[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piloerection is a rare clinical symptom described during seizures. Previous reports suggested that the temporal lobe is the ictal onset zone in many of these cases. One case series concluded that there is a predominant left hemispheric representation of ictal cold. The aim of this study is to evaluate the localising and lateralising value of pilomotor seizures.
Medical records of patients who underwent video electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring at the Cleveland Clinic between 1994 and 2001 were reviewed for the presence of ictal piloerection. The clinical history, physical and neurological examination, video EEG data, neuroimaging data, cortical stimulation results, and postoperative follow ups were reviewed and used to define the epileptogenic zone. Additionally, all previously reported cases of ictal piloerection were reviewed.
Fourteen patients with ictal piloerection were identified (0.4%). Twelve out of 14 patients had temporal lobe epilepsy. In seven patients (50%), the ictal onset was located in the left hemisphere. Four out of five patients with unilateral ictal piloerection had ipsilateral temporal lobe epilepsy as compared with the ipsilateral side of pilomotor response. Three patients became seizure free after left temporal lobectomy for at least 12 months of follow up. An ipsilateral left leg pilomotor response with simultaneously recorded after-discharges was elicited in one patient during direct cortical stimulation of the left parahippocampal gyrus.
Ictal piloerection is a rare ictal manifestation that occurs predominantly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Unilateral piloerection is most frequently associated with ipsilateral focal epilepsy. No hemispheric predominance was found in patients with bilateral ictal piloerection.