ABSTRACT: To examine the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in subjects of the Framingham Study reporting new chest discomfort.
Original cohort subjects with chest discomfort were classified by their history into three groups: definite angina, possible angina, or nonanginal chest discomfort. Subjects were followed for 2 years for CHD events, including coronary insufficiency, myocardial infarction, or CHD death.
Compared to that in subjects without chest discomfort, the relative odds of a CHD event was 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11, 6.60) in men with definite angina and 3.0 (95% CI 1.33, 6.69) in men with possible angina. Comparable increased CHD risk was also observed in women with definite or possible angina, with relative odds of 5.4 (95% CI 3.08, 9.30) and 2.9 (95% CI 1.13, 7.17), respectively. The increase in CHD risk associated with definite or possible angina persisted after adjustment for cardiac risk factor profile. There was no increase in risk associated with nonanginal chest discomfort.
CHD risk is increased in subjects with new chest discomfort that on the basis of history is consistent with definite or possible angina, whereas CHD risk is not increased in subjects with nonanginal chest discomfort. The presence of chest discomfort and its characteristics facilitate the classification of subjects into meaningful categories that offer prognostic information beyond that provided by traditional CHD risk factors.
The American Journal of Medicine 10/1990; 89(3):297-302. · 5.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare the short- and long-term prognosis following a first Q-wave or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.
Cohort study with a mean follow-up period of 5.1 +/- 4.9 years.
Framingham (Mass) Heart Study subjects with an initial recognized myocardial infarction during a 17-year period were studied, including 227 men and 136 women with a mean age of 67.2 years. Seventy-seven percent of first infarctions were Q-wave infarctions and 23% were non-Q-wave infarctions.
Reinfarction and death from coronary heart disease.
During the follow-up period, subjects with non-Q-wave infarctions had a significantly higher rate of reinfarction than subjects in the Q-wave group (P = .02 for the entire follow-up). The 10-year reinfarction rates were 44.8% vs 27.4%. When analyzed separately by age and sex, differences in reinfarction rates were only noted in men and in those under the age of 65 years. There were no differences in coronary heart disease death rates based on Q-wave status, even when examined separately by age and sex. Multivariate analysis revealed a 1.8-fold higher risk of reinfarction in the non-Q-wave group (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.1), and also demonstrated that baseline hypertension was an independent risk factor for predicting reinfarction (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.2). There were no differences in the rates of sudden death or all-cause mortality following the two types of myocardial infarction. Additionally, subjects with a first Q-wave infarction had a higher rate of subsequent congestive heart failure, while those with non-Q-wave infarctions had a significantly higher rate of coronary insufficiency (unstable angina with transient ST-T wave abnormalities).
These results confirm and extend findings from prior studies that have identified patients with first non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions as potentially unstable, with greater subsequent morbidity and similar mortality to their counterparts with Q-wave infarctions.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 268(12):1545-51. · 30.03 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Elevated serum creatinine (SCr) levels are a predictor of end-stage renal disease, but little is known about the prevalence of elevated SCr levels and their correlates in the community.
In this cross-sectional, community-based sample, SCr levels were measured in 6233 adults (mean age, 54 years; 54% women) who composed the "broad sample" of this investigation. A subset, consisting of 3241 individuals who were free of known renal disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes, constituted the healthy reference sample. In this latter sample, sex-specific 95th percentiles for SCr levels (men, 136 micromol/L [1.5 mg/dL]; women, 120 micromol/L [1.4 mg/dL]) were labeled cutpoints. These cutpoints were applied to the broad sample in a logistic regression model to identify prevalence and correlates of elevated SCr levels.
The prevalence of elevated SCr levels was 8.9% in men and 8.0% in women. Logistic regression in men identified age, treatment for hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.42), and body mass index (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15) as correlates of elevated SCr levels. Additionally, men with diabetes who were receiving antihypertensive medication were more likely to have raised SCr values (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.60-5.39). In women, age, use of cardiac medications (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.96), and treatment for hypertension (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.87) were associated with elevated SCr levels.
Elevated SCr levels are common in the community and are strongly associated with older age, treatment for hypertension, and diabetes. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the clinical outcomes of individuals with elevated levels of SCr and to examine factors related to the progression of renal disease in the community.
Archives of Internal Medicine 159(15):1785-90. · 11.46 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Congestive heart failure increases in prevalence with age. A large number of elderly subjects with heart failure have either normal or slightly reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function; their symptoms are due to diastolic LV dysfunction. Reference values for Doppler indexes of LV diastolic filling in a large sample of the very elderly (> 70) have not been reported previously. The objective of this study was to generate reference values for Doppler indexes of LV filling in a population of apparently healthy elderly men and women. A total of 1201 surviving original subjects of the Framingham Heart Study were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. A subset of 114 rigorously selected healthy subjects (26 men and 88 women) aged 70 to 87 years (mean 76) constituted the study group. Measurements of seven commonly used Doppler indexes were obtained. Mean and 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97.5 percentile values for Doppler diastolic indexes were generated. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the relation of diastolic LV filling to age group (70 to 74 years, 75 to 79 years, and 80 years and over), sex, and other clinical variables. Reference values for the various Doppler parameters were generated on the basis of this healthy elderly cohort. There was evidence for a slight progressive decline in indexes of LV inflow with age. In 87% of this elderly population the ratio of peak early to late velocities of LV diastolic inflow was less than 1.0.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 6(6):570-6. · 3.71 Impact Factor