[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
Twin Research and Human Genetics 11/2013; · 1.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joint destruction is a hallmark of autoantibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), though the severity is highly variable between patients. The processes underlying these interindividual differences are incompletely understood.
We performed a genome-wide association study on the radiological progression rate in 384 autoantibody-positive patients with RA. In stage-II 1557 X-rays of 301 Dutch autoantibody-positive patients with RA were studied and in stage-III 861 X-rays of 742 North American autoantibody-positive patients with RA. Sperm-Associated Antigen 16 (SPAG16) expression in RA synovium and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) was examined using Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. FLS secrete metalloproteinases that degrade cartilage and bone. SPAG16 genotypes were related to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-1 expression by FLS in vitro and MMP-3 production ex vivo.
A cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 2q34, located at SPAG16, associated with the radiological progression rate; rs7607479 reached genome-wide significance. A protective role of rs7607479 was replicated in European and North American patients with RA. Per minor allele, patients had a 0.78-fold (95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) progression rate over 7 years. mRNA and protein expression of SPAG16 in RA synovium and FLS was verified. FLS carrying the minor allele secreted less MMP-3 (p=1.60×10(-2)). Furthermore, patients with RA carrying the minor allele had lower serum levels of MMP-3 (p=4.28×10(-2)). In a multivariate analysis on rs7607479 and MMP-3, only MMP-3 associated with progression (p=2.77×10(-4)), suggesting that the association between SPAG16-rs7607479 and joint damage is mediated via an effect on MMP-3 secretion.
Genetic and functional analyses indicate that SPAG16 influences MMP-3 regulation and protects against joint destruction in autoantibody-positive RA. These findings could enhance risk stratification in autoantibody-positive RA.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 08/2013; · 8.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within the Netherlands a national network of biobanks has been established (Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure-Netherlands (BBMRI-NL)) as a national node of the European BBMRI. One of the aims of BBMRI-NL is to enrich biobanks with different types of molecular and phenotype data. Here, we describe the Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL), one of the projects within BBMRI-NL. GoNL is a whole-genome-sequencing project in a representative sample consisting of 250 trio-families from all provinces in the Netherlands, which aims to characterize DNA sequence variation in the Dutch population. The parent-offspring trios include adult individuals ranging in age from 19 to 87 years (mean=53 years; SD=16 years) from birth cohorts 1910-1994. Sequencing was done on blood-derived DNA from uncultured cells and accomplished coverage was 14-15x. The family-based design represents a unique resource to assess the frequency of regional variants, accurately reconstruct haplotypes by family-based phasing, characterize short indels and complex structural variants, and establish the rate of de novo mutational events. GoNL will also serve as a reference panel for imputation in the available genome-wide association studies in Dutch and other cohorts to refine association signals and uncover population-specific variants. GoNL will create a catalog of human genetic variation in this sample that is uniquely characterized with respect to micro-geographic location and a wide range of phenotypes. The resource will be made available to the research and medical community to guide the interpretation of sequencing projects. The present paper summarizes the global characteristics of the project.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.118.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Using the Metabochip we identified three novel genetic loci with large effects (30-40%) on GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps in non-diabetic Caucasian individuals (TMEM114; CHST3 and CTRB1/2; n=232, all p≤8.8*10(-7)). rs7202877 near CTRB1/2, a known diabetes risk locus, also associated with an absolute 0.51±0.16% (5.6±1.7 mmol/mol) lower A1C response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in G allele carriers but there was no effect on GLP-1 RA treatment in type 2 diabetes patients (n=527). Furthermore, in pancreatic tissue we show that rs7202877 acts as expression quantitative trait locus for CTRB1 and CTRB2, encoding chymotrypsinogen, and increases fecal chymotrypsin activity in healthy carriers. Chymotrypsin is one of the most abundant digestive enzymes in the gut where it cleaves food proteins into smaller peptide fragments.Our data identify chymotrypsin in the regulation of the incretin pathway, development of diabetes and response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 1100delC mutation in the CHEK2 gene has a carrier frequency of up to 1.5% in individuals from North-West Europe. Women heterozygous for 1100delC have an increased breast cancer risk (odds ratio 2.7). To explore the prevalence and clinical consequences of 1100delC homozygosity in the Netherlands, we genotyped a sporadic breast cancer hospital-based cohort, a group of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and breast tumors from a tumor tissue bank. Three 1100delC homozygous patients were found in the cohort of 1434 sporadic breast cancer patients, suggesting an increased breast cancer risk for 1100delC homozygotes (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 0.4-32.6, P=0.3). Another 1100delC homozygote was found in 592 individuals from 108 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families, and two more were found after testing 1706 breast tumors and confirming homozygosity on their wild-type DNA. Follow-up data was available for five homozygous patients, and remarkably, three of them had developed contralateral breast cancer. A possible relationship between 1100delC and lung cancer risk was investigated in 457 unrelated lung cancer patients but could not be confirmed. Due to the small number of 1100delC homozygotes identified, the breast cancer risk estimate associated with this genotype had limited accuracy but is probably higher than the risk in heterozygous females. Screening for CHEK2 1100delC could be beneficial in countries with a relatively high allele frequency.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.85.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2013; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear evidence exists for heritability of human longevity, and much interest is focused on identifying genes associated with longer lives. To identify such longevity alleles, we performed the largest genome-wide linkage scan thus far reported. Linkage analyses included 2118nonagenarian Caucasian sibling pairs that have been enrolled in 15 study centers of 11 European countries as part of the Genetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA) project. In the joint linkage analyses, we observed four regions that show linkage with longevity; chromosome 14q11.2 (LOD = 3.47), chromosome 17q12-q22 (LOD = 2.95), chromosome 19p13.3-p13.11 (LOD = 3.76), and chromosome 19q13.11-q13.32 (LOD = 3.57). To fine map these regions linked to longevity, we performed association analysis using GWAS data in a subgroup of 1228 unrelated nonagenarian and 1907 geographically matched controls. Using a fixed-effect meta-analysis approach, rs4420638 at the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 gene locus showed significant association with longevity (P-value = 9.6 3 10_8). By combined modeling of linkage and association, we showed that association of longevity with APOEe4 and APOEe2 alleles explain the linkage at 19q13.11-q13.32 with P-value = 0.02 and P-value = 1.0 3 10_5, respectively. In the largest linkage scan thus far performed for human familial longevity, we confirm that the APOE locus is a longevity gene and that additional longevity loci may be identified at 14q11.2, 17q12-q22, and 19p13.3-p13.11. As the latter linkage results are not explained by common variants, we suggest that rare variants play an important role in human familial longevity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci, including five new loci, associated with mean LTL (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Five of the loci contain candidate genes (TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1) that are known to be involved in telomere biology. Lead SNPs at two loci (TERC and TERT) associate with several cancers and other diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, a genetic risk score analysis combining lead variants at all 7 loci in 22,233 coronary artery disease cases and 64,762 controls showed an association of the alleles associated with shorter LTL with increased risk of coronary artery disease (21% (95% confidence interval, 5-35%) per standard deviation in LTL, P = 0.014). Our findings support a causal role of telomere-length variation in some age-related diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein N-glycosylation patterns are known to show vast genetic as well as physiological and pathological variation and represent a large pool of potential biomarkers. Large-scale studies are needed for the identification and validation of biomarkers, and the analytical techniques required have recently been developed. Such methods have up to now mainly been applied to complex mixtures of glycoproteins in biofluids (e.g. plasma). Here, we analyzed N-glycosylation profiles of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enriched fractions by 96-well microtitration plate based high-throughput immuno-affinity capturing and N-glycan analysis using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Human plasma samples were from the Leiden Longevity Study comprising 2415 participants of different chronological and biological ages. Glycosylation patterns of AAT enriched fractions were found to be associated with chronological (calendar) age and they differed between females and males. Moreover, several glycans in the AAT enriched fraction were associated with physiological parameters marking cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Pronounced differences were found between males and females in the glycosylation profiles of IgA enriched fractions. Our results demonstrate that large-scale immuno-affinity capturing of proteins from human plasma using a bead-based method combined with high-throughput N-glycan analysis is a powerful tool for the discovery of glycosylation-based biomarker candidates.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73082. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helminth infections are proposed to have immunomodulatory activities affecting health outcomes either detrimentally or beneficially. We evaluated the effects of albendazole treatment, every three months for 21 months, on STH, malarial parasitemia and allergy.
A household-based cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in an area in Indonesia endemic for STH. Using computer-aided block randomization, 481 households (2022 subjects) and 473 households (1982 subjects) were assigned to receive placebo and albendazole, respectively, every three months. The treatment code was concealed from trial investigators and participants. Malarial parasitemia and malaria-like symptoms were assessed in participants older than four years of age while skin prick test (SPT) to allergens as well as reported symptoms of allergy in children aged 5-15 years. The general impact of treatment on STH prevalence and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Primary outcomes were prevalence of malarial parasitemia and SPT to any allergen. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 9 and 21 months post-treatment 80.8% and 80.1% of the study subjects were retained, respectively. The intensive treatment regiment resulted in a reduction in the prevalence of STH by 48% in albendazole and 9% in placebo group. Albendazole treatment led to a transient increase in malarial parasitemia at 6 months post treatment (OR 4.16(1.35-12.80)) and no statistically significant increase in SPT reactivity (OR 1.18(0.74-1.86) at 9 months or 1.37 (0.93-2.01) 21 months). No effect of anthelminthic treatment was found on BMI, reported malaria-like- and allergy symptoms. No adverse effects were reported.
The study indicates that intensive community treatment of 3 monthly albendazole administration for 21 months over two years leads to a reduction in STH. This degree of reduction appears safe without any increased risk of malaria or allergies.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57899. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we investigate the contribution that linkage based methods, such as identical-by-descent (IBD) mapping; can have towards association mapping to identify rare variants in next generation sequencing data. In the first part of our analysis, we identify regions in which cases share more segments of IBD around a putative causal variant than do controls. In the second part, we use a two-stage mixed effect model approach to summarize the SNP data within each region and include them as covariates in the model for the phenotype. We assess the impact of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in determining IBD states between individuals by using markers with and without LD for the first part and the impact of imputation in testing for association by using imputed Genome Wide Association Studies or raw sequence markers for the second part. We applied the method to next generation sequencing longitudinal family data from Genetic Association Workshop 18 and identified a significant region at chromosome 3: 40249244-41025167 (p-value = 2.3 × 10−3 ).