D T Shih

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (7)29.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B is a proto-oncogene capable of transforming fibroblasts. Using adenoviral vectors, we tested whether endogenous PDGF-B expression in human skin xenotransplants leads to changes in the expression of alpha5 and alpha2 integrin subunits and whether integrin overexpression leads to PDGF-related changes in the skin. In vitro, transduction of fibroblasts with PDGF-B or the integrin alpha5 subunit stimulated multilayered growth and spindle-type morphology, both markers of mesenchymal cell transformation. In vivo, PDGF-B transduction of the human dermis was associated with up-regulation of collagen and fibronectin synthesis, increases in alpha5 and alpha2 integrin subunit expression, vessel formation, and proliferation of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and pericytes. A similar stromal response was induced when alpha5 and alpha2 integrin subunits were overexpressed in the human dermis, suggesting that integrins play a major role in the induction of a transformed phenotype of fibroblasts by PDGF-B.
    Laboratory Investigation 10/2001; 81(9):1263-74. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the beta3 subunit of the alphavbeta3 vitronectin receptor on melanoma cells is associated with tumor thickness and the ability to invade and metastasize. To address the role of alphavbeta3 in the complex process of progression from the nontumorigenic radial to the tumorigenic vertical growth phase of primary melanoma, we examined the biological consequences of overexpressing alphavbeta3 in early-stage melanoma cells using an adenoviral vector for gene transfer. Overexpression of functional alphavbeta3 in radial growth phase primary melanoma cells 1) promotes both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, 2) initiates invasive growth from the epidermis into the dermis in three-dimensional skin reconstructs, 3) prevents apoptosis of invading cells, and 4) increases tumor growth in vivo. Thus, alphavbeta3 serves diverse biological functions during the progression from the nontumorigenic radial growth phase to the tumorigenic and-invasive vertical growth phase primary melanoma.
    American Journal Of Pathology 12/1998; 153(5):1435-42. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    D T Shih, D Boettiger, C A Buck
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    ABSTRACT: Several recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of various domains of the beta 1 integrin subunit in ligand binding. Thus, specific amino acids have been shown to be important in divalent cation binding, and others have been implicated by peptide crosslinking to play an intimate role in integrin-ligand interactions. Added to these data are previous observations that a group of adhesion-blocking anti-chicken beta 1 antibodies mapped within the first 160 amino acid residues of the subunit. These observations suggested that this region plays a critical role in integrin ligand recognition. In order to further define the domain in which the epitopes for these antibodies are clustered, a series of mouse/chicken chimeric beta 1 constructs were examined for their reactivity with each of these antibodies. Most of the antibodies recognize a region between residues 124 to 160 of the chicken beta 1 subunit. Computer modeling predicted a possible amphipathic alpha-helical configuration for the region between residues 141 to 160. Consistent with this prediction, circular dichroism and NMR analysis revealed a tendency for a synthetic peptide containing these residues to form an alpha-helix. The significance of this structural characteristic was demonstrated by a mutation at residue 149 that disrupted the alpha-helix formation and resulted in a loss of the ability to form heterodimers with alpha subunits, localize to focal contacts, or be transported to the cell surface. The direct involvement of residues 141 to 160 in ligand binding was supported by the ability of a peptide with this sequence to elute integrins from a fibronectin affinity column. Thus, our data suggest that residues 141 to 160 of the integrin beta 1 subunit, when arranged in an alpha-helix configuration, participate in ligand binding.
    Journal of Cell Science 11/1997; 110 ( Pt 20):2619-28. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The monoclonal antibody 9EG7 has been previously found to recognize an epitope induced by manganese on the integrin beta 1 chain (Lenter, M., Uhlig, H., Hamann, A., Jeno, P., Imhof, B., and Vestweber, D. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9051-9055). Here we show that treatment of beta 1 integrins with manganese or soluble integrin ligands (e.g. fibronectin and RGD peptide) induced the 9EG7 epitope. This epitope was also induced upon EGTA treatment to remove calcium, and the addition of calcium inhibited 9EG7 epitope induction by manganese or by ligand. Further emphasizing the importance of the 9EG7 epitope, the 9EG7 antibody itself stimulated adhesion mediated by multiple beta 1 integrins, and conversely, ligands for alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1, and alpha 5 beta 1 all stimulated 9EG7 expression. Together these results support a model whereby (i) calcium inhibits beta 1 integrin function because it prevents the appearance of a conformation favorable to ligand binding and (ii) manganese enhances beta 1 integrin function because it induces the same favorable conformation that is induced by adding ligand, or removing calcium. Notably, other beta 1-stimulating agents (magnesium and mAb TS2/16) did not induce 9EG7 expression unless ligand was also present. Thus, although 9EG7 may reliable detect the ligand-bound conformation of beta 1 integrins, its expression does not always correlate with integrin "activation". Finally, mouse/chicken beta 1 chimeric molecules were used to map the 9EG7 epitope to beta 1 residues 495-602 within the cysteine-rich region, and antibody cross-blocking studies showed that the 9EG7 epitope is distinct from all previously defined human beta 1 epitopes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1995; 270(43):25570-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been produced against the chicken beta 1 subunit that affect integrin functions, including ligand binding, alpha subunit association, and regulation of ligand specificity. Epitope mapping of these antibodies was used to identify regions of the subunit involved in these functions. To accomplish this, we produced mouse/chicken chimeric beta 1 subunits and expressed them in mouse 3T3 cells. These chimeric subunits were fully functional with respect to heterodimer formation, cell surface expression, and cell adhesion. They differed in their ability to react with a panel anti-chicken beta 1 mAbs. Epitopes were identified by a loss of antibody binding upon substitution of regions of the chicken beta 1 subunit by homologous regions of the mouse beta 1 subunit. The identification of the epitope was confirmed by a reciprocal exchange of chicken and mouse beta 1 domains that resulted in the gain of the ability of the mouse subunit to interact with a particular anti-chicken beta 1 mAb. Using this approach, we found that the epitopes for one set of antibodies that block ligand binding mapped toward the amino terminal region of the beta 1 subunit. This region is homologous to a portion of the ligand-binding domain of the beta 3 subunit. In addition, a second set of antibodies that either block ligand binding, alter ligand specificity, or induce alpha/beta subunit dissociation mapped to the cysteine rich repeats near the transmembrane domain of the molecule. These data are consistent with a model in which a portion of beta 1 ligand binding domain rests within the amino terminal 200 amino acids and a regulatory domain, that affects ligand binding through secondary changes in the structure of the molecule resides in a region of the subunit, possibly including the cysteine-rich repeats, nearer the transmembrane domain. The data also suggest the possibility that the alpha subunit may exert an influence on ligand specificity by interacting with this regulatory domain of the beta 1 subunit.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 10/1993; 122(6):1361-71. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and function of integrin subunits was examined by immunohistochemical staining of normal and malignant tissues and by producing specific changes in avian beta subunit cDNA that were subsequently expressed in mammalian cells. Most tissues express only a restricted number of integrins. These include primarily those thought to function as collagen/laminin receptors. With the exception of metastatic melanomas, tumors show a general down regulation of integrins. Structure/function studies of the beta subunit show that the cytoplasmic domain is required for inclusion in adhesion plaques and for promotion of adhesive functions; that the transmembrane domain is required for subunit association, but not proper alpha subunit selection; and that the amino terminal one third of the subunit must remain intact for subunit selection and ligand binding to occur.
    Cell Differentiation and Development 01/1991; 32(3):189-202.
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and function of integrin subunits was examined by immunohistochemical staining of normal and malignant tissues and by producing specific changes in avian β subunit cDNA that were subsequently expressed in mammalian cells. Most tissues express only a restricted number of integrins. These include primarily those thought to function as collagen/laminin receptors. With the exception of metastatic melanomas, tumors show a general down regulation of integrins. Structure/function studies of the β subunit show that the cytoplasmic domain is required for inclusion in adhesion plaques and for promotion of adhesive functions; that the transmembrane domain is required for subunit association, but not proper α subunit selection; and that the amino terminal one third of the subunit must remain intact for subunit selection and ligand binding to occur.
    Cell Differentiation and Development 01/1990; 32(3):189-202.