J C Drake

National Cancer Institute (USA), Maryland, United States

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Publications (57)567.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine the expression of three targets of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) in human tumor cell lines and to compare these with the 50% growth inhibition concentrations (GI(50)) from the National Cancer Institute database. Thymidine kinase (TK) activity was assessed by conversion of [(3)H]thymidine to [(3)H]TMP. Thymidylate synthase (TS) protein expression was determined by Western analysis. TS and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) mRNA expression were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The median (range) for the targets were as follows: 5-FU GI(50), 20.8 microM (0.8-536); FdUrd GI(50), 0.75 microM (0.25-237); TK, 0.93 nmol/min/mg (0.16-5.7); in arbitrary units: TS protein, 0.41 (0.05-2.95); TS mRNA, 1.05 (0.12-6.41); and DPD mRNA, 1.09 (0.00-24.4). A moderately strong correlation was noted between 5-FU and FdUrd GI(50)s (r = 0.60), whereas a weak-moderate correlation was seen between TS mRNA and protein expression (r = 0.45). Neither TS expression nor TK activity correlated with 5-FU or FdUrd GI(50)s, whereas lines with lower DPD expression tended to be more sensitive to 5-FU. Cell lines with faster doubling times and wild-type p53 were significantly more sensitive to 5-FU and FDURD: The lack of correlation may in part be attributable to the influence of downstream factors such as p53, the observation that the more sensitive cell lines with faster doubling times also had higher TS levels, and the standard procedure of the screen that uses a relatively short (48-h) drug exposure.
    Clinical Cancer Research 05/2001; 7(4):999-1009. · 8.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been associated with thymidylate synthase (TS) gene amplification and increased TS protein levels. Increased TS protein expression has also been found to be a significant independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival in patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. In these studies and in our prior preclinical studies, TS has been considered a marker of proliferative capacity. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the association between TS levels and cell cycle regulation, by investigating cell cycle kinetics in a 5-FU-resistant cell line with constitutive overexpression of TS. The influence of increased TS levels on cell cycle progression may provide insight into methods to overcome 5-FU resistance. 5-FU-sensitive NCI H630(WT) and 5-FU-resistant NCI H630(R1) (with 15- to 20-fold higher TS protein levels) were utilized in this investigation to determine the influence of constitutive overexpression of TS on cell cycle kinetics. There was no apparent influence of increased TS levels on cell cycle distribution during asynchronous growth, and both cell lines reach plateau growth phase in 120 hours, arresting in G0/G1 as determined by flow cytometry. In the H630(WT) cells, this G0/ G1 arrest was associated with a 14- to 17-fold reduction in TS activity and protein levels (using the TS-106 monoclonal antibody), whereas in the H630(R1) cells, only a two- to fivefold reduction was noted. Flow cytometry analysis utilizing Ki-67 indicated that there was no evidence of a G0 population in the confluent H630(R1), whereas 26% +/- 7% of confluent H630(WT) cells were Ki-67 negative (G0) and the remainder had low Ki-67 signal intensity. Analysis of pRb phosphorylation and p16 and p21 expression suggested that the arrest point for both cell lines was before the point at which Rb phosphorylation takes place, yet the confluent H630(R1) cells had threefold higher p21 than confluent H630(WT) cells. These data suggest that the 5-FU-resistant H630(R1) cell lines arrest at a later point in G0/G1 and have a potentially greater capacity for proliferation.
    The Cancer Journal 01/2000; 6(4):234-42. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS, EC is an important target enzyme for the fluoropyrimidines used in cancer chemotherapy. Studies have documented a 2- to 4-fold induction of TS protein following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment of malignant cells. We measured the effect that 5-FU exposure had on TS protein expression in nonmalignant human breast (MCF-10 and HBL-100), colorectal (ATCC Co18, Co112, and Co33), and bone marrow cells along with malignant breast (MCF-7) and colon (NCI-H630) cells. Twenty-four hours after plating, cells were treated with 0.01 to 10 microM of 5-FU for a period of 24 hr. TS was quantitated by Western immunoblot using monoclonal antibody TS106. Absolute levels of TS in nonmalignant cells were substantially lower than in the malignant lines, ranging from approximately 40% in HBL-100 cells to less than 10% in the colon lines. An approximately two-fold induction in the level of TS was found for all cell lines examined, and there was a strong dependence on 5-FU exposure concentration in free TS levels of MCF-WT, and total TS levels of H630-WT, normal bone marrow, and MCF-10 cells. The induction of TS following 5-FU exposure is a generally observed phenomenon in both malignant and nonmalignant cells, suggesting that a selective means for inhibiting this induction may be critical for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies using 5-FU and the antifolate TS inhibitors.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 08/1998; 56(2):231-5. DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00152-X · 5.01 Impact Factor

  • Biochemical Pharmacology 07/1998; 56(2). · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) has been shown to have synergistic cytotoxicity in human tumours, but the biochemical mechanism for this interaction remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of 5-FU and CDDP in a human colon carcinoma cell line, NCI H548. A 24 h exposure to 5-FU resulted in a 5-FU IC50 value of 24.2 +/- 4.5 microM, Dm 22.6 microM; exposure to CDDP for 2 h resulted in a IC50 value of 20.8 +/- 8.0 microM, Dm 21.9 microM. When cells were exposed simultaneously to 5-FU for 24 h and CDDP for the initial 2 h, or when cells were treated with CDDP for 2 h followed by various concentrations of 5-FU for 24 h, no greater than additive cytotoxicity was observed. In contrast, when cells were treated with 5-FU for 24 h prior to CDDP for 2 h, a greater than additive interaction was noted (5-FU IC50 1.2 +/- 0.6 microM, Dm 1.3 microM, CI 0.45). Thymidine 10 microM partially reversed the growth inhibitory effects of the 5-FU/ CDDP combination. Using both immunological and biochemical assays, no notable differences in the total amount of TS enzyme or the fraction of bound TS enzyme could be detected in the absence or presence of CDDP. No notable differences could be detected in intracellular reduced folate pools, FdUMP or FUTP pools, or 5-FU incorporation into RNA or DNA with the addition of CDDP to 5-FU. DNA fragmentation studies revealed that the combination of 5-FU followed by CDDP demonstrated a greater degree of single-stranded DNA fragments in parental (P = 0.024) and newly synthesised DNA (P = 0.025) compared with the administration of CDDP prior to 5-FU or either drug alone. The increase in smaller DNA fragment size was reversed with the addition of thymidine (10 microM). These findings suggest that the interaction of 5-FU and CDDP is associated with a greater degree of fragmentation of both nascent and parental DNA.
    European Journal of Cancer 12/1996; 32A(12):2148-54. DOI:10.1016/S0959-8049(96)00266-3 · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZD1694 (Tomudex; TDX) is a quinazoline antifolate that, when polyglutamated, is a potent inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS), the enzyme that converts dUMP to dTMP. Continuous exposure of MCF-7 breast and NCI H630 colon cells to TDX, with stepwise increases in TDX up to 2.0 microM, resulted in stably resistant cell lines (MCFTDX and H630TDX) that were highly resistant to TDX. Initial studies revealed 34-fold increase in TS protein levels in MCFTDX and a 52-fold increase in TS levels in H630TDX cell lines. Despite continued exposure of these cells to 2.0 microM TDX, TS protein and TS mRNA expression decreased to parental levels in H630TDX cells, whereas in MCFTDX cells TS mRNA expression and TS protein levels remained elevated. Southern blot analysis revealed a 20-fold TS gene amplification in the MCFTDX cell line. TDX uptake was 2-fold higher in resistant MCFTDX cells than in parental MCF-7 cells, whereas in H630TDX cells TDX uptake was 50-fold less than that observed in parental H630 cells. In contrast, no change in the transport of either leucovorin or methotrexate into H630TDX cells was noted when compared with the H630 parental cells. In H630TDX cells, folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) activity was 48-fold less compared to parent H630 cells; however, FPGS mRNA expression was similar in both lines. H630TDX cells were also highly resistant to ZD9331, a novel quinazoline TS inhibitor that does not require polyglutamation, suggesting that defective transport by the reduced folate carrier was also an important mechanism of resistance in these cells. In MCFTDX and H630TDX resistant cells, several mechanisms of resistance are apparent: one increased TS expression; the others evolved over time from increased TS expression to decreased FPGS levels and decreased TDX transport.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 06/1996; 51(10):1349-55. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(96)00057-3 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • P G Johnston · K A Behan · C J Allegra · J C Drake ·

    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11/1995; 87(20):1558-9. DOI:10.1093/jnci/87.20.1558-a · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    J C Drake · D M Voeller · C J Allegra · P G Johnston ·
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the importance of dosing interval between leucovorin (LCV) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on intracellular thymidylate synthase (TS) ternary complex, free TS and total TS protein levels in human MCF-7 breast and NCI H630 colon cancer cell lines. A 2- to 3-fold increase in total TS was noted when either cell line was exposed to 5-FU 10 microM plus LCV (0.01-10 microM) compared with a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in total TS due to 5-FU 10 microM alone. The amount of TS ternary complex formed was 2- to 3-fold higher in both cell lines treated with the combination of 5-FU and LCV compared with 5-FU alone. TS complex formation and total TS protein increased with LCV dose (0.1-10 microM). In MCF-7 cells, the maximal increase in total TS protein and TS ternary complex formation was observed when 5-FU was delayed for 4 h after the start of LCV exposure. In NCI H630 cells, maximal total TS protein and ternary complex formation occurred when 5-FU was delayed for 18 h after the start of LCV exposure. The amount of free TS did not change in either cell line whether 5-FU was given concurrently with LCV or delayed for up to 24 h. The accumulation rate of intracellular folates in the form of higher glutamates Glu3-Glu5 was rapid in MCF-7 cells (maximal formation after 4 h), whereas in H630 cells accumulation of higher polyglutamates continued to increase up to 18 h. The time of peak folate polyglutamate (Glu3-Glu5) formation coincided with the time of peak TS complex formation and total TS protein in each cell line. In these human carcinoma cell lines, the LCV dose and interval between 5-FU and LCV play a role in increased TS total protein and TS ternary complex; however, the amount of free TS is independent of the interval between 5-FU and LCV. The time-and dose-dependent increases in TS ternary complex and TS total protein are associated with differences in the accumulation of folate polyglutamates in these cell lines. Images Figure 2
    British Journal of Cancer 07/1995; 71(6):1145-50. DOI:10.1038/bjc.1995.224 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have analysed cell cycle variations in thymidylate synthase (TS) protein in asynchronously growing NCl H630 and HT 29 colon cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Western immunoblot analysis using the TS 106 monoclonal antibody revealed a 14- to 24-fold variation in TS levels between the peak exponential and confluent growth phase in the three cell lines. Similar variations in TS levels and TS activity were detected using the 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate and deoxyuridine monophosphate biochemical assays. The percentage of cells in S-phase, which paralleled changes in TS levels, reached a maximum of 38-60% in asynchronous exponentially growing cells compared with 5-10% in confluent cells. In asynchronous exponential cells, analysis of TS levels in each cell cycle phase using two-parameter flow cytometric analysis revealed that TS protein levels were 1.3- to 1.5-fold higher in S than in G0/G1 phase cells, and 1.5- to 1.8-fold higher in G2/M than G0/G1 cells. Similar differences of 1.1- to 1.5-fold between G0/G1 and S-phase and 1.6- to 1.9-fold between G0/G1 and G2/M-phase were detected by Western immunoblot and biochemical assays. TS protein was not detectable by Western blot analysis, flow cytometry or biochemical analysis in the G0/G1 population of confluent cells. Twenty-six per cent of cells in this population were G0 cells compared with 2% in exponentially growing cells. In contrast to TS, a 4-fold difference in thymidine kinase (TK) was detected between G0/G1 and S-phase cells in exponentially growing MCF-7 cells. The level of TS enzyme is associated with cellular proliferation and the percentage of cells in S-phase; however, TS protein is not exclusively associated with S-phase in asynchronously growing cells. The variation in TS levels between exponentially growing and confluent cell population appears to be due to differences in TS levels between G0 and G1 cells. Images Figure 4
    British Journal of Cancer 07/1995; 71(6):1151-7. DOI:10.1038/bjc.1995.225 · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • Sitki Copur · Keisuke Aiba · James C. Drake · Carmen J. Allegra · Edward Chu ·
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant human colon H630 cancer cell lines were established by continuous exposure of cells to 5-FU. The concentration of 5-FU required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% (IC50) in the parent colon line (H630) was 5.5 microM. The 5-FU IC50 values for the resistant H630-R1, H630-R10, and H630-R cell lines were 11-, 29-, and 27-fold higher than that for the parent H630 cell line. Using both the radioenzymatic 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (FdUMP) binding and catalytic assays for measurement of thymidylate synthase (TS) enzyme activity, there was significantly increased TS activity in resistant H630-R1 (13- and 23-fold), H630-R10 (37- and 40-fold), and H630-R (24- and 34-fold) lines, for binding and catalytic assays, respectively, compared with the parent H630 line. The level of TS protein, as determined by western immunoblot analysis, was increased markedly in resistant H630-R1 (23-fold), H630-R10 (33-fold), and H630-R (26-fold) cells. Northern analysis revealed elevations in TS mRNA levels in H630-R1 (18-fold), H630-R10 (39-fold), and H630-R (36-fold) cells relative to parent H630 cells. Although no major rearrangements of the TS gene were noted by Southern analysis, there was significant amplification of the TS gene in 5-FU-resistant cells, which was confirmed by DNA slot blot analysis. These studies demonstrate that continuous exposure of human colon cancer cells to 5-FU leads to TS gene amplification and overexpression of TS protein with resultant development of fluoropyrimidine resistance.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 06/1995; 49(10):1419-26. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(95)00067-A · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the prognostic importance of the level of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression in patients with primary rectal cancer and whether, for Dukes' B and C cancer patients, the benefit of chemotherapy was associated with TS expression. The level of TS expression in the primary rectal cancers of 294 of 801 patients enrolled on protocol R-01 of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) was immunohistochemically assessed with the monoclonal antibody TS 106. Forty-nine percent of patients whose tumors had low TS levels (n = 91) were disease free at 5 years compared with 27% of patients with high levels of TS (n = 203; P < .01). Moreover, 60% of patients with low TS levels were alive after 5 years compared with 40% of patients with high TS levels (P < .01). The level of TS protein was significantly associated with Dukes' stage (P < .01); patients with a more advanced Dukes' stage had a significantly higher level of TS. The level of TS expression remained prognostic for both disease-free survival (P < .01) and survival (P < .05) independent of Dukes' stage and other pathologic characteristics evaluated. Thirty-eight percent and 54% of patients with high TS levels (n = 71) were disease free and alive, respectively, after 5 years when treated with chemotherapy, compared with 17% and 31%, respectively, of similar patients when treated with surgery alone (n = 64) (P < .01). No difference was noted in disease-free survival (P = .46) or survival (P = .43) in patients with low TS levels. The expression of TS is an important independent prognosticator of disease-free survival and survival in patients with rectal cancer. Adjuvant fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy demonstrated significant improvement in disease-free and overall survival for patients with high TS levels. Prospective studies measuring TS levels will be needed to understand further the role of TS as a prognosticator of survival and chemotherapeutic benefit.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/1994; 12(12):2640-7. · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the cytotoxicity, biochemical effects and metabolism of 4-memethoxy-8-(β-d-ribofuranosylamino)pyrimido[5,4-d] pyrimidine (MRPP), a synthetic nucleoside inhibitor of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, in HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells. A 4-hr exposure to 1 and 10 μM MRPP inhibited cell growth over a 72-hr period by 76 and 89%, and inhibited clonogenic capacity by 36 and 65%, respectively. MRPP was avidly metabolized to the 5′-monophosphate derivative (MRPP-MP), and MRPP-MP formation increased with increasing MRPP exposure (μM·hr). MRPP-MP was stable, and the intracellular half-life was in excess of 48 hr. A 4-hr exposure to 10 μM MRPP resulted in significant decreases in ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP, dATP, dTTP, and PRPP pools. Near maximal ribonucleotide triphosphate depletion was achieved with ≥24 μM·hr MRPP, and growth inhibition as a function of MRPP μM·hr closely reflected the biochemical effects. Ribonucleotide triphosphate pools remained depleted for up to 48 hr after drug removal, apparently as a consequence of the prolonged retention of MRPP-MP. MRPP (10 μM) inhibited the salvage of [3H]guanine, [3H]-adenine and [3H]guanosine, and concurrent exposure to MRPP and either 100 μM adenine, hypoxanthine, or guanine did not reverse ATP or GTP depletion. Concurrent exposure to 10 μM MRPP and either 10 μM adenosine, uridine or thymidine was accompanied by repletion of ATP, UTP, and dTTP pools, respectively, but depletion of other nucleotide pools was not corrected. In contrast, 10 μM guanosine did not correct GTP depletion in the presence of MRPP. The combination of 10 μM each of thymidine, uridine, adenosine and guanosine during and following a 24-hr exposure to MRPP provided partial protection against 0.1 or 1 μM MRPP, but did not affect the cytotoxicity associated with 10 μM MRPP. MRPP is a novel antimetabolite that inhibits both de novo and salvage pathways for purine synthesis and de novo pyrimidine synthesis.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 11/1994; 48(11):2117-26. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(94)90513-4 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Jean L Grem · James C Drake · Carmen J Allegra ·
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    ABSTRACT: We developed an assay which permits measurement of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACTase) activity. Cytosol from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was used as the enzyme source. Using [14C]carbamoyl phosphate as the radiolabeled substrate, the formation of [14C]carbamoyl aspartate was quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an anion-exchange column with UV detection at 200-280 nm and an on-line liquid scintillation detector. A gradient method from an initially low concentration of ammonium phosphate, 1 mM (pH 3.0), to a higher concentration, 38 mM (pH 4.5), was used. The apparent Km values of carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate were 58 microM and 1.9 mM, respectively. ACTase inhibition by N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA) was consistent with a competitive model with respect to carbamoyl phosphate. The assay conditions were optimized to permit measurement of ACTase activity prior to and following therapy with PALA; ACTase was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. This HPLC method permits direct quantitation of both the product of the reaction and the initial integrity of the substrate, [14C]carbamoyl phosphate, which is unstable in aqueous solutions.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 11/1993; 4(5):545-54. DOI:10.1097/00001813-199310000-00003 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies suggest that the biochemical effects of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA), an inhibitor of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACTase), may increase the metabolic activation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and enhance its cytotoxicity through both RNA- and DNA-directed mechanisms. In this Phase I trial, 22 evaluable patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract were entered at escalating doses of 5-FU starting at 1150 mg/m2/day given as a concurrent 72-h i.v. infusion with a fixed dose of leucovorin (LCV), 500 mg/m2/day. The dose of 5-FU was escalated within patients according to individual tolerance, and then PALA at 250 mg/m2 was added 24 h prior to the initiation of the 5-FU/LCV infusion of the subsequent cycle. Dose-limiting mucositis and myelosuppression occurred during the initial cycle in 3 of 5 patients treated with 2300 mg/m2/day 5-FU; therefore, the recommended dose of 5-FU with concurrent LCV is 2000 mg/m2/day. Twenty-seven additional patients were then treated with escalating doses of PALA ranging from 375 to 2848 mg/m2, i.v., followed 24 h later by 2000 mg/m2/day 5-FU with high-dose LCV. Dose-limiting mucositis and myelosuppression occurred during the initial cycle in 2 of 3 patients entered at 2848 mg/m2 PALA. Dose-limiting mucositis and skin rash ultimately required both PALA and 5-FU dose reductions in 4 of 6 patients treated with 1899 mg/m2 PALA. Toxicity was similar, however, in patients receiving PALA at doses ranging from 375 to 1266 mg/m2. The mean steady-state plasma concentration of 5-FU at 2000 mg/m2/day was 6.5 +/- 0.9 microM; patients with 5-FU levels > 9 microM had a significantly higher incidence of serious gastrointestinal and hematological toxicity. Compared to each patient's own baseline, a significant trend for decreasing ACTase activity with increasing PALA dose was evident using cytosol isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells 24 h after PALA treatment (P2 = 0.01). PALA < or = 844 mg/m2 failed to appreciably inhibit ACTase activity at 24 h in most patients; furthermore, a decrease in ACTase activity by > 50% from baseline was seen in only 29% of cycles. More consistent inhibition of ACTase activity was seen with PALA > or = 1266 mg/m2. Even with the highest PALA doses, however, ACTase activity returned to baseline by 96 h in most patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
    Cancer Research 10/1993; 53(20):4828-36. · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • James C Drake · Carmen J Allegra · Patrick G Johnston ·
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is responsible for the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. One of the principal mechanisms of action of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the inhibition of TS by formation of a ternary covalent complex consisting of TS-5-fluorodeoxyuridylate-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. We have developed a Western immunoblot assay using the monoclonal antibody TS 106 to measure ternary complex and free TS in intact human carcinoma cells following exposure to either 5-FU alone or 5-FU plus leucovorin. Lysates from cells treated with either 5-FU or 5-FU/leucovorin were resolved in 15% polyacrylamide gel, transferred onto nitrocellulose and immunoblotted using TS 106 antibody. Detection of positive bands was by a chromogenic substrate strain. Immunoblotting detected free TS at 36 kDa and TS in ternary complex at 38.5 kDa which were quantitated by densitometric scanning. This assay was able to detect a ternary complex from intact cells treated with 5-FU or 5-FU/leucovorin up to 96 h after drug removal. The ratio of complex to free TS was up to 2-fold greater in 5-FU/leucovorin-treated cells compared to those treated with 5-FU alone. This assay may be applied to measuring the formation and stability of ternary complex and free TS in patient tissue samples.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 09/1993; 4(4):431-5. DOI:10.1097/00001813-199308000-00002 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS; EC is an important therapeutic target for fluoropyrimidine cytotoxic drugs that are widely used for the treatment of solid tumors. Using the monoclonal antibody TS 106, we have developed an ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the detection and quantitation of TS. Using a chemiluminescent ELISA technique, TS was detectable in serially diluted lysates from NCI H630 and HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cell lines. The ELISA assay was reliably able to detect activity down to a level of 30 attamol of TS protein above background (P2 = 0.016). The usable range of detection was from 0.03 to 500 fmol of enzyme. There was a close correlation between the optical density signal and the total TS enzyme between both cell lines (r2 = 0.96). The ELISA was used to measure TS in cytosolic extracts from human tumor samples, and it was able to quantitate TS levels using as little as 1-mg tumor biopsy samples. The mean total TS measured by ELISA in seven tumor samples from patients with breast cancer and sarcomas was 131 fmol/mg cytosolic protein (range 60-240) compared with a mean TS of 85 fmol/mg cytosolic protein (range 35-163) using the fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate binding assay. While the TS levels were uniformly higher when measured by ELISA, there was close proportional agreement between both assays (r2 = 0.84). Thus, the chemiluminescent TS ELISA would appear to be an extremely sensitive and specific assay that may be used to quantitate TS in tumor tissue specimens.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 07/1993; 45(12):2483-6. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90230-T · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • J L Grem · N McAtee · J C Drake · S Steinberg · C J Allegra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-eight patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract were treated on this trial. The MTD of 5-FU given as a 72 hour infusion with high-dose leucovorin was initially determined to be 2000 mg/m2/d. Patients were treated at PALA dose levels ranging from 250 to 2848 mg/m2. Biochemical assessment of target enzyme activity was performed at each PALA dose level. We conclude that compared to each patient's own baseline, PALA at 250 mg/m2 failed to appreciably inhibit ACTase activity at 24 hours in most patients. More consistent inhibition of ACTase activity was seen with PALA at or above 1266 mg/m2, but toxicity was prohibitive with 2848 mg/m2 PALA. Even with the highest PALA doses, ACTase activity was back to baseline by 96 hours in most patients. PALA at 1266 mg/m2 given 24 hours prior to the start of 72 hour infusional 5-FU plus high-dose leucovorin was associated with acceptable toxicity and did not appear to compromise 5-FU dose-intensity. Finally, because of interpatient variability in the degree of ACTase inhibition following PALA, biochemical monitoring of target enzyme activity may permit more rational adjustment of the PALA dose in individual patients.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/1993; 339:119-23. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that human TS mRNA translation is regulated by its protein product in a negative autoregulatory manner. In this paper, we identify an RNA binding site for TS protein located within the first 188 nt of TS RNA. A 36-nt RNA sequence contained within this 188-nt fragment, corresponding to nt 75-110 and including the translational initiation site, binds TS protein with an affinity similar to that of both the full-length and the 188-nt TS RNA sequences. Variant RNAs with either a deletion or a mutation at the translational initiation region are unable to compete for TS protein binding. UV crosslinking studies reveal that an RNA fragment of approximately 36 nt is protected from RNase T1 digestion by TS protein binding. A second TS protein-binding site is localized within the protein-coding region corresponding to nt 434-634. These findings demonstrate a specific interaction between human TS protein and its TS RNA and identify an RNA binding site that includes the translational initiation site.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1993; 90(2):517-21. DOI:10.1073/pnas.90.2.517 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    P G Johnston · J C Drake · J Trepel · C J Allegra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS) (EC is an important cellular target for the fluoropyrimidine cytotoxic drugs that are widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Using the TS 106 monoclonal antibody to human TS, we have compared the immunological quantitation of TS by Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent techniques to the conventional biochemical 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate binding assay in a panel of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-sensitive and -resistant human cancer cell lines. Densitometric quantitation of TS 106-labeled Western immunoblot analysis of cell lysates from two 5-FU-resistant colon carcinoma cell lines, NCI H630R1 and NCI H630R10, revealed 12.8- and 16-fold increases in TS, respectively, compared to the parent 5-FU-sensitive NCI H630 colon cell line. By biochemical analysis, the TS level was 15- and 23-fold higher, respectively, in these resistant cell lines. Similarly, immunoblot analysis of cell lysates from two 5-FU-resistant breast cancer cell lines, MCF-Ad5 and MCF-Ad10, detected a 2.3- and 6.3-fold increase in TS, respectively, compared to the parent MCF-7 cell line. By biochemical assay the TS activity was 1.8- and 7.0-fold higher in these resistant breast cell lines. Western immunoblotting analysis revealed a 35-fold range of TS protein concentrations among the 10 cell lines examined, compared to a 38-fold range demonstrated by the biochemical assay. Direct comparison of Western blotting and the biochemical assay revealed a highly significant correlation (r2 = 0.93) between the two assays. Moreover, using the monoclonal antibody TS 106, the Western blotting technique was capable of detecting TS protein levels as low as 0.3 fmol in cellular lysates. Quantitation of TS in intact cells by immunofluorescent TS labeling and flow cytometric analysis was performed using three of the cell lines, NCI H630, NCI H630R10, and MCF-Ad10. This revealed a 26-fold increase in TS in the 5-FU-resistant NCI H630R10 line compared to the parent NCI H630 line and a 3.5-fold increase in TS compared to the 5-FU-resistant MCF-Ad10 breast cell line. The 5-FU-resistant MCF-Ad10 breast cell line, in turn, displayed a 7.7-fold increase in TS, compared to the 5-FU-sensitive NCI H630 cell lines. TS immunofluorescent analysis was capable of measuring TS within individual cells. The development of these immunological assays using an anti-TS monoclonal antibody will facilitate the quantitation of TS in cell lines and tissue samples.
    Cancer Research 09/1992; 52(16):4306-12. · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    E Chu · D M Koeller · J L Casey · J C Drake · B A Chabner · P C Elwood · S Zinn · C J Allegra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:dUMP C-methyltransferase, EC is essential for the de novo synthesis of thymidylate, a precursor of DNA. Previous studies have shown that the cellular level of this protein is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The regulation of human TS mRNA translation was studied in vitro with a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The addition of purified human recombinant TS protein to in vitro translation reactions inhibited translation of TS mRNA. This inhibition was specific in that recombinant TS protein had no effect on the in vitro translation of mRNA for human chromogranin A, human folate receptor, preplacental lactogen, or total yeast RNA. The inclusion of dUMP, 5-fluoro-dUMP, or 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate in in vitro translation reactions completely relieved the inhibition of TS mRNA translation by TS protein. Gel retardation assays confirmed a specific interaction between TS protein and its corresponding mRNA but not with unrelated mRNAs, including human placenta, human beta-actin, and yeast tRNA. These studies suggest that translation of TS mRNA is controlled by its own protein end product, TS, in an autoregulatory manner.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1991; 88(20):8977-81. DOI:10.1073/pnas.88.20.8977 · 9.67 Impact Factor

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4k Citations
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  • 1980-1998
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1974-1996
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Branch of Medical Oncology Branch and Affiliates
      • • Critical Care Medicine Department
      • • Chemical Biology Laboratory
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1991
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1984
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States