[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the application of an eatable covering with melon gelatin was evaluated (Cucumis melo L., Cantaloupe variety) cut and stored in refrigeration. For it characterized the raw material, evaluated physical-chemistry and microbiologically the samples, as well as its time of microbiological life utility was determined. The melons were desinfected and characterized, determining pH, soluble solids and acidity following the methodologies of COVENIN norms. The fruits were cut in slices and they were divided in 2 groups: control and one covered with a 4,5% of gelatin, ascorbic acid to 0,5%, glicerol to 10%, and sorbato of potassium to 0,01%; soon they were packaged and they stored in 5 refrigeration to ± 1 ºC. 4 packages of each treatment were evaluated at random to the 0, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 days, choosing themselves; the data were analyzed by means of a multifactorial ANCOVA with a level of significance of 5%. Were obtained values averages of soluble solids of 9,0 ± 0,9 ºBrix, acidity of 0,10 ± 0,02%, pH of 5,96 ± 0,21 and index of maturity of 96,24 ± 27,68. The samples with covering significantly differed in the physical-chemistries evaluations. The covered melon presented a smaller growth of microorganisms when comparing it with the control. The TVU of the covered samples and control was of 16,12 and 15,02 days for psicrófilos microorganisms, and of 25,75 and 18,86 days for yeasts, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.05) egg production, egg mass, energy efficiency (kcal of AME(n)/g of egg), and BW gain (P < 0.05) but decreased ADFI (linear, P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.01). An increase in energy content of the diet reduced Haugh units and the proportion of shell in the egg (P < 0.01). Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P < 0.01), but feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P < 0.01) and shell (P < 0.05) than eggs from the lighter hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P < 0.001) for the heavier hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A trial was conducted to study the influence of CP and fat content of the diet on performance and egg quality traits of brown egg-laying hens from 22 to 50 wk of age. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 8 treatments arranged factorially with 4 diets and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,592 vs. 1,860 g). Three of these diets differed in the CP content (16.5, 17.5, and 18.5%) and included 1.8% added fat. The fourth diet also had 18.5% CP but was supplemented with 3.6% fat instead of 1.8% fat. Each treatment was replicated 4 times, and the experimental unit consisted of 21 hens allocated into groups of 7 in 3 adjacent cages. All diets were isocaloric (2,750 kcal of AME/kg) and met the recommendations of brown egg-laying hens for digestible Arg, Ile, Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, TSAA, and Val. Productive performance and egg quality were recorded by replicate every 28 d. For the entire experimental period, diet did not affect any of the productive performance traits studied, but the heavier hens had higher ADFI (120.6 vs. 113.9 g; P < 0.001), egg production (92.5 vs. 89.8%; P < 0.01), and egg weight (64.9 vs. 62.4 g; P < 0.001) than the lighter hens. Initial BW did not affect feed conversion per kilogram of eggs or hen mortality, but BW gain was higher (289 vs. 233 g; P < 0.01) and feed conversion ratio per dozen of eggs was better (1.52 vs. 1.57; P < 0.01) for the lighter than for the heavier hens. None of the egg quality variables studied was affected by dietary treatment or initial BW of the hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens, irrespective of their initial BW, do not need more than 16.5% CP to maximize egg production, provided that the diet meets the requirements for key indispensable amino acids. Heavier hens produce more eggs that are larger than lighter hens but feed efficiency per kilogram of eggs is not affected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) is a widely used method to protect steel reinforcements against corrosion. Bond degradation between concrete and steel at protection and overprotection levels was studied. Two types of materials were tested: an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and a mixture of 85% OPC and 15% fly ash (OPC/FA). Concrete specimens were immersed in a 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Chemical analysis of sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Hydrogen ion content was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Mechanical behaviour was analysed by means of pullout tests, and microstructure characterisation was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions were found at the concrete–steel interface. The mechanical properties of the specimens were poorer at overprotection level than at protection level.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of the main cereal and type of supplemental fat in the diet on productive performance and egg quality of the eggs was studied in 756 brown-egg laying hens from 22 to 54 wk of age. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 9 treatments arranged factorially, with 3 cereals (dented corn, soft wheat, and barley) and 3 types of fat (soy oil, acidulated vegetable soapstocks, and lard). Each treatment was replicated 4 times (21 hens/replicate). All diets were formulated to have similar nutrient content, except for linoleic acid, which ranged from 0.8 to 3.4% depending on the combination of cereal and fat source used. This approach allows for the estimation of the minimum level of linoleic acid in the diets that maximizes egg weight. Productive performance and egg-quality traits were recorded every 28 d, and the BW of the hens was measured individually at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. No significant interactions between main factors were detected for any of the variables studied. Egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatment. Body weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) for hens fed corn or wheat than for hens fed barley, and also higher for hens fed lard than for hens fed soy oil or acidulated vegetable soapstocks. Egg quality was not influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color, which was greater (P < 0.001) for hens fed corn than for hens fed wheat or barley, and greater for hens fed lard than for hens fed soy oil or acidulated vegetable soapstocks. We concluded that brown-egg laying hens do not need more than 1.0% of linoleic acid in their diet (1.16 g/hen per d) to maximize egg production and egg size. The 3 cereals and the 3 fat sources tested can replace each other in the diet provided that the linoleic acid requirements to maximize egg size are met.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we introduce a deterministic scheme of synchronization of linear
and nonlinear cellular automata (CA) with complex behavior, connected through a
master-slave coupling. By using a definition of Boolean derivative, we use the
linear approximation of the automata to determine a function of coupling that
promotes synchronization without perturbing all the sites of the slave system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work has been to analyze the results obtained in two types of collaborative works proposed to the students of the four groups (G). In the first work (W1) students chose freely a scientist-technical topic (G1 and G2). In the second option (W2) a scientist paper published in a SCI journal (G3 and G4). The average mark for W2 was higher than for W1 option (8.2 vs. 7.0, P
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 01/2010; 2(2):2181-2184.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effects of fibre level and particle size on rabbit performance, four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement were used with high (HF) and low (LF) fibre level (34 vs. 27% NDF, % DM) and coarse (CG) and normal (NG) type of grinding of the main sources of fibre (alfalfa hay and wheat straw). This resulted in a proportion of particles >0.3mm of 35, 24, 24 and 20% (on DM basis) for HF-CG, HF-NG, LF-CG and LF-NG diets, respectively. HF diets contained 4.2% pork lard to balance the digestible energy/protein ratios. Seventy two nulliparous rabbit does were randomly assigned to the diets (18 per diet) and controlled up to their fourth parturition. Remating interval was fixed at four days after parturition and weaning age at 25days. Twenty does died or were culled during the experiment because of low prolificacy and infertility. CG diets reduced culling level from 22 to 2.8% (P=0.008) compared to NG diets. Digestible energy (DE) intake was not affected by treatments during lactation or among parturitions. However, an interaction NDF level×type of grinding was observed for feed and DE intake from weaning to parturition, as rabbit does fed HF-NG and LF-CG diets ate 10% more feed (P=0.040) and DE (P=0.053), and showed a shorter parturition-effective mating interval (−5.3days, P=0.028) than those fed HF-CG and LF-NG. Animals fed LF-NG tended to have the lowest feed efficiency among parturitions (P=0.079). In rabbits fed LF, total milk production and litter growth rate from birth to 21days decreased by 9% compared to those fed HF diets that included added fat (P≤0.013). Litters from rabbit does fed LF or NG diets increased (P≤0.040) their feed intake from 21 to 25days, avoiding differences among treatments in litter weight gain during lactation. Post-weaning feed efficiency was less with LF diets (P=0.045). Thus, fineness of grinding of fibre sources should therefore be taken into account, especially in low fibre diets to optimize rabbit doe performance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolution of a feed formulation practice (from attendant to an on-line webquest) included in a mandatory discipline (animal production) in the fourth year of Agronomy Engineering School was analized. The students formulate a diet with a formulation software, and analyzed the feed from a nutritional and economical point of view. The average score (8.1out of 10) of the students was independent of the method used, but more students did the practice with non-attendant method (57 vs 26%). The global judgment of the practice was relatively low (2.8 out of 5) probably due to its complexite and the long time spent (7±2h) in its performance. However the students consider the practice positive for their formation (3.3).
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 01/2009; 1(1):1797-1801.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of gut barrier against pathogens and its interaction with dietary factors in weaned rabbits affected with digestive disorders, especially epizootic rabbit enteropathy is reviewed. This interaction was studied identifying nutritive factors that influence gut barrier function of mucosa. It was examined the morphology, and enzyme activity of mucosa and the gut associated immune system. Besides, it was characterized the substrate that reaches the caecum and its capacity to favour pathogen bacteria growth, by reviewing the effect of diet on ileal digestibility of nutrients, transit time and microbiota population. The nutritional factors which affect health of early weaned rabbits are level and type of both fibre and protein. The optimal dietary level of insoluble fibre to minimise mortality is 30-32%. Furthermore, a moderate inclusion of soluble fibre (12%) improves mucosa integrity and decreases mortality and the frequency of detection of Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter spp in the caecum. The reduction of ileal nitrogen flow had a positive effect on pups viability and frequency of detection of C. perfringens. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 1% of glutamine reduced fattening mortality, the frequency of detection of C. perfringens, and Helicobacter spp, and diminished the counts of Eimeria spp at the jejunum. In conclusion, a correct diet formulation may help to limit the epizootic rabbit enteropathy incidence in weaned rabbits. Additional key words: fibre, gut barrier function, protein, weaning, young rabbits. Resumen Revisión. Nuevas tendencias en alimentación de conejos. Efecto de la nutrición sobre la salud intestinal En este trabajo se revisa el papel de la barrera intestinal frente a patógenos y su interacción con factores de la die-ta en gazapos destetados afectados por enteropatía epizoótica. Para ello, se identificaron los factores nutritivos que influyen en la funcionalidad de la barrera intestinal de la mucosa digestiva (morfología, actividad enzimática y acti-vidad del sistema inmune asociado a la mucosa). Además, se ha caracterizado el sustrato alimenticio que alcanza el ciego y su capacidad para favorecer el crecimiento de bacterias patógenas, revisando el efecto de la dieta sobre la di-gestibilidad ileal de nutrientes, el tránsito digestivo y el tipo de flora intestinal. Los factores nutricionales involucra-dos incluyen nivel y tipo de fibra y proteína. El contenido óptimo de fibra insoluble en el pienso para minimizar la mortalidad es un 30-32%. Además, una inclusión moderada de fibra soluble (12%) mejoró la integridad de la muco-sa y redujo la mortalidad y la frecuencia de detección de Clostridium perfringens y de Campylobacter spp en el cie-go. Un descenso del flujo ileal de nitrógeno tuvo también un efecto positivo sobre la viabilidad de los gazapos y la frecuencia de detección de C. perfringens. La suplementación del pienso con un 1% de glutamina redujo la mortali-dad en cebo y la frecuencia de detección de C. perfringens y Helicobacter spp, y disminuyó los conteos de Eimeria spp en el yeyuno. En conclusión, una formulación adecuada de los piensos puede ayudar a limitar la incidencia de en-teropatía epizoótica en conejos jóvenes. Palabras clave adicionales: conejos jóvenes, destete, fibra, funcionalidad de la barrera intestinal, proteína.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of neutral detergent-soluble fiber level on gut barrier function and intestinal microbiota was examined in weaned rabbits. A control diet (AH) containing 103 g of neutral detergent-soluble fiber/ kg of DM included alfalfa hay as main source of fiber. Another diet (B-AP) was formulated by replacing half of the alfalfa hay with a mixture of beet and apple pulp resulting in 131 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. A third diet (OH) was obtained by substituting half of the alfalfa hay with a mix of oat hulls and a soybean protein concentrate and contained 79 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. Rabbits weaned at 25 d and slaughtered at 35 d were used to determine ileal digestibility, jejunal morphology, sucrase activity, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal microbiota. Suckling 35-d-old rabbits were used to assess mucosa morphology. Mortality (from weaning to 63 d of age) was also determined. Villous height of the jejunal mucosa increased with soluble fiber (P = 0.001). Rabbits fed with the greatest level of soluble fiber (BA-P diet) showed the highest villous height/ crypt depth ratio (8.14; P = 0.001), sucrase specific activity (8,671 mumol of glucose/g of protein; P = 0.019), and the greatest ileal starch digestibility (96.8%; P = 0.002). The opposite effects were observed in rabbits fed decreased levels of soluble fiber (AH and OH diets; 4.70, 5,848 mumol of glucose/g of protein, as average, respectively). The lowest ileal starch digestibility was detected for animals fed OH diet (93.2%). Suckling rabbits of the same age showed a lower villous height/crypt depth ratio (6.70) compared with the B-AP diet group, but this ratio was higher than the AH or OH diet groups. Lower levels of soluble fiber tended (P = 0.074) to increase the cellular immune response (CD8+ lymphocytes). Diet affected IL-2 production (CD25+, P = 0.029; CD5+CD25+, P = 0.057), with no clear relationship between soluble fiber and IL-2. The intestinal microbiota biodiversity was not affected by diets (P >/= 0.38). Rabbits fed the B-AP and AH diets had a reduced cecal frequency of detection compatible with Campylobacter spp. (20.3 vs. 37.8, P = 0.074), and Clostridium perfringens (4.3 vs. 17.6%, P = 0.047), compared with the OH diet group. Moreover, the mortality rates decreased from 14.4 (OH diet) to 5.1% (B-AP diet) with the increased presence of soluble fiber in the diet. In conclusion, increased levels of dietary soluble fiber improve mucosal integrity and functionality.
Journal of Animal Science 01/2008; 85(12):3313-21. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to determine what concentration of a mixture of soybean hulls and defatted grape seed meal (SHDG) could be included in diets that meet or exceed ADL and particle size requirements for rabbits. Four isonitrogenous and isofibrous pelleted diets were formulated, with similar ADL concentration and particle size (18.3% CP, 42.6% NDF, 7.1% ADL, and 34.9% of particles larger than 0.315 mm, on a DM basis). Diets contained a constant ratio of soybean hulls:defatted grape seed meal (81:19) provided at 0, 13.3, 26.7, or 40% SHDG, which was substituted for a 35:35:30 mixture of alfalfa hay, sunflower hulls, and wheat straw. Thirty-six rabbits were used to determine nutrient digestibility and cecotrophy traits. A feeding trial was carried out using 160 weanling rabbits (30 d of age; 536 +/- 7.1 g). Milk production was measured in 56 rabbit does. Increasing concentrations of SHDG in the diet did not affect digestibilities of DM, GE, or NDF or DE that were on average 54.7, 55.2, and 21.6% and 10.2 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Digestibility of CP decreased in diets containing 40% (P = 0.002) and 26.7% (P = 0.054) SHDG compared with diets containing a lower percent of SHDG. Daily recycling of CP through cecotrophy, an indicator of microbial protein production, was not affected by SHDG inclusion. Growing rabbits fed 40% SHDG had reduced ADFI and ADG compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less (106 vs. 113, 111, or 111 g/d, and 35.8 vs. 37.8, 36.6, or 37.6 g/d, respectively). There was no effect on G:F from adding SHDG to the diets. In the 2-wk period after weaning, ADG decreased (P = 0.031) for rabbits fed 40% SHDG compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less (28.4 vs. 32.2, 30.8, of 32.2 g/d), with no effect on ADFI or G:F. Type of diet did not influence mortality during the fattening period, which averaged 6.25%. Rabbit does fed 40% SHDG had reduced ADFI (411 vs. 430 g/d; P = 0.023) compared with rabbits fed 26.7% SHDG or less, with no effect (P > 0.11) on milk production, weight of the litter at 21 d and at weaning (30 d), or parturition-effective mating interval. In conclusion, SHDG can be included up to 26.7% in diets for fattening rabbits and lactating does that meet ADL and particle size requirements.
Journal of Animal Science 01/2007; 85(1):181-7. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenously or intraspinally delivered human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been previously shown to improve the functional recovery of spinal cord-injured rats. Obtaining an animal model in the laboratory setting is critical for the development of experimental therapies. We have established a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) with basic histological and functional evaluations, ready to use for cell transplantation experiments.
In the first phase 10 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to standardize the laminectomy at D9-D10 without secondary lesions. In a second phase, 28 SD rats were laminectomized and injured at D9 by spinal cord compression for 3 to 5 seconds with an aneurysmal clip. Open-field behavior was assessed at days 2 and 7 postoperatively, and weekly until their sacrifice, using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. Two weeks postinjury, 14 immunosuppressed rats received a double intraspinal cell transplant of previously frozen UCB mononuclear cells (MNCs). Using a Hamilton syringe, 2.5 x 10(5) unlabelled MNCs in 10 microL medium were transplanted, rostrally and caudally to the lesion site. Rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks posttransplant by transcardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde, and spinal cords were dissected and further fixated for histological analysis.
No wound infections were observed. Thirteen rats developed urinary tract infections and two animals showed autophagia grade 3. We observed a common spontaneous mobility improvement until a certain limit, depending on the degree of lesion and intrinsic characteristics of the animal.
An animal model of SCI has been established. Critical parameters in the survival and correct functional analysis are continuous animal care postinjury, urinary tract infections, autophagia, and weight loss. In addition, electrophysiological measures might be necessary to properly assess functional modifications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The digestion and nutritive value of defatted grape seed meal (DGSM) was investigated. A basal diet was formulated to meet requirements of growing rabbits. Another diet was formulated by substituting 15.2% of the basal diet with DGSM. Two hundred eight weaned 30-d-old rabbits were fed these diets, and fattening performance was recorded. Eighty animals were used to study the effect of DGSM inclusion on cecal fermentation traits and intestinal disaccharidase activity at two ages (5 and 35 d after weaning). Fecal apparent digestibility of nutrients was measured in 18 rabbits. A third diet was formulated to contain DGSM (61.3%) as the sole source of fiber and a supplement consisting of wheat flour, casein, lard, and a mixture of vitamins and minerals to avoid nutrient imbalances. This semipurified diet was used to determine cecal digestion traits, disaccharidase activity in the small intestine, fecal apparent digestibility of nutrients, and rate of passage in 70-d-old rabbits. Digestible energy and NDF and CP digestibilities of DGSM calculated by difference were 5.51 +/- 0.89 MJ/kg DM, 24.5 +/- 5.76%, and 46.8 +/- 14.9%, respectively. Inclusion of 15% of DGSM in the basal diet increased ADFI in finishing rabbits (from 9 to 15%; P < 0.05), so that DE intake increased although dietary DE concentration decreased. As a consequence, ADG increased by 3.3% in the whole fattening period (P = 0.046). The increase in ADFI was parallel to an 8% decrease in the weight of cecal contents (P = 0.059), and it was in agreement with the relatively short cecal mean retention time of DGSM (7.61 h) in the semipurified diet. Inclusion of 15% of DGSM in the basal diet did not affect (P > or = 0.20) mortality (10.1%) or cecal concentrations of VFA, NH3 N, or cecal pH either at 5 d (71.9 mM, 17.7 mM, and 5.75, respectively) or at 35 d after weaning (74.6 mM, 10.1 mM, and 5.66, respectively) but improved the sucrase activity in the ileum by 36% (P = 0.031). Digestibility of NDF of DGSM in the semipurified diet was 8.57%, which agrees with the low acidity and weight of cecal contents of animals fed this diet (6.26 and 3.63% BW, respectively). From these results, we conclude that DGSM has a relatively high DE concentration and its inclusion at moderate levels (15%) in the diet exerts a positive effect on ADFI, DE intake, and ADG with no impairment of cecal fermentation and mortality.
Journal of Animal Science 02/2002; 80(1):162-70. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion in rabbits was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a fiber-free concentrate, based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix, to obtain diets containing at least 3% nitrogen and 5% starch. Daily soft feces excretion, and its NDF, and total and microbial nitrogen content were determined in 60 fattening rabbits (10 per diet). Seven days after the last cecotrophy control, the same animals were used to determine weight of stomach, cecum and their contents, and cecal fermentation traits (pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and buffer properties of cecal contents). Stepwise regression analysis showed a positive effect (P < .001) on soft feces excretion, total and microbial nitrogen concentrations in soft feces, cecal acidity, and total VFA in the cecum of dietary pectic constituents (2.9, 3.5, 2.5, .9, and 6.6%) and proportion of fine particles (< .315 mm) (1.8, .9, 1.3, .15, and .9%) per each increment of one percentage unit of the independent variables. Proportion of fine particles also increased weight of cecal contents (P < .001). Soft feces excretion and weight of stomach and of its contents increased (P < .001) by 5.2, 2.8, and 10.2% per each percentage unit increment of proportion of large particles (> 1.25 mm). Degree of lignification of NDF decreased total nitrogen concentration in soft feces and cecal VFA concentration (P < .001). Source of fiber affected cecal pH not only by its influence on the cecal concentrations of the final products of fermentation, but also through its effect on the pH of dry cecal contents (P < .001). The latter was negatively correlated with dietary proportion of fine particles, degree of lignification of NDF, and base-buffering capacity of dry cecal contents (r = -.52, -.37, and -.49, respectively). From these results, we conclude that pectic constituent concentration, degree of lignification of NDF, and particle size are the variables that best characterize the influence of the source of fiber on soft feces excretion and cecal fermentation traits in rabbits.
Journal of Animal Science 03/2000; 78(3):638-46. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion and mean retention time was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a concentrate free of fiber based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix to obtain diets containing at least 18.5% CP and 5% starch. Fecal apparent digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPd) and its monomers, NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL, were determined using four New Zealand White x California growing rabbits per diet. Total, ileorectal, and cecal mean retention times (tMRT, i-rMRT, and cMRT, respectively) were determined for diets based on paprika meal, olive leaves, soybean hulls, and sunflower hulls in 16 does (four per diet) fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. In both trials, DMI was negatively correlated with the proportion of fine particles (FP: < .315 mm) and positively correlated with the proportion of large particles (LP: > 1.25 mm) (P < .01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that FP was the dietary characteristic best related to digestibilities of NSP, uronic acids, glucose and NDF, tMRT, and cMRT (P < .001), showing a positive correlation with these variables. In all these cases, this procedure selected the proportion of large particles as a second variable in the model. Degree of lignification of NDF, considering lignin as the difference between ADL and acid detergent cutin, was only included as the third variable for the model of NDF digestibility. Digestibility of NSP was positively correlated with those of NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL (r = .82, .87 and .85, respectively, P < .001); the latter was also highly correlated with the digestibility of the glucose included in the NSP fraction (r = .86; P < .001). Cecal mean retention time accounted for 63% of average tMRT, for most of the variability in tMRT (r = .99; P < .001), and was positively related to NSPd (r = .89; P < .001). From these results, we conclude that particle size is a major factor affecting fiber digestion efficiency, rate of passage, and feed intake in rabbits.
Journal of Animal Science 04/1999; 77(4):898-905. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin infections caused by dermatophytes are one of the most frequent dermatological complications in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Tinea unguium associated with AIDS is characterized by being clinically more aggressive and therapeutically more difficult to treat than in the general population. Terbinafine is considered to be a first-choice option for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis in immunocompetent individuals. This drug has been used in a series of 21 HIV-positive patients diagnosed with tinea unguium for 1 year in the University Hospital La Paz, Madrid. All patients underwent a subsequent clinical follow-up for 6 months. The results showed a high percentage of clinical and mycological cures, as well as maintenance of the response after follow-up; no drug interactions or significant adverse effects related to the drug under study were recorded.
British Journal of Dermatology 11/1997; 137(4):577-80. · 3.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the patterns of clinical presentation in a series of 407 patients with uveitis and to establish the relationship between these patterns and the final diagnosis.
Patients were referred to the Uveitis Clinic of a tertiary hospital from January 1992 to January 1996. All patients received a complete ophthalmologic examination, and a general clinical history was obtained. The current International Uveitis Study Group classification system was used for anatomic classification. To establish the final diagnosis of the most common entities causing uveitis, current diagnostic criteria were used. A discriminant analysis, with diagnostic grouping as the outcome variable and the clinical presentation features as discriminating variables, was performed.
With our classification system, 66.5% of the cases could be correctly classified according to the clinical pattern and morphologic findings. By diagnostic groups, discriminant analysis showed that 75% of patients with Behçet's disease, 77.1% of those with spondylarthropathy (including inflammatory bowel disease), 33.3% of those with sarcoidosis, 97.9% of those with toxoplasmosis, 85.7% of those with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, 100% of those with herpes, and 50.4% of those with idiopathic uveitis were correctly classified. In the miscellaneous group, which included disease entities with fewer than 5 cases, 42.9% were correctly classified.
Rheumatologic evaluation of the patient with uveitis can be more cost-effective if the referring ophthalmologist follows the classification system described herein, allowing a tailored approach in which only specific and necessary diagnostic tests are used.