J. Brand

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (107)219.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the low-mass regime, it is found that the gas-phase abundances of C-bearing molecules in cold starless cores rapidly decrease with increasing density, as the molecules form mantles on dust grains. We study CO depletion in 102 massive clumps selected from the ATLASGAL 870 micron survey, and investigate its correlation with evolutionary stage and with the physical parameters of the sources. Moreover, we study the gradients in [12C]/[13C] and [18O]/[17O] isotopic ratios across the inner Galaxy, and the virial stability of the clumps. We use low-J emission lines of CO isotopologues and the dust continuum emission to infer the depletion factor fD. RATRAN one-dimensional models were also used to determine fD and to investigate the presence of depletion above a density threshold. The isotopic ratios and optical depth were derived with a Bayesian approach. We find a significant number of clumps with a large fD, up to ~20. Larger values are found for colder clumps, thus for earlier evolutionary phases. For massive clumps in the earliest stages of evolution we estimate the radius of the region where CO depletion is important to be a few tenths of a pc. Clumps are found with total masses derived from dust continuum emission up to ~20 times higher than the virial mass, especially among the less evolved sources. These large values may in part be explained by the presence of depletion: if the CO emission comes mainly from the low-density outer layers, the molecules may be subthermally excited, leading to an overestimate of the dust masses. CO depletion in high-mass clumps seems to behave as in the low-mass regime, with less evolved clumps showing larger values for the depletion than their more evolved counterparts, and increasing for denser sources. The C and O isotopic ratios are consistent with previous determinations, and show a large intrinsic scatter.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imaging the event horizon of the black hole at the centre of the Galaxy - Testing the theory of General Relativity an/or searching for alternative theories - Studying the origin of AGN jets and jet formation - Cosmological evolution of galaxies and BHs, AGN feedback - Masers in the Milky Way (in stars and star-forming regions) - Extragalactic emission lines and astro-chemistry - Redshifted absorption lines in distant galaxies and study of the ISM and circumnuclear gas - Pulsars, neutron stars, X-ray binaries - Testing cosmology - Testing fundamental physical constants
    06/2014;
  • jcap. 02/2014; 2:6.
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    ABSTRACT: PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM
    10/2013;
  • ArXiv e-prints. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) Aims. To investigate the first stages of the process of high-mass star formation, we selected a sample of massive clumps previously observed with the SEST at 1.2 mm and with the ATNF ATCA at 1.3 cm. We want to characterize the physical conditions in such sources, and test whether their properties depend on the evolutionary stage of the clump. Methods. With ATCA we observed the selected sources in the NH3(1,1) and (2,2) transitions and in the 22 GHz H2O maser line. Ammonia lines are a good temperature probe that allow us to accurately determine the mass and the column-, volume-, and surface densities of the clumps. We also collected all data available to construct the spectral energy distribution of the individual clumps and to determine if star formation is already occurring, through observations of its most common signposts, thus putting constraints on the evolutionary stage of the source. We fitted the spectral energy distribution between 1.2 mm and 70 microns with a modified black body to derive the dust temperature and independently determine the mass. Results. The clumps are cold (T~10-30 K), massive (M~10^2-10^3 Mo), and dense (n(H2)>~10^5 cm^-3) and they have high column densities (N(H2)~10^23 cm^-2). All clumps appear to be potentially able to form high-mass stars. The most massive clumps appear to be gravitationally unstable, if the only sources of support against collapse are turbulence and thermal pressure, which possibly indicates that the magnetic field is important in stabilizing them. Conclusions. After investigating how the average properties depend on the evolutionary phase of the source, we find that the temperature and central density progressively increase with time. Sources likely hosting a ZAMS star show a steeper radial dependence of the volume density and tend to be more compact than starless clumps.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in response to the Call for White Papers for the definition of the L2 and L3 Missions in the ESA Science Programme. PRISM would have two instruments: (1) an imager with a 3.5m mirror (cooled to 4K for high performance in the far-infrared---that is, in the Wien part of the CMB blackbody spectrum), and (2) an Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) somewhat like the COBE FIRAS instrument but over three orders of magnitude more sensitive. Highlights of the new science (beyond the obvious target of B-modes from gravity waves generated during inflation) made possible by these two instruments working in tandem include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey gathering 10e6 clusters extending to large redshift and measuring their peculiar velocities and temperatures (through the kSZ effect and relativistic corrections to the classic y-distortion spectrum, respectively) (2) a detailed investigation into the nature of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) consisting of at present unresolved dusty high-z galaxies, where most of the star formation in the universe took place, (3) searching for distortions from the perfect CMB blackbody spectrum, which will probe a large number of otherwise inaccessible effects (e.g., energy release through decaying dark matter, the primordial power spectrum on very small scales where measurements today are impossible due to erasure from Silk damping and contamination from non-linear cascading of power from larger length scales). These are but a few of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible with PRISM.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present ATCA observations of the H2O maser line and radio continuum at 18.0GHz and 22.8GHz, toward a sample of 192 massive star forming regions containing several clumps already imaged at 1.2mm. The main aim of this study is to investigate the water maser and centimeter continuum emission (likely tracing thermal free-free emission) in sources at different evolutionary stages, using the evolutionary classifications proposed by Palla et al (1991) and Molinari et al (2008). We used the recently comissioned CABB backend at ATCA obtaining images with 20arcsec resolution in the 1.3cm continuum and H2O maser emission, in all targets. For the evolutionary analysis of the sources we used the millimeter continuum emission from Beltran et al (2006) and the infrared emission from the MSX Point Source Catalogue. We detect centimeter continuum emission in 88% of the observed fields with a typical rms noise level of 0.45mJy/beam. Most of the fields show a single radio continuum source, while in 20% of them we identify multiple components. A total of 214 centimeter continuum sources have been identified, likely tracing optically thin HII regions, with physical parameters typical of both extended and compact HII regions. Water maser emission was detected in 41% of the regions, resulting in a total of 85 distinct components. The low angular (20arcsec) and spectral (14km/s) resolutions do not allow a proper analysis of the water maser emission, but suffice to investigate its association with the continuum sources. We have also studied the detection rate of HII regions in the two types of IRAS sources defined by Palla et (1991) on the basis of the IRAS colours: High and Low. No significant differences are found, with large detection rates (>90%) for both High and Low sources. We classify the millimeter and infrared sources in our fields in three evolutionary stages following the scheme presented by ...
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical parameters of 238 HII regions and 78 water masers detected in 192 fields around IRAS sources. For each observed region the name, type, distance, equatorial and galactic coordinates and synthesized beams at 18.0 and 22.8GHz are given. For the detected centimeter continuum sources the name, coordinates, intensity and size are given, as well as the physical parameters derived assuming the emission comes from optically thin HII regions (size, brightness temperature, electron density, emission measure, mass of ionized gas, Lyman continuum, spectral type of the ionizing source, spectral index). (7 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Seven of ten candidate H-alpha emission-line stars found in an objective grism survey of a 1 square degree region in MBM 18, were observed spectroscopically. Four of these have weak H-alpha emission, and 6 out of 7 have spectral types M1-M4V. One star is of type F7-G1V, and has H-alpha in absorption. The spectra of three of the M-stars may show an absorption line of LiI, although none of these is an unambiguous detection. For the six M-stars a good fit is obtained with pre-main-sequence isochrones indicating ages between 7.5 and 15Myr. The molecular cloud mass, derived from the integrated 12CO(1-0) emission, is 160Mo (for a distance of 120pc), much smaller than the virial mass (10^3Mo), and the cloud is not gravitationally bound. Nor are the individual clumps we identified through a clump-finding routine. Considering the relative weakness or absence of the H-alpha emission, the absence of other emission lines, and the lack of clear LiI absorption, the targets are not T Tauri stars. With ages between 7.5 and 15Myr they are old enough to explain the lack of lithium in their spectra. Based on the derived distances (60-250pc), some of the stars may lie inside the molecular cloud (120-150pc). From the fact that the cloud as a whole, as well as the individual clumps, are not gravitationally bound, in combination with the ages of the stars we conclude that it is not likely that (these) stars were formed in MBM 18.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data in tabular form (wavelength and flux) are presented of the spectra of seven candidate Hα emission line stars in the direction of translucent cloud MBM 18. The data were obtained on 5 different nights in 2009 and 2010 with the 3.58-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG; La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). The spectra are shown in the appendix of the paper, only visible in the on line version. The spectra were taken with the low-resolution spectrograph DOLORES on the TNG, using long-slit spectroscopy. We used grism VHR-R, which covers a wavelength range of 6240-7720 Angstrom with a dispersion of 0.80Å/pix. The scale of the CCD detector is 0.252 arcsec/pixel. The observations were carried out with a slit width of 1 or 1.5 arcsec, depending on the seeing, resulting in a spectral resolution of 3.2Å and 4.8Å, respectively. To avoid problems with cosmic rays, 2 to 4 separate spectra per star were obtained. Two of the stars (Ha4 and Ha6) were observed simultaneously with another target (Ha1 and Ha5, respectively) by positioning the slit at an appropriate angle. The integration time was based on the brighter star in the slit, thus the signal-to-noise ratio for the other target is smaller than for the primary one. To allow absolute flux calibration the standard star Feige24 or Feige34 (for Ha5-Ha6) was observed immediately before or after the target observations, using the same instrumental setup as for the target observations. Flat-fielding was performed using 10 (5 for Ha5-Ha6) frames, which were uniformly illuminated by a halogen lamp. Wavelength calibration was performed using an arc-spectrum of an Ar, Ne+Hg, and Kr lamp, or a Ne+Hg (for Ha7) comparison lamp. A bias frame, to be subtracted from the other frames before analysis, was constructed from ten individual bias frames. Flat-, arc-, and bias-frames were obtained on the same day as the science observations and with the same instrumental setup. Data were reduced with the IRAF package. From all science frames a bias was subtracted, after which they were divided by the normalised flat field. From each of the science frames the trace(s) of the star(s) were extracted and these were wavelength-calibrated using one of the frames with the arc-spectrum. Each target was wavelength-calibrated with the arc-spectrum extracted at the same location on the detector, to compensate for small deviations that might occur in the alignment of the reference emission lines across the detector. The spectra were then corrected for extinction, and flux-calibrated using the standard star observations. The individual one-dimensional wavelength- and flux-calibrated spectra of each target were then averaged into a final spectrum. To further correct the wavelength calibration, we used the sky lines that were subtracted from the stellar spectra. For each spectrum, Gaussian fits were made to tens of sky lines, and their wavelengths were compared to those listed in Osterbrock et al. (1996PASP..108..277O, Cat. III/211. Three stars were found to need a small correction: Ha2 (-1.5Å) and Ha5 and 6 (both -2.2Å); these corrections have been applied in the tables. For the other four stars the difference was negligible, although for the sky lines in Ha1 and Ha4 (which were observed in the same slit) the deviation between measured and literature wavelengths varied slightly, but systematically, with wavelengths between 6250Å and 7600Å, while at longer wavelengths the deviations became rapidly larger (up to several Angstroms). (8 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Infrared-dark high-mass clumps are among the most promising objects to study the initial conditions of the formation process of high-mass stars and rich stellar clusters. In this work, we have observed the (3-2) rotational transition of C18O with the APEX telescope, and the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of NH3 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in 21 infrared-dark clouds already mapped in the 1.2 mm continuum, with the aim of measuring basic chemical and physical parameters such as the CO depletion factor (fD), the gas kinetic temperature and the gas mass. In particular, the C18O (3-2) line allows us to derive fD in gas at densities higher than that traced by the (1-0) and (2-1) lines, typically used in previous works. We have detected NH3 and C18O in all targets. The clumps possess mass, H2 column and surface densities consistent with being potentially the birthplace of high-mass stars. We have measured fD in between 5 and 78, with a mean value of 32 and a median of 29. These values are, to our knowledge, larger than the typical CO depletion factors measured towards infrared-dark clouds and high-mass dense cores, and are comparable to or larger than the values measured in low-mass pre-stellar cores close to the onset of the gravitational collapse. This result suggests that the earliest phases of the high-mass star and stellar cluster formation process are characterised by fD larger than in low-mass pre-stellar cores. Thirteen out of 21 clumps are undetected in the 24 {\mu}m Spitzer images, and have slightly lower kinetic temperatures, masses and H2 column densities with respect to the eight Spitzer-bright sources. This could indicate that the Spitzer-dark clumps are either less evolved or are going to form less massive objects.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 423(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have mapped at small spatial scales the temperature and the velocity field in the protocluster associated with IRAS 05345+3157, which contains both intermediate-/high-mass protostellar candidates and starless condensations, and is thus an excellent location to investigate the role of massive protostars on protocluster evolution. We observed the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions with the VLA. Ammonia is the best thermometer for dense and cold gas, and the observed transitions have critical densities able to trace the kinematics of the intracluster gaseous medium. The ammonia emission is extended and distributed in two filamentary structures. The starless condensations are colder than the star-forming cores, but the gas temperature across the whole protocluster is higher (by a factor of ~1.3-1.5) than that measured typically in both infrared dark clouds and low-mass protoclusters. The non-thermal contribution to the observed line broadening is at least a factor of 2 larger than the expected thermal broadening even in starless condensations, contrary to the close-to-thermal line widths measured in low-mass quiescent dense cores. The NH3-to-N2H+ abundance ratio is greatly enhanced (a factor of 10) in the pre--stellar core candidates, probably due to freeze-out of most molecular species heavier than He. The more massive and evolved objects likely play a dominant role in the physical properties and kinematics of the protocluster. The high level of turbulence and the fact that the measured core masses are larger than the expected thermal Jeans masses indicate that turbulence likely was an important factor in the initial fragmentation of the parental clump.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Galactic HII region G353.2+0.9 is excited by the massive open cluster Pismis-24. By analyzing (sub-)mm molecular-line and -continuum we study the detailed morphology of the gas and dust, as well as their physical parameters and their variation across the PDR. We observed various molecules and transitions to derive the physical properties of the molecular gas through line ratios, and both LTE and non-LTE analyses. The physical properties of the gas were derived with a Bayesian approach for the non-LTE analysis. Based on the continuum data at 870 micron, we derived the dust mass and the column density of H2, and thus the molecular abundances. The total mass of the gas in the region is ca. 2000 Mo, while that of the dust is ca. 21 Mo. A velocity gradient in the region suggests that the expansion of the ionized gas is pushing the molecular gas away from the observer. We unambiguously identify the ionization front, at the location of which we detect an increase in gas density and temperature. We find at least 14 clumps at different positions and LSR velocities. We derive kinetic temperatures in the ranges 11-45 K (CS) and 20-45 K (CN). The H2 number density is typically around 1e5 cm^-3 from CS and few 1e5 cm^-3 from CN, with maxima above 1e6 cm^-3. The abundances of the molecules observed vary across the region, and appear to be higher in regions further away from the ionization front.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • A. Winnberg, J. Brand, D. Engels
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    ABSTRACT: The H2O maser line at 22 GHz from the Mira variable U Her has been monitored for more than 20 years. Additional interferometric observations were made at four epochs covering a period of 3 years. We found that the maser components have an average lifetime of 0.5-1 year and are distributed in a ring with distances from 12 to 25 AU from the star. The strongly varying shape of the single-dish maser spectra is the result of a superposition of many short-lived maser components with randomly varying intensities. The integrated flux is dominated by the random variations but varies also in response to the large-amplitude light variations with a period of 406 days.
    09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We obtain velocities along the line of sight to Hi-GAL sources, where possible, using CO data observed with the SEQUOIA receiver on the FCRAO 14m telescope. In the l=30 ° region we use the 13CO J=1-0 data from the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey (GRS, Jackson et al., 2006ApJS..163..145J) while in the l=59° region we use 13CO and C18O J=1-0 observations obtained as part of the Exeter-FCRAO CO Galactic Plane Survey (Brunt et al., in prep.). (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Hi-GAL, an open time key-project of the Herschel satellite, was awarded 343 hours observing time to carry out a 5-band photometric imaging survey at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 µm of a │b│≤ 1° wide strip of the Milky Way Galactic plane in the longitude range -70° ≤ l ≤ 70°. Two 2° x 2° fields centred at l = 30° and l = 59° have been observed with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode during the Herschel science demonstration phase (SDP). From the images, compact sources are extracted for which the distance must be established in order to determine their physical properties. Aims. The aim of this paper is to present the distance determination strategy for the Hi-GAL compact sources. We illustrate this strategy for the two fields at l = 30° and l = 59°. Methods. The first step to determine the distance is to establish the LSR (local standard of rest) velocity of each compact source. The kinematic distance is then determined assuming a rotation curve for our Galaxy. To resolve the distance ambiguity for sources within the solar circle, we adopt a multiwavelength approach combining extinction maps, optical, and near infrared images, and velocity information from NH_3, CO and HI data. When sources can be kinematically linked to optical H II regions, the stellar distance of the exciting stars, when known, can be attributed to all linked sources. Results. In the two 2°x 2° SDP fields, 2678 compact sources have been identified and listed in the band-merged catalogue. About 93% of these sources have been assigned a radial velocity and distance. Conclusions. A multiwavelength approach is necessary to assign the correct velocity to sources (especially when CO spectra have a lot of features) and to determine the distance by solving the distance ambiguity. Also, several Hi-GAL sources seem to be in the interarm region. These sources have to be investigated with dedicated programme to be compared with sources located in the spiral arms.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2011; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. This paper is part of our ongoing study of star formation at the borders of Galactic H ii regions. In this paper, we report our observations and analysis of Sharpless 217 (Sh 2-217). Aims: We study the stars and gas in and around H ii regions to see if the various physical parameters derived from the data (such as column densities, masses, sizes, and timescales) are consistent with the predictions of a simple model of the collect-and-collapse mechanism. This should indicate whether stars forming in molecular gas at the borders of the H ii regions could have been triggered by the expansion of the ionized gas. Methods: We observed the emission of various molecules and transitions towards Sh 2-217, and obtained both near-infrared photometry in the H and K bands, and near-infrared images in [Fe ii] and H2 narrow-band filters of the stars in a molecular condensation at the edge of the H ii region, where an UC H ii region is also located. For the atomic and ionized hydrogen gas, we used literature data. Results: Several molecular condensations are found on the borders of Sh 2-217 and both behind and in front of the ionized emission. We find signs of star formation (an UC H ii region, outflows, and water masers). The masses of the larger molecular condensations, derived from 13CO-data, are ≳330-1100 M&sun;, while smaller clumps or cores within them have up to several tens of solar masses. The morphology of the atomic and molecular gas associated with Sh 2-217, especially the condensations of molecular gas on its border, and the presence of star forming activity within them, is strongly indicative of it being the result of star formation triggered by the expansion of the ionized region, following the collect-and-collapse scenario. Application of a simple model illustrates that the present radii of both Sh 2-217 and the UC H ii region, the masses of the condensations, and the timescales needed to sweep up these amounts of gas and allow massive stars to form in them, are consistent with the model predictions. Conclusions: We show that it is highly plausible that the expansion of Sh 2-217 has swept-up the ambient interstellar medium, and that it has taken about 4 Myr to reach its present radius. About 1 Myr ago, the most massive gas condensation became unstable and produced a cluster of stars. The most massive of these stars gave rise to the UC H ii region, which took about 0.5 Myr to reach its present size. Full Table 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/527/A62
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2011; 527. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coordinates and photometric parameters (magnitudes and colours) are presented of the stars located in a molecular condensation on the SW-border of the Galactic HII region Sh2-217. The data were obtained on January 4, 2004 with the 3.58-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG; La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain). Near-infrared observations were carried out through H and K' broad-band filters with the camera NICS. The image scale is 0.25arcsec/pixel, yielding a field of view of about 4.2'x4.2'. Observing strategy and exposure times are described in Deharveng et al. (2006A&A...458..191D), the only difference being that the dithering sequence for the H-band images was the same as adopted for K'. The data reduction steps adopted are outlined in Deharveng et al. (2006A&A...458..191D). Aperture photometry was done using the DAOPHOT package in IRAF. We followed the same procedure described in Deharveng et al. (2006A&A...458..191D) to obtain aperture photometry, after which PSF-fitting photometry was performed. Although the seeing was good (
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 11/2010;
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    V. Casasola, J. Brand
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    ABSTRACT: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), presently under construction, is a revolutionary astronomical interferometer, that will operate at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. With unprecedented sensitivity, resolution, and imaging capability, ALMA will explore the (sub-)mm Universe, one of astronomy's last frontiers. ALMA is expected to provide insight in star- and galaxy formation in the early Universe and to image local star- and planet formation in great detail. The ALMA Commissioning and Science Verification phase is currently in course, preparing the path for Early Science. The Call for ALMA Early Science proposals is expected to be released before the end of 2010. In this contribution we will describe the ALMA project, the array and its receivers, its science goals, and its scientific and technological potential. We will outline the organizational structure of the ALMA Regional Centres, that will play an important role in providing support to the users, with particular attention to the Italian ALMA Regional Centre in Bologna. Finally, we will illustrate what ALMA can contribute to the specific science case of AGN fueling. Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, and 1 table. Invited talk at the 54mo Congresso Nazionale della Societ\`a Astronomica Italiana (SAIt), Naples, 4-7 May 2010
    10/2010;