[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urological tumours are the third most frequent malignancy in Lynch syndrome after colonic and endometrial cancer. Upper urinary tract tumours are well recognised in Lynch syndrome, but the association with prostate and bladder cancer is controversial. We determined the incidence and cumulative and relative risks of prostate and bladder cancer in a cohort of Lynch syndrome families. Male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers and their genetically untested male first degree relatives (FDR) were identified from the Manchester Regional Lynch syndrome database (n = 821). Time to the development of urological cancer was identified for each urological site (renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and prostate). Cumulative and relative risks were calculated, with results classified by mutation carrier status and specific causative genetic mutations. Eight prostate cancers were identified, only one occurring before the age of 60. Analysis of person-years at risk of prostate cancer by Lynch syndrome mutation carrier status suggests a correlation between MSH2 mutation carriers and a tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer (RR 10.41; 95 % CI 2.80, 26.65). No such association was found with bladder cancer (RR 1.88; 95 % CI 0.21, 6.79). The association of upper urinary tract tumours with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations was confirmed. We have carried out the largest study of male Lynch syndrome mutation carriers to establish the risks of urological malignancy. A tenfold increased risk of prostate cancer is supported in MSH2 with mutation carriers having roughly double the risk of prostate cancer to FDRs. A trial of PSA testing in MSH2 carriers from 40 to 50 years may be justifiable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has been divided into three clinical subtypes: mild, classical and severe. This study aimed to investigate for a correlation between genotype and phenotype. A codon-specific survival difference is unknown. A retrospective longitudinal study of 492 patients on the Manchester Polyposis Registry was conducted. Patients were grouped according to genotypes: 0, unknown mutation; 1, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) 0-178 (and 312-412 of exon 9); 2, APC >1550; 3, APC 179-1249; 4, APC 1250-1549; and 5, MutYH. Date of onset of polyposis, incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), survival and actuarial time to surgery were calculated. Median age of onset of polyposis for genotype 0 was 20.3 years, genotype 1 35.6 years, genotype 2 32.2, genotype 3 15.9 years, and genotype 4 14.8 years (p < 0.0001). Age of onset of CRC was similar between genotypes. Median survival for genotype 0 was 56.6 years, genotype 1 74.9 years, genotype 2 61.0 years, genotype 3 63.0 years, genotype 4 48.1 years, and genotype 5 69.7 years (p = 0.003). This survival difference was also seen when patients who underwent screening and those who did not were analysed separately. Survival in the screened population was 53.9 years in genotype 4 and 72.9 years in genotype 3. Patients with genotype 4 (APC 1249-1549) have a significantly worse survival despite screening and early prophylactic surgery. This analysis supports a genotype-phenotype correlation. Patients with a mutation APC 1249-1549 develop polyposis at an early age and have a worse survival. Patients with a mutation APC 0-178 or 312-412 develop polyposis later and have an improved survival. This survival difference has not previously been documented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in molecular technology have resulted in the discovery of many putative biomarkers relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC).
Literature searches were performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the words 'colorectal cancer', AND 'biomarkers OR markers'. Biomarkers that are either currently in clinical use or have potential clinical use were identified.
Most potential markers are in the discovery phase waiting to undergo clinical validation. Hypermethylation of the plasma septin-9 gene shows promise as a nonstool-based screening tool. Hypermethylation of the DYPD gene (encodes the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase) and variation of the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A1) gene have predictive value for side effects and the efficacy of 5-fluoruracil and irinotecan, respectively. Mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry is able to predict response to 5-fluorouracil, and the KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene) and B-RAF (v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) somatic gene mutation status can predict the response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy.
Recent advances indicate that the widespread use of biomarkers may herald the next major advance in the diagnosis and management of CRC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer is caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR). It is present in 15 per cent of sporadic colorectal cancers owing to epigenetic mutL homologue 1 (MLH1) inactivation. The evidence suggests that patients with tumours caused by defective DNA MMR do not benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy.
The proportion of cancers with defective DNA MMR identified by MSI analysis or immunohistochemistry was calculated from published data. The cost of analysis was compared with the potential savings if 5-FU-based chemotherapy was not administered to these patients.
Some 16.3 per cent of sporadic colorectal cancers had defective DNA MMR. Immunostaining for MLH1 and mutS homologue 2 (MSH2) had a sensitivity of 92.4 per cent and a specificity of 99.6 per cent for identifying MSI-high tumours. The strongest predictive variable was right-sidedness, with positive and negative predictive values of 0.329 and 0.948 respectively. If 5-FU-based chemotherapy were not administered, potential savings of up to pound 1.2 million per 1000 patients tested could be made. Costs would be higher if alternative chemotherapeutic regimens were substituted as a result of testing.
Knowledge of MMR status may enable participation in trials of non-5-FU-based chemotherapy. The cost of MMR testing may be offset by more efficient use of chemotherapy.
British Journal of Surgery 08/2008; 95(7):868-75. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine follow-up requirements following transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal tumours based on clinical and histopathological assessment of resection specimens.
A consecutive series of 117 patients undergoing TEM between 1997 and 2005 was studied. The excised specimens were classified as intact with clear surgical resection margins, macroscopically intact specimens with microscopically involved resection margins or piecemeal. Recurrence rates were determined for the three groups.
Of the 117 procedures performed, 80 were for benign disease and 37 for malignancy. Within the benign group 39 (49%) resections were intact with clear surgical resection margins and yielded zero recurrences; 22 (27%) resections were macroscopically intact with microscopically involved surgical resection margin and yielded two recurrences; and 19 (24%) resections were piecemeal and yielded eight recurrences. Within the malignant group all 37 patients had resection specimens which were intact with clear surgical resection margins. Two patients had immediate salvage surgery. Of the 35 who went on to long-term follow-up post-TEM (0.6-8.1 years, median 4) four developed recurrent cancer (two local with submucosal disease and two liver metastases).
For benign rectal neoplasms, resection of an intact specimen with histologically clear surgical resection margins was associated with no observed mucosal recurrence. Local recurrence after TEM is significantly more frequent when histological examination reveals involved margins or when resection is piecemeal. Early endoscopic follow up is required for the latter two groups. Local recurrence for malignant cases was submucosal and detected by palpation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Screening colonoscopy has been shown to reduce mortality and cancer stage in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) individuals. However, the benefit of screening in intermediate risk groups is unknown. The most recent national guidelines have recommended a reduction of screening frequency for the intermediate risk group. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of colonoscopic screening in HNPCC and intermediate risk groups and assess the effect of the most recent screening protocol recommendations.
A total of 244 individuals; 108 from HNPCC families (28 mismatch repair gene carriers) and 136 from intermediate risk families were referred for regular colonoscopic screening by the Regional Genetics Service. Findings from 417 colonoscopies performed between 1992 and 2003 were evaluated.
A total of three cancers, 39 adenomas and 41 hyperplastic polyps were found in the HNPCC group compared with one cancer, 22 adenomas and 19 hyperplasic polyps in the intermediate risk group. If the recent screening guidelines for the intermediate group were applied, then 89 (44%) fewer colonoscopies would have been performed. Although no cancers would have been missed, six adenomas (mean size = 5.7 mm, range 2-10 mm) with two graded as severely dysplasic and six hyperplastic polyps would not have been detected.
The detection rate and distribution of adenomas were similar in both groups. If the new colonoscopic screening recommendations for the intermediate risk group had been applied, a small number of significant lesions would have been missed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: :The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who had mutations in the desmoid region of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that phenotypically expresses desmoid disease, and to determine the role for surgery in these patients.
Data from the North West Region FAP database and case notes were analysed retrospectively.
Of 363 patients with FAP, 47 from ten families had APC mutations in the desmoid region 3' to codon 1399. Of 22 patients undergoing surgery, 16 developed desmoids, and of these 12 had mesenteric desmoid disease. Complications from mesenteric desmoids were death (two patients), enterectomy (three), local resection (three), fistula (one), cholangitis and local resection (one), bowel obstruction (one) and bowel and ureteric obstruction (one). Preoperative polyp burden ranged from 0 to 100 in eight patients (median age 24.5 (range 16-39) years) and more than 100 in seven (median age 39 (range 31-64) years). One patient had no record of polyp burden.
In individuals with 3' APC mutations, abdominal surgery is associated with a 65 per cent risk of developing mesenteric desmoids. An alternative strategy might be to attempt to manage the polyps endoscopically.
British Journal of Surgery 09/2007; 94(8):1009-13. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the association between breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) from referral pattern to the Regional Genetics Service including molecular analysis. Hospital computer records and/or department referral books were used to identify cases referred to the Regional Genetic Service during a 16-year period (1990-2005 inclusive). All files were reviewed along with associated demographic data, risk assessments, referral details and results from mutation testing. Families were assessed for hereditary breast and colorectal cancer (HBCC) criteria, and all families with eligible individuals were tested for the 1100delC mutation in CHEK2. A total of 8,612 families were identified. One hundred and sixteen of 1,631 (7.5%) families with a primary referral for CRC fulfilled the criteria for HBCC, whereas only 68/6981 (1%) BC referrals fulfilled these criteria. Blood samples were obtained from 113 individuals from 83/184 families. Only 1/113 (1%) has screened positive for the CHEK2 mutation, whereas 14 (17%) families segregate BRCA1/2 mutations and at least 7 (8.5%) carry MLH1/MSH2 mutations. HBCC syndrome, if it exists as a separate entity, is not likely to be due to CHEK2 mutations. Many families are explicable by existing high-penetrance genes, and further work is necessary to elucidate whether the remainder is due to chance or as yet undiscovered genes.