ABSTRACT: In order to study the mechanisms of action of Troglitazone (TGZ) in vivo in Type 2 diabetes, its effects were studied on glucose metabolism, lipolysis and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) kinetics.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed in 24 diet-treated patients randomized to receive TGZ 600 mg day(-1), TGZ 200 mg day(-1) or placebo for 8 weeks. Glucose and glycerol turnover were assessed after an overnight fast, and during sequential low-dose insulin infusions (0.01 U kg(-1) h(-1) followed by 0.015 U kg(-1) h(-1)) using 6,6-2H Glucose and 1,2,3-2H Glycerol. Very low-density lipoprotein apoB secretion was measured using l-13C-leucine, monitoring isotopic enrichment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment effects were analyzed by analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline.
Therapy resulted in a significant group differences in fasting plasma glucose adjusting for baseline (P=0.039). This was most evident at TGZ 600 mg daily [glucose decrease from (mean +/- SD) 9.2 +/- 2.7 to 6.6 +/- 0.9 mmol L(-1)]. HbA1c and insulin levels did not change significantly. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels decreased (P=0.045), most evidently at TGZ 200 mg daily, but glycerol was not significantly affected. Although no significant effects were observed on VLDL apoB or triglyceride concentrations, there were treatment differences in the absolute secretion rate of VLDL apoB of borderline (P=0.056) statistical significance, with a decrease observed at TGZ 600 mg daily [geometric mean, SD range, 0.94 (0.41-2.15) to 0.40 (0.14-1.13 mg kg(-1) h(-1))]. Very low-density lipoprotein apoB fractional secretion rate and pool size were unaffected. The VLDL triglyceride: apoB molar ratio differed between treatment groups (P=0.013), being higher in the TGZ 600 mg group [5714 (4128-7741) to 8092 (5669-11552)]. Neither glucose nor glycerol rates of appearance were significantly altered by TGZ and nor did TGZ affect their suppression by insulin.
The PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, decreases fasting glucose and NEFA levels in diet-treated Type 2 diabetes. It may also decrease VLDL particle secretion. These effects would be considered beneficial. The biological importance of the increase in VLDL-triglyceride enrichment warrants further study.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2004; 34(1):29-36. · 3.02 Impact Factor