also cross-calibrate directly the two surveys and demonstrate their consistency. For each survey the flat-fielding is revised based on the analysis of dithered star observations. The calibration transfer from the HST spectrophotometric standard stars to the multi-epoch tertiary standard star catalogs in the science fields follows three different paths: observations of primary standard stars with the SDSS PT telescope; observations of Landolt secondary standard stars with SNLS MegaCam instrument at CFHT; and direct observation of faint HST standard stars with MegaCam. In addition, the tertiary stars for the two surveys are cross-calibrated using dedicated MegaCam observations of stripe 82. This overlap enables the comparison of these three calibration paths and justifies using their combination to improve the calibration accuracy. Flat-field corrections have improved the uniformity of each survey as demonstrated by the comparison of photometry in overlapping fields: the rms of the difference between the two surveys is 3 mmag in gri, 4 mmag in z and 8 mmag in u. We also find a remarkable agreement (better than 1%) between the SDSS and the SNLS calibration in griz. The cross-calibration and the introduction of direct calibration observations bring redundancy and strengthen the confidence in the resulting calibration. We conclude that the surveys are calibrated to the HST with a precision of about 0.4% in griz. This precision is comparable to the external uncertainty affecting the color of the HST primary standard stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a joined photometric calibration for the SNLS and the SDSS supernova surveys. Our main delivery are catalogs of natural AB magnitudes for a large set of selected tertiary standard stars covering the science field of both surveys. Those catalogs are calibrated to the AB flux scale through observations of 5 primary spectrophotometric standard stars, for which HST-STIS spectra are available in the CALSPEC database. The estimate of the uncertainties associated to this calibration are delivered as a single covariance matrix. We also provide a model of the transmission efficiency of the SNLS photometric instrument MegaCam. Those transmission functions are required for the interpretation of MegaCam natural magnitudes in term of physical fluxes. Similar curves for the SDSS photometric instrument have been published in Doi et al. (2010AJ....139.1628D). Last, we release the measured magnitudes of the five CALSPEC standard stars in the magnitude system of the tertiary catalogs. This makes it possible to update the calibration of the tertiary catalogs if CALSPEC spectra for the primary standards are revised. (11 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2012;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Several galaxies in the Virgo cluster are known to have large HI gas tails related to a recent ram-pressure stripping event. The Virgo cluster has been extensively observed at 1539 A in the far-ultraviolet for the GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS), and in the optical for the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS), allowing a study of the stellar emission potentially associated with the gas tails of 8 cluster members. On the theoretical side, models of ram-pressure stripping events have started to include the physics of star formation. Aim: We aim to provide quantitative constraints on the amount of star formation taking place in the ram-pressure stripped gas, mainly on the basis of the far-UV emission found in the GUViCS images in relation with the gas content of the tails. Methods: We have performed three comparisons of the young stars emission with the gas column density: visual, pixel-by-pixel and global. We have compared our results to other observational and theoretical studies. Results: We find that the level of star formation taking place in the gas stripped from galaxies by ram-pressure is low with respect to the available amount of gas. Star formation is lower by at least a factor 10 compared to the predictions of the Schmidt Law as determined in regular spiral galaxy disks. It is also lower than measured in dwarfs galaxies and the outer regions of spirals, and than predicted by some numerical simulations. We provide constraints on the star formation efficiency in the ram-pressure stripped gas tails, and compare these with current models.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We searched for isolated planetary-mass T-dwarfs in the 3Myr old Serpens Core cluster. We performed a deep imaging survey of the central part of this cluster using the WIRCam camera at the CFHT. Observations were performed through the narrow-band CH4_off and CH4_on filters, to identify young T-dwarfs from their 1.6micr methane absorption bands, and the broad-band JHK filters, to better characterize the selected candidates. We complemented our WIRCam photometry with optical imaging data from MegaCam at CFHT and Suprime-Cam at the Subaru telescope and mid-IR flux measurements from the Spitzer c2d Legacy Survey. We report four faint T-dwarf candidates in the direction of the Serpens Core with CH4_on-CH4_off above 0.2 mag, estimated visual extinction in the range 1-9 mag and spectral type in the range T1-T5 based on their dereddened CH4_on-CH4_off colors. Comparisons with T-dwarf spectral models and optical to mid-IR color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, indicate that two of our candidates (ID1 and 2) are background contaminants (most likely heavily reddened low-redshift quasars). The properties of the other two candidates (ID3 and 4) are consistent with them being young members of the Serpens Core cluster, although our analysis can not be considered conclusive. In particular, ID3 may also be a foreground T-dwarf. It is detected by the Spitzer c2d survey but only flux upper limits are available above 5.8 microns and, hence, we can not assess the presence of a possible disk around this object. However, it presents some similarities with other young T-dwarf candidates (SOri70 in the Sigma Ori cluster and CFHTJ0344+3206 in the direction of IC348). If ID3 and 4 belong to Serpens, they would have a mass of a few Jupiter masses and would be amongst the youngest, lowest mass objects detected in a star-forming region so far.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) has the potential to dramatically increase the efficiency and capabilities of existing ground-based telescopes over a broad range of astronomical science. Recent studies of the optical turbulence above several astronomical sites (e.g. Mauna Kea, Paranal, and Antarctica) show that GLAO can be extended to fields of view of several tens of arcminutes in diameter, larger than previously thought, with angular resolutions close to the freeatmosphere seeing. This is a pivotal result since GLAO science cases benefit from the largest possible corrected fields of view. The corrected areal field of a GLAO system is potentially 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than has been demonstrated to date. The 'Imaka team is working toward an instrument that takes advantage of the one-degree field afforded by Mauna Kea. In this paper we summarize the design/simulation work to date along with our plan to develop an instrument that reaches for this wide field of view.
    Proc SPIE 07/2012;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: We study the peculiar interacting galaxy system of VCC1249/M49 located in the core of the Virgo B subcluster. Owing to a recent interaction between the dwarf galaxy VCC1249 and the halo gas of the gE M49, neutral hydrogen has been displaced from the interstellar medium of this dwarf into the Virgo ICM. Observations also reveal multiple compact star-forming regions that are embedded in this HI cloud, with a projected separation up to 13 kpc from VCC1249 in the northwest direction. Aims: Motivated by recent NUV imaging from GUViCS of the VCC1249/M49 system that shows significant ongoing/recent star formation in the compact regions, we aim to constrain the origin of these outlying HII regions with a multi-wavelength approach. Methods: Using deep optical (u, g, i, z) imaging from NGVS and new Halpha imaging obtained at the San Pedro Martir observatory together with Keck long-slit spectroscopy, we characterize the SFR, ages, and metallicity of VCC1249 and its outlying compact regions. Moreover, we analyze the color and luminosity profile of the galaxy to investigate its recent interaction with M49. Results: Our new observations indicate that VCC1249 underwent a recent interaction with M49 in which both ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction occured. The joint action of the two mechanisms led to the removal of the HI gas from the ISM of VCC1249, while the gravitational tides triggered the stellar tail and counter-tail of VCC1249. Our SED analysis reveals that the star formation in this galaxy was truncated around 200 Myr ago and that the outlying HII regions were born in situ about 10 Myr ago out of pre-enriched gas removed from the dwarf galaxy. These observations also reveal that interactions between central and satellite galaxies similar to the one between VCC1249/M49 may be an effective way of dispersing metals into the halos of massive galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our proximity to and external view of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) make it an excellent testbed for probing the relationship between structural subcomponents (e.g., disk and spheroid) of a large spiral galaxy. The combination of large size, high metallicity, and Sersic surface brightness profi le (with index n_Sersic 2-4) of M31's spheroid suggest that it is unlike any subcomponent of the Milky Way. We use resolved stellar kinematics from Keck/DEIMOS spectra of 5600 red giant branch stars to disentangle M31's spheroid from its stellar disk. Kinematical evidence is presented for the northern extension of the Giant Southern Stream. We show that accounting for the stream and associated tidal debris, in addition to a locally cold stellar disk, yields a systematic rotation pattern in the spheroid. We measure the mean velocity and dispersion of the spheroid in each of five spatial bins. We detect significant rotation beyond r_proj 10 kpc. This is the first time that rotation has been detected in the spheroid past r_proj 1 kpc. The velocity dispersion decreases from 150 km/s at r_proj = 4 kpc to 115 km/s at r_proj = 14 kpc, consistent to 2σ with previous measurements as well as with a bulge/halo model. We also calculate the probability that a given star is a member of the spheroid and that the spheroid has a signi ficant contribution at all radii in our sample along both the major and minor axes. Lastly, we show that the v_rot/σ more closely resembles that of a so-called "fast rotating" elliptical galaxy than of a rotationally-flattened spiral galaxy bulge, but it should be cautioned that our M31 spheroid measurements are much further out (in units of effective radius) than for the comparison samples. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA.
    01/2012;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry / wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra-deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the Atlas-3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec-2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.
    Proceedings of The International Astronomical Union. 02/2011; 277.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the DANCE project, a ground-based survey meant to prepare and complement Gaia i) down to the planetary mass regime; ii) in regions of high extinction. The DANCE project takes advantage of archival wide-field surveys to derive precise astrometry, and in particular proper motions, for millions of stars in young nearby associations. We present the first preliminary results obtained for the Pleiades cluster, as well as our immediate objectives for other associations.
    01/2011;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: M32, a satellite of the Andromeda (M31) galaxy, is our nearest example of the rare and enigmatic compact elliptical galaxy type. It has long been known that the outer isophotes of M32 are distorted; this is presumed to be caused by its tidal interaction with M31. In this paper, new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations are presented of the integrated light (r < 100") and, for the first time, resolved stellar population (100" < r < 200") of M32 (where M32's I-band reff = 29" = 0.1 kpc). Our measurement of the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend beyond M32's tidal distortion radius of r 150", in contrast to previous kinematical studies that went out to r 30". Studies of M32 are made challenging by the fact that the galaxy is projected against the bright/complicated inner region of M31. This, combined with the steeply falling brightness profile of M32, implies that resolved stellar population studies are caught between a rock and hard place: crowding/blending is severe in the inner parts while M31 contamination is severe in the outer parts. In the resolved stellar population portion of our study, we use spatial and kinematical information to statistically account for M31 contamination. Unlike NGC 205, another close neighbor of M31, M32's kinematics appear to be regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the tidal distortion region. This lack of a strong gradient will serve as a constraint on tidal interaction models. This work is funded through the NSF and NASA.
    01/2011;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a CFHT Large Program that is using the wide field of view capabilities of the MegaCam camera to map the entire Virgo Cluster from its core to virial radius. The observing strategy has been optimized to detect very low surface brightness structures in the cluster, including intracluster stellar streams and faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We present here the current status of this ongoing survey, with an emphasis on the detection and analysis of the very low-mass galaxies in the cluster that have been revealed by the NGVS.
    EAS Publications Series 12/2010; 48:345 - 350.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new longslit and multislit spectroscopic observations of the galaxy M32 using the DEIMOS instrument on the Keck II telescope. M32, a satellite of the Andromeda (M31) galaxy, is our nearest example of the very rare and enigmatic compact elliptical (cE) galaxy type. It has long been known that the outer elliptical isophotes in M32 show evidence of distortion, presumably as a result of its tidal interaction with M31. We use these new spectroscopic observations to study the internal kinematics of M32. This task is made challenging by the fact that M32 is projected against the bright/complicated inner regions of M31. However, we are able to statistically quantify the degree of contamination of in the region of M32 by M31 disk and spheroid stars as a function of sky position. We use the long-slit integrated light spectroscopy to measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile of M32 out to a radius of 1 1/2 arcmin. The velocity profile demonstrates that M32 is rotating out to 1 arcmin. These data are analyzed using the Jeans equations to constrain the mass of M32 out to 2 Reff. Beyond this radius, we present constraints on the mean velocity and dispersion using multislit spectroscopy of resolved stars. However, we do not find evidence of a strong radial velocity gradient across the tidal region of M32. This lack of a strong gradient is a constraint that tidal interaction models will have to satisfy. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation, NASA and the Lawrence Scholars Program.
    01/2010;