J. -C. Cuillandre

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (119)203 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design, operation, and first results of a photometric calibration project, called DICE (Direct Illumination Calibration Experiment), aiming at achieving precise instrumental calibration of optical telescopes. The heart of DICE is an illumination device composed of 24 narrow-spectrum, high-intensity, light-emitting diodes (LED) chosen to cover the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared spectral range. It implements a point-like source placed at a finite distance from the telescope entrance pupil, yielding a flat field illumination that covers the entire field of view of the imager. The purpose of this system is to perform a lightweight routine monitoring of the imager passbands with a precision better than 5 per-mil on the relative passband normalisations and about 3{\AA} on the filter cutoff positions. The light source is calibrated on a spectrophotometric bench. As our fundamental metrology standard, we use a photodiode calibrated at NIST. The radiant intensity of each beam is mapped, and spectra are measured for each LED. All measurements are conducted at temperatures ranging from 0{\deg}C to 25{\deg}C in order to study the temperature dependence of the system. The photometric and spectroscopic measurements are combined into a model that predicts the spectral intensity of the source as a function of temperature. We find that the calibration beams are stable at the $10^{-4}$ level -- after taking the slight temperature dependence of the LED emission properties into account. We show that the spectral intensity of the source can be characterised with a precision of 3{\AA} in wavelength. In flux, we reach an accuracy of about 0.2-0.5% depending on how we understand the off-diagonal terms of the error budget affecting the calibration of the NIST photodiode. With a routine 60-mn calibration program, the apparatus is able to constrain the passbands at the targeted precision levels.
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    ABSTRACT: A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data yield lower limits of 3.4e5 solar masses, an order of magnitude below the total dust masses derived from SED fitting. In contrast, radiative transfer models yield dust masses which are slightly lower, but fully consistent with the FIR-derived mass. Dust is more likely to be distributed in a ring around the centre of NGC 4370 as opposed to an exponential disc or a simple foreground screen. Moreover, using inverse radiative transfer fitting, we are able to constrain most of the parameters describing these geometries. The resulting dust masses are high enough to account for the dust observed at FIR/submm wavelengths, so that no diffuse dust component needs to be invoked. We furthermore caution for the interpretation of dust masses and optical depths based on optical data alone, using overly simplistic star-dust geometries and the neglect of scattering effects. [ABRIDGED]
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526147 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry. Despite a large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV-i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B-V)than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526089 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing $\approx$80deg$^{2}$ centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe ($i\ge$14mag) and Tycho-2 ($V\lesssim$12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to $\approx$0.025M$_{\odot}$. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, both in terms of sensitivity and accuracy.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425019 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.
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    ABSTRACT: Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over $\sim$15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting
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    ABSTRACT: We aim at identifying the cluster's members by deriving membership probabilities for the sources within 1 degree of the cluster's center, going further away than equivalent previous studies. We measure accurate proper motions and multi-wavelength (optical and near-infrared) photometry using ground based archival images of the cluster. We use these measurements to compute membership probabilities. The list of candidate members from Barrado+2001 is used as training set to identify the cluster's locus in a multi-dimensional space made of proper motions, luminosities and colors. The final catalog includes 338892 sources with multi-wavelength photometry. Approximately half (194452) were detected at more than two epochs and we measured their proper motion and used it to derive membership probability. A total of 4349 candidate members with membership probabilities greater than 50% are found in this sample in the luminosity range between 10 and 22mag. The slow proper motion of the cluster and the overlap of its sequence with the field and background sequences in almost all color-magnitude and color-color diagrams complicate the analysis and the contamination level is expected to be significant. Our study nevertheless provides a coherent and quantitative membership analysis of Messier 35 based on a large fraction of the best ground-based data sets obtained over the past 18 years. As such, it represents a valuable input for follow-up studies using in particular the Kepler K2 photometric time series.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425505 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe our cluster detection algorithm Red-GOLD, based on the search of red-sequence galaxy overdensities. In this work, the algorithm is optimized to search for clusters up to z̃1 using optical data. We applied this algorithm to semi-analytic simulations and we found that for haloes more massive than M≥ 10^{14} M_{☉} the completeness is 80% and the purity is ̃81%, up to redshift z=1.
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    ABSTRACT: The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \le i \lesssim 23 mag or zphot \lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 \lesssim zphot \lesssim 0.8 range (-0.05 < \Delta z < -0.02, \sigma_{outl.rej} ~ 0.06, 10-15% outliers, and zphot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(\theta) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 797(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/102 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present GMRT HI observations and deep CFHT MegaCam optical images of the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877 (hereafter NGC 871/6/7). Our high-resolution data sets provide a census of the HI and stellar properties of the detected gas-rich group members. In addition to a handful of spiral, irregular and dwarf galaxies, this group harbours an intriguing HI feature, AGC 749170, that has a gas mass of ~10^9.3 M_sol, a dynamical-to-gas mass ratio of ~1 (assuming the cloud is rotating and in dynamical equilibrium) and no optical counterpart in previous imaging. Our observations have revealed a faint feature in the CFHT g'- and r'-bands; if it is physically associated with AGC 749170, the latter has M/L_g > 1000 M_sol/L_sol as well as a higher metallicity (estimated using photometric colours) and a significantly younger stellar population than the other low-mass gas-rich group members. These properties, as well as its spectral and spatial location with respect to its suspected parent galaxies, strongly indicate a tidal origin for AGC 749170. Overall, the HI properties of AGC 749170 resemble those of other optically dark/dim clouds that have been found in groups. These clouds could represent a class of relatively long-lived HI-rich tidal remnants that survive in intermediate-density environments.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1345 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. With the advent of deep wide surveys, large photometric and astrometric catalogues of literally all nearby clusters and associations have been produced. The unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity of these data sets and their broad spatial, temporal and wavelength coverage make obsolete the classical membership selection methods that were based on a handful of colours and luminosities. We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of such a survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. Methods: We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. Results: We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with ≈1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. Conclusions: Multidimensional data sets require statistically sound multivariate analysis techniques to fully exploit their scientific information content. Proper motions in particular are, as expected, critical for the correct separation of contaminants. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices, and variability.Membership probability catalogs for the DANCe Pleiades data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A45
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 563. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322413 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrometry and photometry from the DANCe project is used to derive statistical models of the distribution of sources in the Pleiades region of the sky, in the space of proper motions, colours and magnitudes. These models are subsequently used to estimate membership probabilities to the Pleaides cluster. This catalog contains the original data from the DANCe project and the infered membership probabilities obtained in various setups.(1 data file).
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of the DANCe survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with $\approx$ 1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices and variability.
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    ABSTRACT: According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas-poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 - 29 mag.arcsec-2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 07/2013; DOI:10.1017/S174392131300536X
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    ABSTRACT: The kinematic properties of the different classes of objects in a given association hold important clues about its member's history, and offer a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the various models of stellar formation and evolution. DANCe (standing for Dynamical Analysis of Nearby ClustErs) is a survey program aimed at deriving a comprehensive and homogeneous census of the stellar and substellar content of a number of nearby (<1kpc) young (<500Myr) associations. Whenever possible, members will be identified based on their kinematics properties, ensuring little contamination from background and foreground sources. Otherwise, the dynamics of previously confirmed members will be studied using the proper motion measurements. We present here the method used to derive precise proper motion measurements, using the Pleiades cluster as a test bench. Combining deep wide field multi-epoch panchromatic images obtained at various obervatories over up to 14 years, we derive accurate proper motions for the sources present in the field of the survey. The datasets cover ~80 square degrees, centered around the Seven Sisters. Using new tools, we have computed a catalog of 6116907 unique sources, including proper motion measurements for 3577478 of them. The catalogue covers the magnitude range between i=12~24mag, achieving a proper motion accuracy <1mas/yr for sources as faint as i=22.5mag. We estimate that our final accuracy reaches 0.3mas/yr in the best cases, depending on magnitude, observing history, and the presence of reference extragalactic sources for the anchoring onto the ICRS.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; 554. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220748 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the SPLASH survey of the Andromeda (M31) system, we have obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the compact elliptical (cE) satellite M32. This is the first resolved-star kinematical study of any cE galaxy. In contrast to most previous kinematical studies that extended out to r 30'' ~ 1 r effI ~ 100 pc, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile out to r ~ 250'' and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments out to r ~ 70''. We achieve this by combining integrated-light spectroscopy at small radii (where crowding/blending are severe) with resolved stellar spectroscopy at larger radii, using spatial and kinematical information to account statistically for M31 contamination. The rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend well beyond the radius (r ~ 150'') where the isophotes are distorted. Unlike NGC 205, another close dwarf companion of M31, M32's kinematics appear regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the region of isophotal elongation and twists. We interpret M31's kinematics using three-integral axisymmetric dynamical equilibrium models constructed using Schwarzschild's orbit superposition technique. Models with a constant mass-to-light ratio can fit the data remarkably well. However, since such a model requires an increasing tangential anisotropy with radius, invoking the presence of an extended dark halo may be more plausible. Such an extended dark halo is definitely required to bind a half-dozen fast-moving stars observed at the largest radii, but these stars may not be an equilibrium component of M32.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 765(1):65. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/65 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a combined photometric calibration of the SNLS and the SDSS supernova survey, which results from a joint effort of the SDSS and the SNLS collaborations. We deliver fluxes calibrated to the HST spectrophotometric star network for large sets of tertiary stars that cover the science fields of both surveys in all photometric bands. We also cross-calibrate directly the two surveys and demonstrate their consistency. For each survey the flat-fielding is revised based on the analysis of dithered star observations. The calibration transfer from the HST spectrophotometric standard stars to the multi-epoch tertiary standard star catalogs in the science fields follows three different paths: observations of primary standard stars with the SDSS PT telescope; observations of Landolt secondary standard stars with SNLS MegaCam instrument at CFHT; and direct observation of faint HST standard stars with MegaCam. In addition, the tertiary stars for the two surveys are cross-calibrated using dedicated MegaCam observations of stripe 82. This overlap enables the comparison of these three calibration paths and justifies using their combination to improve the calibration accuracy. Flat-field corrections have improved the uniformity of each survey as demonstrated by the comparison of photometry in overlapping fields: the rms of the difference between the two surveys is 3 mmag in gri, 4 mmag in z and 8 mmag in u. We also find a remarkable agreement (better than 1%) between the SDSS and the SNLS calibration in griz. The cross-calibration and the introduction of direct calibration observations bring redundancy and strengthen the confidence in the resulting calibration. We conclude that the surveys are calibrated to the HST with a precision of about 0.4% in griz. This precision is comparable to the external uncertainty affecting the color of the HST primary standard stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2012; 552. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220610 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a joined photometric calibration for the SNLS and the SDSS supernova surveys. Our main delivery are catalogs of natural AB magnitudes for a large set of selected tertiary standard stars covering the science field of both surveys. Those catalogs are calibrated to the AB flux scale through observations of 5 primary spectrophotometric standard stars, for which HST-STIS spectra are available in the CALSPEC database. The estimate of the uncertainties associated to this calibration are delivered as a single covariance matrix. We also provide a model of the transmission efficiency of the SNLS photometric instrument MegaCam. Those transmission functions are required for the interpretation of MegaCam natural magnitudes in term of physical fluxes. Similar curves for the SDSS photometric instrument have been published in Doi et al. (2010AJ....139.1628D). Last, we release the measured magnitudes of the five CALSPEC standard stars in the magnitude system of the tertiary catalogs. This makes it possible to update the calibration of the tertiary catalogs if CALSPEC spectra for the primary standards are revised. (11 data files).
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Several galaxies in the Virgo cluster are known to have large HI gas tails related to a recent ram-pressure stripping event. The Virgo cluster has been extensively observed at 1539 A in the far-ultraviolet for the GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS), and in the optical for the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS), allowing a study of the stellar emission potentially associated with the gas tails of 8 cluster members. On the theoretical side, models of ram-pressure stripping events have started to include the physics of star formation. Aim: We aim to provide quantitative constraints on the amount of star formation taking place in the ram-pressure stripped gas, mainly on the basis of the far-UV emission found in the GUViCS images in relation with the gas content of the tails. Methods: We have performed three comparisons of the young stars emission with the gas column density: visual, pixel-by-pixel and global. We have compared our results to other observational and theoretical studies. Results: We find that the level of star formation taking place in the gas stripped from galaxies by ram-pressure is low with respect to the available amount of gas. Star formation is lower by at least a factor 10 compared to the predictions of the Schmidt Law as determined in regular spiral galaxy disks. It is also lower than measured in dwarfs galaxies and the outer regions of spirals, and than predicted by some numerical simulations. We provide constraints on the star formation efficiency in the ram-pressure stripped gas tails, and compare these with current models.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2012; 545(0004-6361). DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219957 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We searched for isolated planetary-mass T-dwarfs in the 3Myr old Serpens Core cluster. We performed a deep imaging survey of the central part of this cluster using the WIRCam camera at the CFHT. Observations were performed through the narrow-band CH4_off and CH4_on filters, to identify young T-dwarfs from their 1.6micr methane absorption bands, and the broad-band JHK filters, to better characterize the selected candidates. We complemented our WIRCam photometry with optical imaging data from MegaCam at CFHT and Suprime-Cam at the Subaru telescope and mid-IR flux measurements from the Spitzer c2d Legacy Survey. We report four faint T-dwarf candidates in the direction of the Serpens Core with CH4_on-CH4_off above 0.2 mag, estimated visual extinction in the range 1-9 mag and spectral type in the range T1-T5 based on their dereddened CH4_on-CH4_off colors. Comparisons with T-dwarf spectral models and optical to mid-IR color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, indicate that two of our candidates (ID1 and 2) are background contaminants (most likely heavily reddened low-redshift quasars). The properties of the other two candidates (ID3 and 4) are consistent with them being young members of the Serpens Core cluster, although our analysis can not be considered conclusive. In particular, ID3 may also be a foreground T-dwarf. It is detected by the Spitzer c2d survey but only flux upper limits are available above 5.8 microns and, hence, we can not assess the presence of a possible disk around this object. However, it presents some similarities with other young T-dwarf candidates (SOri70 in the Sigma Ori cluster and CFHTJ0344+3206 in the direction of IC348). If ID3 and 4 belong to Serpens, they would have a mass of a few Jupiter masses and would be amongst the youngest, lowest mass objects detected in a star-forming region so far.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; 545. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201219559 · 4.48 Impact Factor